Urban Planning during Renaissance Period

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PL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTUREURBAN PLANNINGDURINGRENAISSANCEprepared by:ARCEO, JoshuaCORTEZ, JaimaymaESTROPIA, VirginiaRECTO, SofiaVALDEZ, Mary Rose

BSAR-4COCTOBER 04, 2016

presented to:AR. JOSE FRANCISCO ANIAGSUBJECT INSTRUCTOR

1URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

RENAISSANCEGENERAL OVERVIEW

RENAISSANCEGENERAL OVERVIEW

St. Peters SquareRome played a vital role in development of monumental street architecture.

RENAISSANCEREBUILDING ROME ISSUES

CIRCULATIONDEFENSEWATER SUPPLYSANITATIONPOPES IN ROME

RENAISSANCE

DAWN OF MODERN ERA---14TH TO 16TH CENTURY---REBIRTH---FLORENCE AS BIRTH PLACE

Fig. 1: Dome of Florence Cathedral, overlooking the city

Fig. 2: School of Athens (1511) by Raphael Sanzio

FLORENCE

EARLY MODEL OF NEW URBAN PLANNING---FORTE BELVEDERE (circa 1590-1595)---RADIAL STREETS EXTEND OUTWARD

Fort Belvedere designed by Bernardo Buontalenti, ordered by Ferdinando I Medici

Aerial view of Fort Belvedere

FACTORS SHAPING CITIESModernization of warfare and the rise of the nation-state - - - Colonial exploration, exploitation, and expanding networks of trade - - - Dangers of rapid urbanization- - - Political and geographical divisions within Christianity

RENAISSANCEINFLUENCES

9URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

INCREASED PROSPERITY

INCREASING WEALTH PROVIDED THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR A GROWING NUMBER OF COMMISSIONS OF LARGE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ART PROJECTS, WHILE THE TRADE ROUTES UPON WHICH IT WAS BASED ASSISTED THE SPREAD OF IDEAS AND THUS CONTRIBUTED TO THE GROWTH OF THE MOVEMENT ACROSS THE CONTINENT.

SILK ROAD- THE SILK ROAD WAS AN ANCIENT TRADING ROUTE THAT EXTENDED BETWEEN CHINA AND THE MEDITERRANEAN. MANY ITEMS PAST THROUGH EVERYDAY LIKE FOODS LIKE SPICES, CLOTHING LIKE SILK, AND OTHER GOODS LIKE PAPER AND GUN POWDER. THIS MADE IT EASIER FOR COUNTRIES TO TRADE AND SEND LETTERS, IT ALSO MADE MANY COUNTRIES GREAT SUPERIORITY OVER OTHER COUNTRIES.

WEAKNESS OF THE CHURCH

ST PETER'S BASILICA, ROME, SHOWINGMADERNO'S FACADE AND THE ADAPTEDDOME, ORIGINALLY DESIGNED BYMICHELANGELO. RENAISSANCE STYLE.THE WEAK POSITION OF THE CHURCH GAVE ADDED MOMENTUM TO THE RENAISSANCE. IT PROMPTED LATER POPES TO SPEND EXTRAVAGANTLY ON ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE AND PAINTING IN ROME AND IN THE VATICAN IN ORDER TO RECAPTURE THEIR LOST INFLUENCE.

THE RISE OF A MIDDLE CLASS INEUROPEWHAT ALLOWED THE SPREAD OF THESE CLASSICAL IDEAS WAS THE RISE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS. THEY BEGIN TO FOCUS MORE ON SELF-IMPROVEMENT, THE WORLD, AND EDUCATION.

IT REFORMED EDUCATION.THE HUMANISTIC REVIVAL REVOLUTIONIZED EDUCATION. THE SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES DID NOT ESCAPE THE INFLUENCES OF THIS HUMANISTIC REVIVAL. LIBRARIES WERE FOUNDED WHERE THE NEW TREASURES MIGHT BE SAFELY STORED AND MADE ACCESSIBLE TO SCHOLARS. IN THIS MOVEMENT SOME OF THE LARGEST LIBRARIES OF ITALY HAD THEIR BEGINNINGS.

THE VESTIBULE OF THE LAURENTIAN LIBRARY

DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENAISSANCEWARFARE BETWEEN THE STATES WAS COMMON, INVASION FROM OUTSIDE ITALY CONFINED TO INTERMITTENT SORTIES OF HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS. RENAISSANCE POLITICS DEVELOPED FROM THIS BACKGROUND.

EKISTICSMANContinuing demand for monumental religious arts; architects designed secular structures

16URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

EKISTICSSOCIAL

Italian Renaissance social hierarchy.Spanish Renaissance social hierarchy. Rome-modelled hierarchical settlements, Catholic Church administrative control, and secular merchant towns

17URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

EKISTICSNETWORK

Utilitarian gardening passed by Roman Empire to Renaissance era. 1583 European Empires global map.Water utilities passed down from Roman Empire & expanded network by maritime trade.

18URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

EKISTICSNETWORKPrimary straight street" was the basis of Renaissance urbanism, and that new, direct routes to facilitate carriage travel were laid.---Influence: traffic

19URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

EKISTICSNETWORK:CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN SPACESTRAFFIC SPACE RESIDENTIAL SPACE PEDESTRIAN SPACE

20URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

EKISTICSNATUREFig. 3: Crowded Milan, Italy during renaissance. Elaborate system of landscape design which tie the city together (France, 1630).

21URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE PARKS AND GARDENSTie the city togetherConnecting the palace and the townVILLAS AND GARDEN- Rural counterpartPALACE AND PLAZA ITALY- Gardens are never too large- Built as terraces because of hilly land

DURING RENAISSANCE

RENAISSANCE PRIVATE GARDENS

full of scenes from ancient mythologyThe firstpublic gardenswere built by the Spanish Crown in the 16th century

Renaissance Private Gardens

TERRACED GARDEN

Best model of gardening in limited spaceShow of authority, wealth, and power.Larger, grander and more symmetricalFor delight of visitorsTerraced Garden

POWER AND MAGNIFICENCE

The political symbolism of the - Renaissance gardenPower and Magnificence

GARDEN FEATURES

AlleAxisCanalCul de sacFountainsGrottosOrangerieParterrede broderieTopiaryGarden Features

ALLEstraight path or road with a line oftreesor largeshrubsrunning along each sidevenir("to come") / arrival at landscape

BOSQUETAbosquet(french, from italianbosco, "grove, wood") formal plantation of trees, at least five of identical species planted as aquincunx, or set in strict regularity as to rank and file, so that the trunks line up as one passes along either face.

Bosquet in the gardens ofSchnbrunn palacein Vienna. It is shaped like a fan.

PARTERREDE BRODERIE formal garden constructed on a level surface Edged in stone planting beds, no flowerssymmetrical patterns, separated and connected by gravel pathways.

The left hand side of the completely symmetrical parterre at Waddesdon Manor, England

TOPIARYPractice of training liveperennial plantsby clipping thefoliageandtwigsoftrees,shrubsand sub shrubsto develop and maintain clearly defined shapes, whether geometric or fanciful.

THE PLANTS USED IN TOPIARYevergreen mostlywoody smallleavesproduce dense foliagecompact and/or columnar growth habits.

VILLA MEDICI, FIESOLE, FLORENCEoldest existing Italian Renaissance garden Circa 1455 and 1461Giovanni de' Medici (14211463)

THE PALAZZO PICCOLOMINI AT PIENZA, TUSCANY (1459)Pope Enea Silvio Piccolomini (1458- 1464) / Pope Pius II.

EKISTICSSHELL

Fig. 3: Crowded Milan, Italy during renaissance. Fig. 4: Great fire of London September 1666. Rapid urbanization of European society created fire and plague vulnerable dense city.

36URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

EKISTICSSHELL:DEVELOPMENT AND OVERCROWDINGNO SANITATION

FIRE HAZARD BUILDING MATERIALS

CONGESTED SETTLEMENTS SURROUNDING THE CITY

URBAN PLANNINGITALY

PIAZZA DEL POPOLO

SYMMETRY & BALANCED AXIAL PROPORTIONS---PLACEMENT OF MONUMENTAL BLDGS---REPEATING BASIC FEATURES OF BLDGS

Piazza Del Popolo

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

39URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PIAZZA DEL POPOLOPiazza Del Popolo Plan

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

40URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PIAZZA DEL POPOLOPiazza Del Popolo Street view

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

41URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

SABIONETTA TOWN

ITALYS SURVIVING GRID TOWN---ATTEMPT TO RECREATE VITRUVIAN CITY---30 RECTANGULAR BLOCKSSabionetta Town

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

42URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

SABIONETTA TOWNSabionetta Town Plan

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

43URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PALMANOVA TOWN

ITALYS ONLY COMPLETED RADIAL TOWN---FORTRESS FROM VENICE RULERS, PROTECTION FROM OTTOMAN EMPIRE---VICENZO SCAMOSSIPalmanova Town

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

44URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PALMANOVA TOWNPalmanova Town Plan

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

45URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PIAZZA S. ANNUNZIATA

PIAZZA DEL REPUBLICA---FLANKED BY CHURCHS PORTICOS & HOSPITALS AT RIGHT ANGLE TO IT ---BRUNELLESCHIPiazza S. Annunziata

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

46URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PIAZZA S. ANNUNZIATAPiazza S. Annunziata Plan

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

47URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PIAZZA S. ANNUNZIATA

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

48URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

FERRARA

BIAGIO ROSETTI---ADDIZIONE ERCULEA---BASED ON IDEA OF PERSPECTIVE

Fig. 13: De Re Aedificatoria

Ferrara City

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

49URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

FERRARAFerrara City Plan

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

50URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

BIAGIO ROSETTI

EARLIEST URBAN PLANNER

ROSETTIS PLAN

STREET WIDENING---ENLARGE THE TOWN---CARRY ON WITH THE PLAN

Biagio Rosetti

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

51URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

ADDIZIONE ERCULEAOVERALL SCHEME THAT GAVE PRECEDENCE TO THE HARMONIOUS LAYOUT OF URBAN PERSPECTIVES, RATHER THAN ACCENTUATING THE BEAUTY OF INDIVIDUAL BUILDINGS.Ferrara City

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

52URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

DE RE AEDIFICATORIA

LEON BATISTA ALBERTI---RELATIONSHIPS OF BUILDINGS TO ONE ANOTHER---ON THE ART OF BUILDING

Leon Batista Alberti, foremost theortitician of his time

De Re Aedificatoria

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

53URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

URBAN PLANNINGSPAIN

RENAISSANCESPAIN

First to layout true cities on their colonies.---Laws of the Indies

JUAN DE HERRERA

MAJOR URBAN WORKS AND URBAN RENEWAL

Juan De Herrera

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

57URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PLAZA MAYOR

PLAZA MAYOR (1617-19 )---HERRERA APPLIED THE PRINCIPLE OF THE LAWS OF THE INDIES TO THE LAYOUT OF THE ARCADE ---BUILT BY JUAN GOMEZ DE MORAPlaza Mayor

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

58URBAN PLANNING DURING RENAISSANCE PERIODPL 413Ar: FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN DESIGN & COMMUNITY ARCHITECTURE

PLAZA MAYOR

Wide Streets, underground waterways on two levels:Upper: foot traffic (Gentlemen)Bottom: carts and animals (commercial)carried garbage away and there was even a paddlewheel system that would clean the streets

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