1. Jurisdiction and Applicable Law

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  • 8/10/2019 1. Jurisdiction and Applicable Law

    1/16

    Fdlptbr 1

    ER^AVJAFZA@C LCJ L__MAFLNMB MLX

    ACZ^@JRFZA@C

    Zdb garst dlmg `g tdas fdlptbr f`csajbrs eurasjafta`c.

    Xdbc l jasputb lrasbs, tdb f`urt wdafd as f`ipbtbct t` ljeujafltb tdb jasputb as slaj t` dlvb eurasjafta`c. ^bacsurlcfb f`ctrlftstbcj t` nb actbrclta`clm ny tdbar clturb, lcj `gtbc tdbrb as i`rb tdlc `cb f`urt wdafd iahdt nb wammach t` lffbpt eurasjafta`c `vbr tdbjasputb. Zdbrb as l f`ipmbx (lcj rltdbr jry) n`jy `g rumbs wdafd tdb Bchmasd f`urt lppmabs t` jbtbriacb wdbtdbr `r c`t at dls

    eurasjafta`c. Xb havb lc `vbrvabw `g tdbsb rumbs.

    Zdb sbf`cj dlmg `g tdas fdlptbr f`csajbrs lppmaflnmb mlw.

    @cfb tdb jasputb f`ibs nbg`rb l f`urt, tdb f`urt dls t` f`csajbr wdafd mlw lppmabs t` tdb f`ctrlft. Ac `tdbr w`rjs, wdlt sbt `g mbhlmrumbs sd`umj at lppmy wdbc actbrprbtach lcj havach bggbft t` tdb f`ctrlfts tbris0 At ily dlvb l sahcagaflct bggbft `c tdb plrtabs rahdtslcj `nmahlta`cs ag l f`ctrlft as h`vbrcbj ny, sly, Grbcfd mlw rltdbr tdlc Bchmasd mlw.

    At as aip`rtlct c`t t` f`cgusb tdb eurasjafta`c ac wdafd jasputbs rbmltach t` l f`ctrlft lrb t` nb dblrj watd tdb mlw lppmaflnmb t` tdbf`ctrlft (lmtd`uhd at as surprasach d`w `gtbc bvbc dahdmy bxpbrabcfbj mlwybrs ilkb tdas smap). At as pbrgbftmy p`ssanmb g`r lc Bchmasdf`urt t` dlvb eurasjafta`c `vbr l jasputb bvbc ag tdb f`ctrlft as h`vbrcbj ny, g`r bxlipmb, Zbxlc mlw5 ac tdas satulta`c, tdb f`urt ily

    dblr bvajbcfb ls t` tdb rbmbvlct pracfapmbs `g Zbxlc mlw (`r, ag tdb plrtabs j` c`t rlasb tdb p`act, tdb f`urt wamm pr`fbbj `c tdbprlhiltaf lssuipta`c tdlt Zbxlc mlw as iltbralmmy tdb slib ls Bchmasd mlw).

    ER^AVJAFZA@CZdb g`mm`wach sbfta`cs f`csajbr wdy eurasjafta`c as lc aip`rtlct assub, `utmacb tdb g`ur s`urfbs `g rumbs wdafd tdb Bchmasd f`urtslppmy wdbc jbfajach wdbtdbr tdby dlvb eurasjafta`c, lcj tdbc f`csajbr tdb rumbs tdbisbmvbs.

    Vahcagaflcfb `g eurasjafta`cZdb pmlfb wdbrb tdb jasputb as dblrj (s`ibtaibs flmmbj tdb g`rui) flc nb aip`rtlct g`r sbvbrlm rbls`cs. Ac tdb f`ctbxt `grbacsurlcfb, tdb i`st sahcagaflct jaggbrbcfbs acfmujb tdb g`mm`wach5

    (a)Bcg`rfbibct `g eujhibcts. Zdbrb as c` p`act ac l plrty h`ach t` f`urt lcj `ntlacach l eujhibct lhlacst l jbgbcjlct ucmbsstdlt eujhibct flc nb bcg`rfbj. V` blfd plrty sd`umj f`csajbr, lt tdb `utsbt, wdbrb as at makbmy t` wasd t` bcg`rfb lcy

    eujhibct0 Zdas wamm usulmmy nb l pmlfb wdbrb tdb `tdbr sajb (tdb p`tbctalm jbgbcjlct) dls sunstlctalm lssbts, pbrdlps atsf`uctry `g acf`rp`rlta`c. Zdb p`tbctalm fmlailct wamm wlct lcy jasputbs t` nb dblrj ac l f`urt wd`sb eujhibcts wamm nb

    rbf`hcasbj lcj lppmabj ac tdlt f`uctry `g bcg`rfbibct. Zdbrb as l mlrhb cuinbr `g namltbrlm lcj iumtamltbrlm trbltabsnbtwbbc f`uctrabs wdafd jbtbriacb wdafd f`uctrabs rbf`hcasb wdafd `tdbr f`uctrabs eujhibcts. Zdb jbtlam `g tdbsb as`utsajb tdas fdlptbr, bxfbpt t` c`tb tdlt BR lcj Bur`pblc Grbb Zrljb Lrbl (BGZL) Ibinbr Vtltbs rbf`hcasb lcjbcg`rfb blfd `tdbrs eujhibcts.

    (aa)Zdb eujafalry. Ag l rbacsurlcfb jasputb as ljeujafltbj ny eujhbs wd` lrb gliamalr watd tdb f`ipmbxatabs `g tdb rbacsurlcfbacjustry lcj tdb rbmbvlct mbhlm pracfapmbs, tdbc mbss taib cbbjs t` nb spbct nrachach tdb eujhb up t` spbbj `c tdas lrbl, lcjtdb eujhbs jbfasa`c as makbmy t` nb i`rb prbjaftlnmb tdlc tdlt `g s`ib`cb watd`ut rbmbvlct bxpbrabcfb. Zdb F`iibrfalmF`urt ac M`cj`c as vbry bxpbrabcfbj ac jblmach watd rbacsurlcfb ilttbrs. Ny f`ctrlst, ac ilcy eurasjafta`cs rbacsurlcfbflsbs lrb lssahcbj t` c`c-spbfalmast eujhbs wd` lrb makbmy t` dlvb mattmb `r c` bxpbrabcfb ac tdas lrbl. Ac vartulmmy lmm RVstltbs, fmlais g`r jlilhbs (bvbc ac tdb f`ctbxt `g rbacsurlcfb) ily nb jbfajbj ny eurabs, wdafd f`umj acfrblsb tdbucfbrtlacty `g tdb `utf`ib.

    (aaa)Zdb spbbj lcj f`st `g nrachach pr`fbbjachs.(av)Zdb m`flta`c `g glftulm watcbssbs, bxpbrts lcj j`fuibcts. Ag l trlcslfta`c as f`cfmujbj ac `cb pmlfb, lcj i`st `g tdb

    plrtabs lcj tdb j`fuibcts lrb ac tdlt pmlfb, tdbc g`r rbls`cs `g f`cvbcabcfb lcj bf`c`iafs at ily ilkb sbcsb g`r lcyjasputbs t` nb dblrj tdbrb.

    (v)_r`fbjurlm rumbs. _r`fbjurlm rumbs jaggbr gr`i f`uctry t` f`uctry. Bxlipmbs lrb5 wd` nblrs tdb nurjbc `g pr`vachplrtafumlr ilttbrs, wdlt jasfm`surb `g j`fuibcts as rbquarbj, lcj rumbs `g bvajbcfb. Lmtd`uhd ac prlftafb tdbsb glft`rs lrbmakbmy t` dlvb l f`csajbrlnmb bggbft `c d`w tdb lfta`c pr`fbbjs, tdby tbcj t` flrry mbss wbahdt ac tdb plrtabs iacjs tdlc tdbglft`rs prbva`usmy ibcta`cbj wdbc tdby lrb f`csajbrach wdafd f`urt tdby w`umj makb t` dlvb eurasjafta`c ac tdb bvbct `g ljasputb.

    (va)Zdb lvlamlnamaty `g lppr`praltb f`ucsbm. Zdbrb lrb l maiatbj cuinbr `g pmlfbs w`rmjwajb wdafd dlvb spbfalmastrbacsurlcfb f`ucsbm.

    V` at as frufalm t` kc`w wdafd f`urt dls eurasjafta`c t` dblr lcy jasputb, lcj at as (`r sd`umj nb) tdb garst p`act wdafd mlwybrs wammfdbfk ag l jasputb lrasbs (t`hbtdbr watd tdb mlw lppmaflnmb t` tdb f`ctrlft).

    V`urfbs `g rumbs `c eurasjafta`c

    L HRAJB Z@ BACVR^LCFB MLX - ??8

    FDL_ZB^ 1 ER^AVJAFZA@C LCJ L__MAFLNMB MLX

    ^`nbrt Ibrkac

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    Ac w`rkach `ut wdbtdbr t` lffbpt eurasjafta`c, tdb Bchmasd f`urt wamm g`mm`w rumbs mlaj j`wc ac g`ur s`urfbs5

    (l) Zdb `rahaclm rumbs `c eurasjafta`c jbvbm`pbj ls plrt `g tdb Bchmasd f`ii`c mlw. Zdbsb rumbs rbilac rbmbvlct t`jlywdbcbvbr tdb mbhasmlta`c jbsfranbj nbm`w j`bs c`t lppmy.

    (n) Ac Jbfbinbr>???, wdafd mlrhbmy rbpmlfbs tdb Nrussbms lcj Muhlc` F`cvbcta`cs. Zdb ^bhumlta`c lppmabs ac lmm `g tdb BR ibinbr stltbslplrt gr`i Jbcilrk (wdafd `ptbj `ut `g at). At as vbry saiamlr t` tdb Nrussbms lcj Muhlc` F`cvbcta`cs.

    Gahurb

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    actbrprbtlta c. G`r bxlipmb, wdbrb tdas as f`csastbct watd tdb `nebftavbs `g tdb F`cvbcta c tdby ily actbrprbt tdb bxprbssa`cf ctrlft ls bcf iplssach lhrbbibcts wdafd j` c`t gumgam tdb straft Bchmasd mlw rbquarbibcts ls t` `ggbr, lffbptlcfb lcjf`csajbrlta`c.

    Z` bcsurb f`csastbcfy `g actbrprbtlta`c lfr`ss tdb BR, l _r`t`f`m t` tdb Nrussbms F`cvbcta`c pr`vajbj g`r clta`clm f`urts t` nb lnmbt` rbgbr qubsta`cs `g actbrprbtlta`c t` tdb Bur`pblc F`urt `g Eustafb (BFE). Zdb BFEs eujhibcts `c tdbsb qubsta`cs nacj lmmclta`clm f`urts. Zdb BFEs eujhibcts lrb lms` makbmy t` nb rbmbvlct wdbc actbrprbtach tdb Nrussbms ^bhumlta`c, tdb tbris `g wdafd lrbvbry saiamlr t` tdb Nrussbms F`cvbcta`c.

    Zdb Muhlc` F`cvbcta`c wls c`t maiatbj t` BR Ibinbr Vtltbs, lcj tdbrb as c` ibfdlcasi g`r qubsta`cs t` nb rbgbrrbj t` tdb BFE.D`wbvbr, tdb clta`clm f`urts lrb rbquarbj t` havb sufd wbahdt ls as lppr`praltb t` tdb eujhibcts `g `tdbr Ibinbr Vtltbs f`urts, lcjtdb `ggafalm rbp`rt `c tdb Muhlc` F`cvbcta`c (wdafd, ls ibcta`cbj ln`vb, as t` nb usbj ls lc laj t` actbrprbtlta`c) stltbs tdlt tdbMuhlc` F`cvbcta`c sd`umj nb f`cstrubj ac lff`rjlcfb watd tdb jbfasa`cs `g tdb BFE.

    Vf`pb `g tdb F`cvbcta`cs lcj tdb ^bhumlta`cZdbrb lrb l cuinbr `g maiatlta`cs `c tdb sf`pb `g tdb F`cvbcta`cs lcj tdb ^bhumlta`c. G`r tdb i`st plrt tdbsb maiatlta`cs lrb ucmakbmyt` nb rbmbvlct t` rbacsurlcfb jasputbs, lcj lrb tdbrbg`rb f`vbrbj vbry nrabgmy5

    ^bmbvlcfb `g spbfalm acsurlcfb rumbs ac tdb F`cvbcta`cs lcj tdb ^bhumlta`cZdb F`cvbcta`cs lcj tdb ^bhumlta`c f`ctlac sbfta`cs wdafd mly j`wc spbfalm rumbs f`vbrach eurasjafta`c ac ilttbrs rbmltach t`acsurlcfb. Zdb bggbft `g tdbsb rumbs as t` pr`tbft acsurbjs ny, ac bssbcfb, prbvbctach tdbar acsurbr gr`i nbach lnmb t` sub tdbilcywdbrb nut ac tdbar d`ib f`urts; lhrbbibcts (eurasjafta`c fmlusbs) ac acsurlcfb f`ctrlfts wdafd havb tdb acsurbr tdb rahdt t` subtdb acsurbj ac lcy `tdbr eurasjafta`c lrb usulmmy acbggbftavb (ucmbss tdb acsurbj rask as l ilracb, lvalta`c `r trlcsp`rt rask).

    Zdb f`ii`c-sbcsb vabw wls tdlt tdbsb spbfalm rumbs lppmabj `cmy t` jarbft acsurlcfb, lcj dlj c` lppmaflta`c t` rbacsurlcfb. Zdblrhuibct wls tdlt ac tdas f`ctbxt tdb w`rj acsurlcfb sd`umj nb f`cstrubj clrr`wmy, nbflusb tdb pr`vasa`cs ac qubsta`c wbrb `g lf`csuibr-pr`tbfta`c clturb lcj wbrb c`t rbmbvlct t` tdb w`rmj `g rbacsurlcfb.

    Rctam rbfbctmy, tdb lnsbcfb `g lc BFE jbfasa`c `c tdb p`act iblct tdlt at wls c`t bctarbmy slgb t` lssuib tdlt tdas vabw wls f`rrbft.Mm`yj M.E. bxprbssmy iljb tdas p`act ac Cbw Dlipsdarb Acsurlcfb F`. v. Vtrlnlh Nlu LH [Y < Mm`yjs ^bp. 671. Acjbbj, acsuniassa`cs nbg`rb tdb BFE tdb Bur`pblc F`iiassa`c lrhubj tdb f`ctrlry actbrprbtlta`c5 lcy bxfmusa`c `g sufd l sunstlctalmclturb w`umj cbbj t` nb bxprbssmy stltbj ac tdb tbxt `g tdb F`cvbcta`c, lcj c`t ibrbmy acgbrrbj ( @vbrsbls Rca`c Acsurlcfb Mtjv.

    Cbw Dlipsdarb Acsurlcfb F`iplcy [???Y Mm`yjs

    L HRAJB Z@ BACVR^LCFB MLX - ??8

    FDL_ZB^ 1 ER^AVJAFZA@C LCJ L__MAFLNMB MLX

    ^`nbrt Ibrkac

  • 8/10/2019 1. Jurisdiction and Applicable Law

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    ^bp. 6:6, tdb F`urt `g Lppblm dbmj tdlt tdbsb w`rjs wbrb actbcjbj t` acf`rp`rltb tdb sunstlctavb ucjbrmyach tbris `g tdb `rahaclmp`mafy, nut rbgusbj t` lssuib tdlt tdb eurasjafta`c fmlusb wls actbcjbj t` nb flrrabj `vbr ac tdb lnsbcfb `g lc lns`mutbmy fmblractbcta`c t` tdlt bggbft. Ls l rbsumt, at as jbsarlnmb g`r rbacsurlcfb f`ctrlfts t` f`ctlac tdbar `wc eurasjafta`c fmlusb lcj c`t ibrbmy rbmy`c Ls `rahaclm w`rjach.

    Bxfmusavb lcj c`c-bxfmusavb eurasjafta`c fmlusbs

    Lc bxfmusavb eurasjafta`c fmlusb as `cb wdbrbny tdb plrtabs lhrbb tdlt tdby sdlmm suniat lmm jasputbs t` l plrtafumlr f`uctrys f`urts.

    L c`c-bxfmusavb eurasjafta`c fmlusb as `cb wdbrb tdb plrtabs havb tdbisbmvbs tdb rahdt, nut j` c`t nacj tdbisbmvbs, t` nrach fmlais ac l plrtafumlr

    f`urt5 ac `tdbr w`rjs, l fmlailct dls tdb `pta`c `g stlrtach pr`fbbjachs ac tdlt f`urt, nut ily sub bmsbwdbrb ag at prbgbrs.

    F`ii`c mlw rumbs `c eurasjafta`cHbcbrlm eurasjafta`cZdb Bchmasd f`urts ily lffbpt eurasjafta`c `vbr l jasputb wdbrb tdb jbgbcjlct as

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