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    291 (Art Gallery)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    291 is the commonly known name for an internationally famous art gallery that was located at 291 Fifth Avenue

    in New York City from 1905 to 1917. Originally known as the "Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession", the

    gallery was created and managed by photographer Alfred Stieglitz.

    The gallery is famous for two reasons. First, the exhibitions there helped bring art photography to the samestature in America as painting and sculpture. Pioneering artistic photographers such as Stieglitz, Edward

    Steichen, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Gertrude Kasebier and Clarence H. White all gained critical recognition

    through exhibitions at 291. Equally important, Stieglitz used this space to introduce to the United States some of

    the most avant-garde European artists of the time, including Henri Matisse, Auguste Rodin, Henri Rousseau,

    Paul Czanne, Pablo Picasso, Constantin Brncui, Francis Picabia and Marcel Duchamp.

    Contents

    1 Background

    2 The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession (1905-1908)

    3 291 is born (1908)

    4 At the forefront of modern art in New York (1909-12)

    5 Later years (1913-1917)

    6 The Essence of 291

    7 Legacy

    8 List of exhibitions

    9 References10 External links

    Background

    At the beginning of the 20th century photography's place in the world of fine art was still very indefinite. [1]

    Although there had been major exhibitions of photography in the Europe and in the U.S., all of them had been

    udged by painters and sculptors. Photographers were not considered "real" artists, even though many

    photographers had won awards in international salons. Stieglitz himself had won over 150 awards throughoutthe world by the end of the 1890s.

    Stieglitz had hoped to elevate the position of photography by convincing the New York Camera Club to allow

    him to put together a panel of photographers who would then be the sole judges of a photography competition.

    After more than a year of arguing with the directors of the Camera Club, many of whom did not have any

    passion for photography as art, Stieglitz gave up and began looking for other forums.

    In late 1900 he met Edward Steichen, who had been trained as a painter but who had also taken up

    photography. Steichen shared the enthusiasm and passion of Stieglitz, and soon the two were planning how to

    change the course of photography in America. By the following year they had conceived of a great exhibition of

    photography, the first to be judged by photographers themselves, and had found a venue at the National Arts

    Club in New York. In March, 1902, and exhibition of "American Pictorial Photography, arranged by The

    Photo-Secession" opened to critical acclaim. Moreover, Stieglitz had met his goal of having a show judged by

    photographers since, in spite of the title of the show, by all accounts he was the sole person responsible for

    Coordinates: 404447.21N 735909.79W

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    View of the Gertrude Ksebier and Clarence H. White

    exhibition at the Little Galleries of the Photo Secession,

    1906. Published in Camera Work, No 14, 1906

    selecting the exhibitors.

    The following year Stieglitz further cemented his reputation as the leading proponent of fine art photography by

    launching the famed journal Camera Workwith the assistance of his friend and fellow photographer Joseph

    Keiley. He expected that Camera Workwould soon not only be funded completely by its subscribers but that

    additional income from the sales of the journal would allow him to further promote "photography as a medium o

    individual expression."[2] While the journal give him a respected forum for showcasing pictorial photography and

    for publishing his viewpoints, it was not a financial success. Rather than be daunted by this setback, Stieglitzbecame even more convinced that he would succeed in convincing the art world of the rightful place of

    photography if he could only find the right platform for his message.

    By the end of 1904 Stieglitz was in a difficult position. Curtis Bell, president of the American Federation of

    Photography and an outspoken critic of Stieglitz, organized an exhibition called "The First American

    Photographic Salon" at the Clausen Galleries in New York. It was judged by a jury of eminent American

    painters, including William Merritt Chase and Robert Henri, which gave it considerable standing in the art world.

    Stieglitz and other photographers saw it as a direct challenge to Stieglitz's reputation, which it was clearly

    intended to be.[3]

    Stieglitz countered this move by trying to get some of the best know photographers of Europe to join him as

    part of a united front. He traveled to London to meet with some of the founders of the important photographic

    group "The Linked Ring," including J. Crag Annan, Frederick H. Evans, Alvin Langdon Coburn and Alfred

    Horley Hinton. He was hoping to convince them to start a chapter of the Linked Ring in the United States,

    which he would direct. He also met with playwright George Bernard Shaw, who was an avid amateur

    photographer, about ways to promote photography as an art form. Unfortunately Stieglitz took ill before any of

    these conversations led to anything, and he had to return home.[4] He was tired, frustrated and seeking a

    definitive new way to carry out his mission of promoting photography for photography's sake independent of

    any other art form.

    The Little Galleries of the

    Photo-Secession (1905-1908)

    When Stieglitz returned to New York in 1905

    Edward Steichen was living in a studio

    apartment on the top (fifth) floor of a small

    building at 291 Fifth Avenue, between West

    30th and West 31st Streets. Steichen noticed

    that some rooms across from him were vacant,and he soon convinced Stieglitz that they would

    make a perfect space for to exhibit photography

    and in particular the works of the Photo-

    Secession.[5] Stieglitz, who was still dejected

    from his trip to Europe, was reluctant at first,

    but Steichen persisted. By summer Stieglitz

    signed a one-year lease for three small rooms that would soon become one of the most famous art galleries in

    the world. The two of them began planning how to use the new space most effectively, not only as a gallery but

    as an educational facility for artists and photographers and as a meeting place for art lovers.

    In October, 1905, Stieglitz sent a letter to all members of the Photo-Secession, saying:

    "The Council of the Photo-Secession had planned to hold in the City of New York, early next spring, an

    exhibition consisting of the very best that has been accomplished in pictorial photography throughout the

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    world, from the time of Hill, the father of pictorial photography, up to date. Many of the prints had been

    selected for this purpose, but owing to the impossibility of securing at any price adequate gallery

    accommodations during the desirable New York season, this exhibition must be deferred.

    The Photo-Secession, for the present thus unable to hold the proposed big exhibition, has determined to

    present in detail some of the work which had already been selected and which would have been embraced

    therein, and for that purpose has leased rooms at 291 Fifth Avenue, New York City, where will be shown

    continuous fortnightly exhibitions of from thirty to forty prints each. These small but very select shows willconsist not only of American pictures never before publicly shown in any city in this country, but also

    Austrian, German, British, French and Belgian photographs as well as such other art productions, other than

    photographic, as the Council of the Photo-Secession can from time to time secure.

    It is planned to make these rooms headquarters for all Secessionists and to open them to the public

    generally".[6]

    Stieglitz and Steichen had planned the gallery as a commercial space, saying that it would "negotiate sales in

    behalf of owners of picture exhibited, charging a commission of 15 percent for the benefit of the Photo-

    Secession treasury."[7] This premise is thought to have been pushed by Steichen, who had a much betterbusiness sense, and over the years it became a point of contention between the two men. Stieglitz believed that

    it was better for an exhibited work to go to someone who appreciated it for its artistic merit rather than its

    investment potential, and he was known to have quoted wildly inconsistent prices for the same piece depending

    on what he perceived as the true interest of the potential purchaser.

    On November 24, 1905, the "Little Galleries of the Photo Secession" formally opened its doors, with almost no

    public notice. The opening was attended mainly by those members of the Photo-Secession who were in New

    York at the time. The first exhibit consisted of one hundred prints by Photo-Secession members, selected

    entirely by Stieglitz. Over the next few weeks hundreds of New Yorkers came to the gallery, and Stieglitz was

    once again elevated to the position of standard bearer of artistic photographer in America.

    The opening show was followed in January, 1906, by one of French photographers, including Robert Demachy,

    Constant Puyo and Ren Le Bgue, all of whom showed prints made by the gum bichromate process. This was

    followed by a two-person show of the works of Gertrude Ksebier and Clarence H. White. Four more

    exhibitions were held in 1906, including one of British photographers, early prints by Steichen, a show devoted

    to German and Austrian photographers, and another exhibition of prints by members of the Photo-Secession.

    After a highly successful first year, Stieglitz and Steichen felt that they had made their point about the stature of

    fine art photography. So confident were they of their success that their colleague Joseph Keily wrote "today

    in America the real battle for the recognition of pictorial photography is over. The chief purpose for which thePhoto-Secession was established has been accomplished the serious recognition of photography as an

    additional medium of pictorial expression." [8] Ironically, Stieglitz began to feel that he had succeeded in

    transforming the Photo-Secession into something he once disliked an established institution, set in its ways and

    complacent in its approach to art. If there was any truth to this statement it reflected directly back at Stieglitz

    since he was known for his authoritarian control of the Photo-Secession and in selecting what was exhibited at

    the gallery. Until now Stieglitz's discomfort was held in check by Steichen's more conservative nature, but in the

    summer of 1906 Steichen decided to move to Paris in order to devote more of his time to his photography and

    painting. Without Steichen's business eye watching over him, Stieglitz began to reclaim some of his radical roots.

    Stieglitz decided to shake things up, and he did so by mounting the first non-photography show at the gallery in

    January, 1907. This is notable because it signaled the beginning a Stieglitz's role as a pioneer promoter of

    modern art in America. The show, drawings by artist Pamela Coleman Smith, initially attracted little attention,

    but after a prominent critic praised the work it became the best attended exhibition to date. A substantial

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    number of the works were sold, and interest in the show was so strong that it had to be extended eight days. [5]

    Stieglitz began planning for future non-photography shows, but for the remainder of 1907 the walls were filled

    with exhibits by such photographers as Adolf de Meyer, Alvin Langdon Coburn and, once again, members of

    the Photo-Secession.

    In the meantime, Steichen had become friends with the famous sculptor Auguste Rodin in Paris, and he

    convinced Rodin to lend him some of his drawings for a show at the gallery in New York. The 1908 galleryseason started with the show "Drawings by Auguste Rodin", the first exhibit in the United States of his works on

    paper. The show caused a significant amount of controversy in the press, with one critic saying "they are not the

    sort of thing to offer to public view even in a gallery." [9]

    Soon after that show ended Stieglitz was notified that the landlord wanted to double the rent and would require

    a four-year lease. At that time the Photo-Secession as a group had only a small income, no more than US$400

    per year. In spite of minor successes, the original plan that membership fees and commissions would support the

    gallery had not been realized. Although he appealed to those members that he knew, the economy was in a

    significant downturn and no offers of assistance appeared. Since there was no other source of income, Stieglitz

    sadly went about closing the gallery. By April of that year the original gallery space had been emptied. It wasimmediately taken over by a ladies' tailor shop.[10]

    291 is born (1908)

    Stieglitz thought that his gallery was finished, but unknown to him a recent acquaintance named Paul Haviland

    emerged from studies at Harvard, learned about the closure of the gallery, and used some of his family's wealth

    to sign a three-year lease for a small space directly across the hall from the old gallery. After some convincing

    by Haviland that the new space was workable, Stieglitz gathered some other friends and came up with

    additional funds for utilities, supplies, printing and framing.

    [11]

    The new gallery space, which measured only fifteen feet square, was actually located in the next building on the

    block at 293 Fifth Avenue. The wall between the two buildings had been removed during a previous renovation,

    however, so by all appearances the new gallery seemed to share the same address as the old one.

    Perhaps to save money on printing and perhaps because of his affection for the old gallery, Stieglitz wanted the

    new address to remain "291". Both Haviland and he, however, agreed that the previous name of "Little Galleries

    of the Photo-Secession" was no longer appropriate. They wanted the new space to be about more than

    photography. Later, Stieglitz would write "We are dealing, not with a society, not with an organization, as much

    as with a movement. The Secession is not so much a school or a following as an attitude towards life; and itsmotto seems to be: 'Give every man who claims to have a message for the world a chance of being heard.' "[12]

    From thenceforth Stieglitz referred to the gallery as "291", without the street name or other descriptive title.

    However, some of the original members of the Photo-Secession did not appreciate the name change and

    especially the thinking that led to it. Stieglitz's old friends Gertrude Ksebier and Clarence H. White saw it as

    the last straw in a series of autocratic moves by Stieglitz, and soon a series of increasingly bitter arguments

    broke out among the three of them. At one point Stieglitz wrote "To my dismay, jealousies soon became

    rampant among photographers around me, an exact repetition of the situation I rebelled against at the Camera

    Club. Various Secessionists were in danger of harming not only each other but what I was attempting to build

    and demonstrate. I found, too, that the very institutionalism, commercialism and self-seeking I most opposedwere actually favored by certain members."[13] These differences of opinion were to increase over the next two

    ears, exacerbated in part by Stieglitz's stubbornness and his refusal to include many of his long-time

    photographer friends in decisions about the direction of the new gallery.

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    View of the Constantin Brncui exhibition at "291",

    1914. Published in Camera Work, No 48, 1916

    Meanwhile, Steichen returned to the U.S. in February 1908 with a new group of photos for a show to be held

    at the galley the following month. More importantly, he brought with him a group of prints lent to him by Henri

    Matisse, who at that time little known outside of France. Stieglitz promptly assembled the prints for an show at

    in the new space. It was the first show of any work by Matisse in the United States and the first one-man show

    for the artist outside of Paris, and it marked the turning point in the focus of the gallery. After this show, 291 was

    known much less for photography and much more as a leading force for modern art in America. Moreover,

    Stieglitz continued to make sure that the gallery was not just an exhibition space; he strongly believed in its

    original mission as being an educational facility and meeting place for those with avant-garde ideas. Describingthe Matisse exhibition, he wrote "Here was the work of a new man, with new ideas a very anarchist, it

    seemed, in art. The exhibition led to many heated controversies; it proved stimulating."[3]

    At the forefront of modern art in

    New York (1909-12)

    In addition to marking the beginning of a new path for291, the year 1909 was significant for Stieglitz due to

    the death of his father in May. The two had not been

    particularly close, but in his will Stieglitz's father left him

    the then substantial amount of $10,000. Stieglitz drew

    on this amount over the next several years to help keep

    291 in business.

    The new art and the public's reactions to it were very

    vitalizing to Stieglitz; it gave him a brand new set of

    admirers and followers at a time when he was feelingless and less connected to his old colleagues at the

    Photo-Secession. From then on the course of the gallery was set. From 1909 until it closed in 1917, 291

    featured only six shows of photography out of a total of 61 exhibitions held.[14]

    The change in the focus of the gallery led to a coalescence of group of intellectuals and artists who both

    sympathized with Stieglitzs aims and who themselves were invigorated by the atmosphere there. After the

    artistic success of the Matisse exhibit the gallery took on a new life. Any given day Stieglitz might have been

    surrounded by artists John Marin, Max Weber, Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley or Marius de Zayas; authors

    and art critics Sadakichi Hartmann and Benjamin De Casseres; financial supporters Paul Haviland and Agnes

    Ernst Meyer; and editors and collaborators Joseph Keiley and John Kerfoot.

    De Zayas had both a passion and a vision that matched with Stieglitzs personality, and soon he was helping

    define the what the aesthetics of this new generation of art would be. His work was exhibited at the gallery, he

    wrote several articles forCamera Work, and he introduced Stieglitz to some of the newest European artists by

    serving as a guide and interpreter when Stieglitz would travel to Europe. His interest in African tribal art and

    admiration for Picasso's Cubist work convinced Stieglitz to hold groundbreaking exhibitions of these subjects at

    291.

    For historical context, virtually no other galleries in the United States were showing works with such abstract

    and dynamic content at that time. Whether it was already controversial European artists like Picasso, Matisse orCzanne, or relatively unknown but soon-to-be-famous Americans like Marin, Weber, Dove or Hartley,

    Stieglitz had both the aesthetic sense and the nerve to showcase individuals who are now acknowledged to have

    been at the forefront of modern art.

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    View of the Elie Nadelman exhibition at "291",

    1915. Published in Camera Work, No 48, 1916

    In fact, the more an artist confounded the public the more Stieglitz felt justified in his efforts. When he presented

    Picassos first exhibit in this country in 1911, Stieglitz delighted in telling critics that the works they called the

    gibberings of a lunatic he found to be as perfect as a Bach fugue.[3]

    Among the significant exhibitions that took place during this period were first shows for Alfred Maurer, John

    Marin and Marsden Hartley, second shows of Rodin and Matisse, and important shows for newer artists Arthur

    Carles, Arthur Dove and Max Weber.

    Later years (1913-1917)

    Starting in 1913 Stieglitz began to express an increasing

    amount of frustration over the changes that were

    happening in the world at that time. He wrote "Much of

    the enthusiasm that had existed at 291 gradually

    disappeared because of the coming war. Close friends

    seemed to fall by the wayside."[10] Stieglitz was

    especially troubled because his parents came from

    Germany, and he still had many close friends there.

    While he did not sympathize with the German war

    efforts, he "could not see Germany as all wrong and the

    Allies as all right.".[10] At the same time, because of the

    depressed economy attendance at the gallery sharply

    declined and subscriptions to Camera Workdropped

    off. To make matters even worse, the small corps of volunteer workers at the galley all but disappeared as

    people joined the armed forces or had to take on other jobs to help make ends meet.

    Once again it was Haviland who came to the rescue. In early 1915 he told Stieglitz that 291 was in a rut, and

    something bold was needed to bring it back again. He assembled a close circle of relatively well-off friends,

    including Agnes Meyer and Dorothy Norman, and together with Stieglitz they came up with the idea of

    publishing a new magazine. They decided that this time it would be not only a magazine about art but a work of

    art itself, printed in a limited edition with very high quality paper and reproductions. The new magazine, which

    they all agreed should be called 291, appeared in March, 1915, to critical acclaim. Twelve issues of291 were

    printed over the next fourteen months, showcasing some of the most avant-garde art and design of the times.

    Unfortunately, the magazine did little to revive the status of the gallery. Stieglitz continued to present someoutstanding shows, but the overall effect of the mounting war tension on the economy could not be overcome. In

    1916 an event happened that further sealed the fate of the gallery: Stieglitz met Georgia O'Keeffe. He

    immediately became fascinated with her, and over the next year he began to devote his energy toward a

    relationship with her and away from the daily toils of running the gallery.

    In June, 1917, only two months after the United States declared war on Germany, Stieglitz closed 291. He

    made a photograph called 'The Last Days of 291" (National Gallery of Art, Alfred Stieglitz Collection) which

    symbolized his feelings at the time. It depicts a model of a young soldier, armed with a sword and a broom,

    protecting works of art behind him. To his side is an older, bandaged warrior looking on, possibly representing

    Stieglitz himself as someone who had been wounded in the battle to protect the art that must now be guarded bya new generation.[3]

    Later Stieglitz would return to New York to run two more galleries. From 1925-29 he directed the Intimate

    Gallery, showcasing the work of American artists, including Marsden Hartley, Arthur Dove, John Marin, Paul

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    Strand, Charles Demuth, and Georgia O'Keeffe, who by then had become his wife. In 1929 he opened "An

    American Place", where he presented the work of the Seven Americans (Hartley, Marin, Dove, Demuth,

    O'Keeffe, Strand and Stieglitz) until his death in 1946.[15]

    The Essence of 291

    In 1914 Stieglitz published a series of responses to the question "What is 291?" in an issue ofCamera

    Work.[16] Here are some the those writings:

    Eugene Meyer responded with a free-form poem. To him 291 represented:

    An oasis of real freedom

    A sturdy Islet of enduring independence in the besetting seas of Commercialism and Convention

    A rest when wearied

    A stimulant when dulled

    A Relief

    A Negation of PreconceptionsA Forum for Wisdom and for Folly

    A Safety valve for repressed ideas

    An Eye Opener

    A Test

    A Solvent

    A Victim and an Avenger"

    J. B. Kerfoot: "291 is greater than the sum of all its definitions. For it is a living force, working for both good and

    evil. To me, 291 has meant an intellectual antidote to the nineteenth century...":

    William Zorach: "I have visited 291 very often and to me it is a wonderful living place palpitating with red blood

    - a place to which people bring their finest and that brings out the finest that is within all those that come into

    actual contact with it."

    Marsden Hartley: "A pure instrument is certainly sure to give forth pure sound. So has this instrument of 291

    kept itself pure as possible that it thereby gives out pure expression."

    Legacy

    Over the gallery's 13 year existence, the exhibitions held there included an impressive list of firsts in both

    photography and modern art:[17]

    1907: The first show of Autochrome prints in the United States

    1908: The first showing of Rodin's late pencil and watercolor figure drawings

    1908: The first exhibition of Matisse's work ever held in the United States

    1910: The first three lithographs made by Czanne were shown

    1911: The first U.S. one-person exhibition of Czanne

    1911: The first U.S. one-person exhibition of Picasso

    1912: The world's first exhibition of Matisse's sculpture.

    List of exhibitions

    '

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    and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries (Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2000). This

    list is found on pp. 543547.

    1905November 24

    - January 4Exhibition of Members Work

    1906January 10 -

    January 24Exhibition of Work by French Photographers

    February 5 -

    February 19Photographs by Gertrude Ksebier and Clarence White

    February 21 -

    March 7First Exhibition of British Photographers

    March 9 -

    March 24Photographs by Eduard J. Steichen

    April 7 - April

    28

    Vienenese and German Photographers

    November 10

    - December

    30

    Exhibition of Members Work

    1907January 5 -

    January 24Drawings by Pamela Coleman Smith

    January 25 -

    February 12Photographs by Baron A. De Meyer & George Seeley

    February 19-March 5

    Photographs by Alice Boughton, William B. Dyer, C. Yarnall Abbott

    March 11 -

    April 10Photographs by Alvin Langdon Coburn

    November 18

    - December

    30

    Exhibition of Members Work

    1908January 2 -

    January 21

    Drawings by Auguste Rodin

    February 7 -

    February 25Photographs by George Seeley

    February 26 -

    March 11

    Etchings and Book Plates by Willi Geiger, Etchings by D. S. McLauuhlan, Drawings

    by Pamela Coleman Smith

    March 12 -

    April 2Photographs by Eduard J. Steichen

    April 6 - April

    25

    Drawings, lithographs, water colors, etchings by Henri Matisse

    December 8 -

    December 30Exhibition of Members

    1909January 4 -

    Caricatures in Charcoal by Marius de Zayas & Autochromes by J. Nilsen Laurvik

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    January 16January 18 -

    February 1Photographs by Alvin Langdon Coburn

    February 4 -

    February 22Photographs in Color and Monochrome by Baron A. De Meyer

    February 26 -

    March 10Etchings, Dry-points & Bookplates by Allen Lewis

    March 17

    March 27Drawings by Pamela Coleman Smith

    March 30 -

    April 17Sketches in oil by Alfred Maurer & Water colors by John Marin

    April 21 -May

    7Photographs of Rodins Balzac, by Eduard J. Steichen

    May 8 May

    l8

    Paintings by Marsden Hartley

    May 18 - June

    2Exhibition of Japanese Prints from the F. W. Hunter Collection, New York

    November 24

    - December

    17

    Monotypes and drawings by Mr. Eugene Higgins

    December 20

    - January 14Lithographs by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

    1910 January 21 -February 5Color photographs by Eduard J. Steichen

    February 7 -

    February 19Water colors, pastels, and etchings by John Marin

    February 23 -

    March 8Drawings and Photographs of paintings by Henri Matisse

    March 9 -

    March 21

    Younger American Painters (included Arthur Dove, John Marin, Max Weber and

    Edward Steichen)

    March 21 -

    April 18Drawings Auguste by Rodin

    April 26 -

    MayCaricatures by Marius de Zayas

    November 18

    - December 8

    Lithographs by Manet, Czanne, Renoir, and Toulouse-Lautrec; drawings by Rodin;

    paintings and drawings by Henri Rousseau

    December 14

    - January 12Drawings and etchings by Gordon Craig

    1911January 11 -

    January 31Drawings and paintings by Max Weber

    February 2 -

    February 22Recent water colors by John Marin

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    March 1 -

    March 25Water colors by Czanne

    March 28 -

    April 25Early and recent drawings and water colors by Pablo Picasso

    November 8

    December 17Water colors by Gelett Burgess

    December 18

    - January 15Photographs by Baron A. De Meyer

    1912January 17 -

    February 3Paintings by Arthur B. Carles

    February 7 -

    February 26Paintings and drawings by Marsden Hartley

    February 27 -

    March 12Paintings and pastels by Arthur G. Dove

    March 14 -

    April 6Sculpture and drawings by Henri Matisse

    April 11 -

    May 10Drawings, water colors and pastels by children, aged two to eleven

    November 20

    - December

    12

    Caricatures by Alfred J. Frueh

    December 15

    - January 14 Drawings and paintings by Abraham Walkowitz

    1913January 20 -

    February 15Water colors by John Marin

    February 24 -

    March 15Photographs by Alfred Stieglitz

    March 17 -

    April 5Exhibition of New York studies by Francis Picabia

    April 8 - May

    20 Exhibition of caricatures by Marius de Zayas

    November 19

    - January 3Drawings, pastels and water colors by A. Walkowitz

    1914January 12 -

    February 14Paintings by Marsden Hartley

    February 18 -

    March 11Second exhibition of childrens work

    March 12 -

    April 4 Sculpture by Constantin Brncui

    April 6 May

    6Paintings and drawings by Frank Burty

    -

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    December 8 African sculpture (titled "Sanctuary in Wood by African Savages")

    December 9 -

    January 11

    Drawings and paintings by Picasso & Braque; Archaic Mexican pottery and

    carvings; Kalogramas by Torres Palomar of Mexico

    1915January 12

    January 26Recent paintings by Francis Picabia

    January 27-

    February 22 Paintings by Marion H. Beckett & Katherine N. Rhoades

    February 23

    March 26Oils, water colors. Etchings and drawings by John Marin

    March 27

    April 16Third exhibition of childrens drawings

    November 10

    December 7Drawings and paintings by Oscar Bluemner

    December 8

    January 19 Sculpture and drawings by Elie Nadelman

    1916January 18 -

    February 12Recent water colors by John Marin

    February 14-

    March 12Drawings and water colors by A. Walkowitz

    March 13 -

    April 3Photographs by Paul Strand

    April 4 - May22 Paintings by Marsden Hartley

    May 23 July

    5

    Drawings by Georgia OKeeffe, water colors and drawings by C. Duncan, oils by

    Ren Lafferty

    November 22

    - December

    20

    Water colors and drawings by Georgia S. Engelhard of New York, a child ten years

    old; paintings and drawings by Hartley, Marin, Walkowitz, Wright & O'Keeffe

    December 17

    - January 17Water colors by A. Walkowitz

    1917January 22 -

    February 7Marsden Hartley recent work

    February 14 -

    March 3Water colors by John Marin

    March 6 -

    March 17Paintings, drawings, pastels by Gino Severini

    March 20 -

    March 31Paintings and sculpture by S. Macdonald-Wright

    April 3 - May

    14Recent work by Georgia OKeeffe

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    1. ^ Jay Bochner (2005). An American Lens: Scenes from Alfred Stieglitz's New York Secession. Cambridge, MIT

    Press. p. 2.

    2. ^ Richard Whelan (2000). Stieglitz on Photography: His Selected Essays and Writings. Millerton, NY: Aperture.

    p. 19.

    3. ^ abcd Sarah Greenough (2000).Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries.

    Washington: National Gallery of Art. pp. 2653.

    4. ^ Katherine Hoffman (2004). Stieglitz : A Beginning Light. New Haven: Yale University Press Studio. p. 222.

    5. ^a

    b

    Robert Doty (1960). Photo-Secession: Photography as Fine Art. Rochester, NY; George Eastman House.p. 43.

    6. ^Camera Work, no. 12. October 1905. p. 59.

    7. ^Photo Era. October 1905. p. 147.

    8. ^Camera Work, no. 16. October 1906. p. 51.

    9. ^ Reprint of a newspaper review (April 1908). Camera Work, no. 22. p. 39.

    10. ^ abc Dorothy Norman (1973). Alf red Stieglitz: An American Seer. NY: Random House. pp. 7580.

    11. ^ Sue Davidson Lowe (1983). Stieglitz: A Memoir/Biography Seer. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. pp. 13638.

    12. ^Camera Work, no. 25. January 1909. p. 22.

    13. ^ Dorothy Norman, editor (Fall-Winter, 1938). "from the Writings of Alfred Stieglitz," Twice a Year #1. p. 88.

    14. ^ Weston Naef (1978). The Collection of Alfred Stieglitz Fifty Pioneers of Modern Photography. NY:

    Viking. p. 182.

    15. ^ Alfred Stieglitz's Gallery 291 (http://www.georgia-okeeffe.com/gallery291.html)

    16. ^Camera Work, no. 47. July 1914. p. 40.

    17. ^ Melissa Seckora: Modern Champions (http://www.nationalreview.com/weekend/art/art-

    seckora020301.shtml)

    External links

    Alfred Stieglitz and Gallery 291 (http://www.smu.edu/ecenter/discourse/schieb2.htm)

    History of 291 (http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/modart_2.shtm) , written by the U.S. NationalGallery of Art (with an emphasis towards the 291's role in painting rather than photography).

    Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/291_(Art_Gallery)"

    Categories: Culture of New York City | Photography museums and galleries | 1905 establishments in the United

    States | 1917 disestablishments | Defunct art galleries in Manhattan

    This page was last modified on 5 May 2011 at 14:53.

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