- 1.Biscuit Fire, 2002 By: Brittany Ficklin http://www.uwec.edu/jolhm/EH3/Group9/wildfire_biscuit.jpg
2. Introduction In 2002, fire struck parts of Oregon and California. This disaster was known as the Biscuit Fire. 500,000 acres of national forest were burned. The land was national forest, but there were many people who lived around the area. http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/rsl/projects/postfirecond ition/images/2002/BiscuitFire.jpg 3. When and Where? Date: July 12-15, 2002. Location: Siskiyou National Forest (Parts of Oregon and California). http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/NASA_Biscuit_fire.jpg 4. Significance -The Biscuit Fire was the largest fire recorded up to date in the history of the state of Oregon. -It was also the most costly fire in all of Oregon. http://www.salem- news.com/stimg/june132007/biscuit- burnout_8dollarb-3501.jpg 5. Death Toll Zero fatalities. There were no fatalities because there were not too many buildings and homes nearby. There was also plenty of time to evacuate the people that were in the area. 15,000 people evacuated in a timely manner. No one died trying to put out the fire either. http://www.opb.org/programs/oregonconsidered/archives/0307_protest.jpg 6. Short Term Long Term Economic and Societal Toll Most costly fire in Oregon history. Took $150,000,000 to extinguish the fire. A successful timber industry was created after the fire. Caused the largest recorded timber sale in U.S. history. They sold over 70 million board feet of fire killed lumber. The bush administration was also affected. Bush pushed for forest health logging and for salvaging, planting, and reforestation. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd 9GcRAT3lt4uqLXbeG7O4BGNpWbIusi 7qmYxelN7s1_XLTMcXbHzHf 7. Science Lightning was the ignition source in the Biscuit Fire. Five separate locations were struck, inflaming the surrounding areas. Eventually these five separate fires joined into one big fire. However, the forests have historically been fire dependent (meaning frequent low intensity fire is needed to help clear out forest undergrowth so trees can thrive). Years of fire suppression caused extra dry growth. All the dry branches caused a crown wildfire (wildfire extended to the tops of the trees in many areas). http://www.sfgate.com/blogs/images/sfgate/green/2008/07/08/lightn18.jpg 8. Was this Event Preventable? The event was not preventable. Lightning was the ignition source. Humans cannot start massive fires as seen here and are never the primary cause. They also do not create the problem. Wildfire is a natural event that occurs within nature. Humans can try to mitigate hazard by putting out fires with water, chemicals, or trying to suppress the fire. http://www.fws.gov/fire/images/employ.jpg 9. Lessons Learned There are more than one ways to fight a fire. Fire suppression was learned to be used in extreme cases. Forest logging and salvaging can also cause detrimental effects to the forests ecosystem. However, debate remains over these topics. http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/11/16/us/16wildfires_span.jpg 10. Eye Witness Account -Residents in the nearby area were told to evacuate. -One man chose to stay and defend his home. -The next slide tells his story. http://cmsimg.montgomeryadvertiser.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=DS&Date= 20130706&Category=NEWS01&ArtNo=307050016&Ref=AR&MaxW=640&Bo rder=0&Garden-Street-home-destroyed-two-other-houses-damaged-fire- department-reports 11. I saw the backfire had exploited the breach in the line and was creeping slowly down the ridge back toward Oak Flat. Had firefighters jumped on the backfire early that morning or the previous night, I believe it could have been controlled. I bulldozed a fire trail along the upper part of our property to try to slow the backfire down. A large crew of government firefighters arrived at 10 A.M. They held their regular safety meeting for about an hour (the normal and most effective time for firefighting is during the night or at first light, when the fire is cool). Our daughter arrived at noon with a new water tank and pipe so we could rebuild our water line. About an hour later, as the afternoon heated up, the backfire came rushing down the hillside. It burned up much of our private timber and destroyed the Huerta, Egan and Lloyd homes, as well as our newly installed water lines and tanks. Firefighters retreated to our property. A helicopter dumped water until propane tanks started exploding. Firefighters retreated along the upper logging road in the evening. The backfire then ran south and east up the Illinois River and eventually overran the McCaleb Ranch Boy Scout Camp, burning virtually the entire length of the Illinois River from Oak Flat to the national forest boundary north of Selmaa distance of fourteen miles. In addition to the structures destroyed at Oak Flat, the backfire wiped out private timber holdings along the way and thousands of acres of national forest. Eye Witness Account cont. 12. Real Life Application -For people who live out west, there are more chances of hearing about wildfires. -Wildfire occurs where brush and forest are dry and there is plenty of fuel, oxygen, and heat. -For me, I wont have to worry about this much because area near coastal plains arent as subject to wildfire. -Of course, wildfire is possible anywhere under the right conditions. -I dont have personal experience with this disaster. http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/07/23/article-0-142C661E000005D 807_634x356.jpg 13. Conclusion -It took months to finally extinguish the entire fire. -The fire was declared controlled in early November. -It was finally put out in December. http://kalmiopsiswild.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Biscuit-6-aW-300x225.jpg 14. References http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/entry/view/biscuit_fire_of_2002/ http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-04-426 http://kalmiopsiswild.org/the-biscuit-fire-time-to-bury-the-myths/ http://www.hcn.org/issues/257/14197/print_view http://www.fire-ecology.org/research/biscuit_suppression.html http://www.uwec.edu/jolhm/EH3/Group9/wildfirebiscuitfire.htm Contributors: -I was the only member in my group.