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  • 1.Using Kanban Techniquesto Control IncrementalDevelopmentJeff PattonAgileProductDesign.comjpatton@acm.orgDownload this presentation at:

2. In this short talk well cover:1. What is a Kanban System and howdoes it apply to software development?2. How to set up a development teamKanban System3. Applying Lean thinking to softwaredevelopment2 3. Kanban cards limit excess workin progress Kanban literally meansvisual card, signboard, orbillboard.Toyota originally used Kanbancards to limit the amount ofinventory tied up in work inprogress on a manufacturing floorNot only is excess inventory waste,time spent producing it is timethat could be expended elsewhereKanban cards act as a form ofcurrency representing how WIPis allowed in a system.3 4. Kanban simulationLets simulate a simple process, then see if we canimprove it by adding a Kanban system.Ill need 5 volunteers to manufacture the latest inhigh-tech aircraft4 5. Why use Kanban inSoftware Development?(were not building aircraft or anything tangible really)5 6. Time-boxed iterative development haschallengesCommon problems include:Short time-boxes give more frequent opportunity tomeasure progress and inspect software but forcedevelopment items to be smallerSmaller development items are often too small to bevaluable and difficult to identifyQuality of requirements suffers as analysts rush to preparefor upcoming cyclesQuality of current development suffers when busy analystsare unable to inspect software or answer questions duringdevelopmentQuality often suffers as testers race to complete work latein the development time-box 6 7. Inside an iteration, effort across roles isunevenDevelopment work often continues throughout a cyclewhile testing starts late and never seems to get enough time7 8. Using a Kanban approachin software drops time-boxed iterations in favor offocusing on continuousflow.8 9. How to set up a simpleKanban system for asoftware developmentteam.9 10. 1. Dfinir un flux de processus de travailRegardez le flux typique des caractristiques, historique oudes lots de travaux et dcrire les tapes du processus typiqueCe flux de processus simple comprendles tapes:1. critres dlaboration et dacceptation2. dveloppement3. essai4. dploiement10 11. 2. Disposez dun tableau Kanban visuelPlace a goals column on the left, then a waiting queue, theprocess steps, and a final done column to the rightPlace an expedite track above the mainleft to right queuePlace done and waiting queues betweeneach work queue(in this example theyre placed below)11 12. 3. Decide on limits for items in queueand work in progressA good limit is a factor of the number of people in a role that can workon an item in a given process step. Start with number of people * 1.5This board uses painters tape to indicateavailable slots for work in progress12 13. 4. Place prioritized goals on the leftcolumn of the boardA good goal describes the outcome we hope to achieve after softwareships. Goals help keep focus on the larger outcome.Having goals visible:promotes focushelps us prioritizehelps us manage feature scope &requirements13 14. 5. Start the board by placing stories orfeatures in queueMark on the story or feature card the date it entered the queue. Thisbegins our measurement of cycle time.Product owners manage the waitingqueue14 15. 6. Move features through the processflow as work is completedAs the story enters the first process step, mark that date on the card.This is the start date. As its finished, mark that date on the card. Thisis the finish date. 15 16. 7. Use the dates on the cards tocalculate cycle timeUse average cycle time to set wait times from different points on theboard. Pay attention to flow and bottlenecks: relieving bottlenecks asquickly as possible.Cycle time = finish date start dateThe average cycle time from the date theitem enters the board is the wait timefrom this point in the queue16 17. Display and manage cycle timesReduce the number of Kanban slots allowed until cycle time remainsunchangedReduce the size of development itemsWork in progress is actually the number of items * the average size of itemsIdentify and act on bottlenecks immediatelyRelieve repeated bottlenecks by changing the number and types of people ineach role and cross trainingDisneylandspublic display ofcycle-times17 18. Kanban Boards18 19. Kanban Boards19 20. Kanban Boards20 21. Kanban Boards21 22. Kanban Boards22 23. Explode large process steps into tasksto improve visibilityWhen a feature, user story, or work item is large: Takes longer than a couple days to complete Requires that multiple people collaborate on its completionDecompose that step into cards to track independentlyFeature todevelop Tasks in queueTasks inprogressTaskscompleteFeaturecomplete23 24. Kanban Board with TaskDecomposition24 25. Use cumulative flow diagrams tovisualize work in 26. Use cumulative flow diagrams tovisualize work in 27. Keep time-boxed product and processinspectionKeep regular time-boxes in your process as a cue for productinspection:Evaluate the quality of the growing product from a functional,engineering, and user experience perspectiveEvaluate your pace of development:Look at the number of development items completed relative to goalsLook at the average cycle time per development itemCalculate the ratio of developer days per completed item. Use thisratio to estimate the completion time for undeveloped itemsAdjust your development plan as necessaryEvaluate and adjust the process youre usingUse a process reflection session to identify changes you could make toimprove your product or paceEnding cycles right: 28. Begin looking at your process using Lean thinkingCockburns Software Engineering in the 21st Century: 29. Since were engaged in knowledge work look atthe cycle time of validated decisions, or knowledgeCockburns Software Engineering in the 21st Century: 30. Often the feedback loop is overlooked its theinvisible backed-up queueCockburns Software Engineering in the 21st Century: 31. Setting up a simple Kanbansystem starts to focus the teamon the cycle-time of deliveredwork and gives a way to detectand begin to resolve bottlenecks31 32. 33 Anderson, Kanban in Action: Hiranabe, Kanban Applied to Software Development: from Agileto Lean: Ladas, Scrumban - Essays on Kanban Systems for LeanSoftware Development: Ladas, Scrum-ban: Belshee, Naked Planning, Kanban Simplified: References: