Research Methodology Report on Future of EV(s)

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students of Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute Of Management Studies & Research studying

in 1st year MMS batch, hereby declare that we have completed our Research Methodology

Project on Future of Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles for Semester-II during the

academic year 2012- 2013, the information submitted is true and original to the best of my


Signature of Students

Date : ________________

Place : ________________


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Apart from the efforts of ours, the success of any project depends largely on the

encouragement and guidelines of many others.

We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been

instrumental in the successful completion of this project.

We would like to show our appreciation to the Director General Dr. B. Manjunath

for his support. We would also like to thank Administrator Prof. Brahma Prakash

Tripathi for sharing his knowledge. We feel grateful to Co-ordinator & our project guide

Prof. Mamta Tammewar. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not

have been materialized.

The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed the non-

teaching staff, the library staff was vital for the success of the project. We are grateful for

their constant support and help.

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To study the perceptions and expectations of potential, for alternative technologies in

automobiles, such as Electric/Hybrid Vehicles.

To know why electric vehicle couldn’t get enough consumer attraction

To study the willingness of buyers of considering Electric/Hybrid Vehicles as a

practical commuting option and at when.

To study the maximum price consumers can afford for buying an Electric/Hybrid


To study the other options available for Range Anxious Consumer with respect to

existing batteries used in Electric/Hybrid Vehicles

To study the Government initiatives taken for promoting Electric/Hybrid Vehicles and

subsidies provided on Electric Vehicle batteries.

To study the current expectations of consumers with respect to Electric/Hybrid

Vehicles, this will lead to its potential for future.

To study the current threats, this is causing slow growth of Electric/Hybrid Vehicles.

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India today is one of the top ten automotive markets in the world and given its burgeoning middle class population with buying potential and the steady economic growth, accelerating automotive sales is expected to continue. In the last couple of years, there has been a lot of discussion around the prices of fuel – apart from the deregulation of petrol prices. Moreover the threat of disruption of supplies from the Middle-East has heightened the debate on energy security and brought the focus on to alternate drivetrain technologies.

The potential for alternative technologies in automobiles such as electric vehicles (EV) in India, as in the case of many other comparable markets, depends on improved battery technologies, driving ranges, government incentives, regulations, lower prices and better charging infrastructure.

There seems to be a lot of interest on the part of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based manufacturers to adopt electric technology, not just supplemental to the ICE, but as a stand-alone offering. There are also specialized EV manufacturers that have come up all over the world.

While many of the factors that influence the EV market are understood intellectually, we carried out a consumer survey to study perceptions and expectations of potential for alternative technologies in automobiles such as electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid EV.

Assessing future demand for electric vehicles was somewhat challenging since it meant testing consumer preferences for a product with which they are largely unfamiliar. For this reason, we focused on uncovering consumers’ familiarity with EV technologies and products; with their opinions around price, brand, range, charging, the infrastructure, and the cost of ownership; and with the consumer’s imagined “fit” of an EV in his or her lifestyle given a range of demographic parameters.

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Automotive Industry in India

The automotive industry in India is one of the larger markets in the world and had previously been one of the fastest growing globally, but is now seeing flat or negative growth rates. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.9 million units in 2011.

Chennai is home to around 35-40% of India's total automobile industry and for this reason it is known as the Detroit of Asia. It is on the way to becoming the world's largest Auto hub by 2016 with a capacity of over 3 million cars annually.

The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south, west and north. The southern cluster consisting of Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the revenue share. The western hub near Mumbai and Pune contributes to 33% of the market and the northern cluster around the National Capital Region contributes 32%. Chennai, with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler

Chennai accounts for 60% of the country's automotive exports. Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country's largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based. The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar Cars, Fiat and Force Motors having assembly plants in the area. Nashik has a major base of Mahindra & Mahindra with a UV assembly unit and an Engine assembly unit. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at their plant in Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants are also set to come up in Gujarat. Kolkata with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.

Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry

During April 2012 Indian Government has planned to unveil the roadmap for the development of the domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country. A discussion between the various stakeholders including Government, industry and the academia is expected to take place during 23–24 February. The final contours of the policy will be formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries big auto industry names such as Mr Anand Mahindra (Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Mahindra & Mahindra) and Mr Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-Chairman, Toyota Kirloskar) are also involved in this task. Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore R&D fund for the sector in the 12th five year plan during 2012-17. The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor and develop such capabilities locally.

Electric car manufacturers in India

-Ajanta Group -Hero Electric (Yo Bikes)

-Mahindra REVA -Tara International

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-Tata (Indica Vista) -Chevrolet (Beat)

Manufacturing Facilities

Passenger Vehicles

General Motors India Private Limited Chevrolet Sales India Private Limited – Halol Maruti Suzuki – Gurgaon, Manesar Mahindra REVA Electric Vehicles – Bangalore Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited – Bidadi Ssangyong Motor Company – Chakan Tata Motors Limited

o Tata Motors – Pimpri Chinchwad, Sanando Jaguar Cars and Land Rover – Pune

Mercedes-Benz Passenger Cars – Chakan Fiat Automobiles – Ranjangaon Pune Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited

o Volkswagen – Chakano Audi AG – Aurangabado Škoda Auto – Aurangabad

Chinkara Motors – Karlekhind Alibag Premier Automobiles Limited – Pimpri Chinchwad Honda Siel Cars India – Tapukara BMW India – Chennai Ford India Private Limited – Maraimalai Nagar Hyundai Motor India Limited – Sriperumbudur Mitsubishi – Tiruvallur Renault Nissan Automotive India Private Limited

o Nissan Motor India Private Limited – Oragadamo Renault India Private Limited – Oragadam

Two wheelers

Hero MotoCorp – Dharuhera, Gurgaon India Yamaha Motor – Faridabad Honda – Manesar Suzuki – Gurgaon TVS Motors – Nalagarh, Mysore Mahindra & Mahindra – Pithampur Bajaj Auto – Waluj Aurangabad, Chakan KTM Sportmotorcycles – Chakan Vespa Scooters – Baramati Pune Kinetic Engineering – Ahmednagar, Pune Royal Enfield – Chennai India Yamaha Motor – Greater Noida

Commercial Vehicles

TAFE Tractors – Parwanoo Tata Motors – Jamshedpur Volvo Buses India Private Limited – Hoskote Force Motors Private Limited – Pithampur Eicher Motors – Pithampur MAN Trucks India – Akurdi Pune Mercedes-Benz Buses India – Chakan Piaggio Vehicles – Baramati Pune Ashok Leyland – Ennore, Hosur

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About Electric Vehicles

During the last few decades, environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure, along with the peak oil, has led to renewed interest in an electric transportation infrastructure. Electric vehicles differ from fossil fuel-powered vehicles in that the electricity they consume can be generated from a wide range of sources, including fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as tidal power, solar power, and wind power or any combination of those.

An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Three main types of electric vehicles exist, those that are directly powered from an external power station, those that are powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source, and those that are powered by an on-board electrical generator, such as an internal combustion engine (a hybrid electric vehicle) or a hydrogen fuel cell. Electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric aeroplanes, electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric spacecraft. Proposals exist for electric tanks, diesel submarines operating on battery power are, for the duration of the battery run, electric submarines, and some of the lighter UAVs are electrically-powered.

Electric vehicles first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The internal combustion engine (ICE) is the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.

A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional (usually fossil fuel-powered) powertrain with some form of electric propulsion. Common examples include hybrid electric cars such as the Toyota Prius. The Chevrolet Volt is an example of a production Extended Range Plug-In Electric Vehicle.

Electric motor

The power of a vehicle electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts (kW). 100 kW is roughly equivalent to 134 horsepower, although most electric motors deliver full torque over a wide RPM range, so the performance is not equivalent, and far exceeds a 134 horsepower (100 kW) fuel-powered motor, which has a limited torque curve.

Usually, direct current (DC) electricity is fed into a DC/AC inverter where it is converted to alternating current (AC) electricity and this AC electricity is connected to a 3-phase AC motor. For electric trains, DC motors are often used.

Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation from high performance electrical motors has been claimed to be associated with some human ailments, but such claims are largely unsubstantiated except for extremely high exposures. Electric motors can be shielded within a metallic Faraday cage, but this reduces efficiency by adding weight to the vehicle, while it is not conclusive that all electromagnetic radiation can be contained.

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Electric motors are mechanically very simple. Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. They can also be combined with regenerative braking systems that have the ability to convert movement energy back into stored electricity. This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems (and consequent brake pad dust) and reduce the total energy requirement of a trip. Regenerative braking is especially effective for start-and-stop city use.

They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. This removes the need for gearboxes and torque converters.

Electric vehicles provide quiet and smooth operation and consequently have less noise and vibration than internal combustion engines. While this is a desirable attribute, it has also evoked concern that the absence of the usual sounds of an approaching vehicle poses a danger to blind, elderly and very young pedestrians. To mitigate this situation, automakers and individual companies are developing systems that produce warning sounds when electric vehicles are moving slowly, up to a speed when normal motion and rotation (road, suspension, electric motor, etc.) noises become audible.

Energy efficiency

Electric vehicle 'tank-to-wheels' efficiency is about a factor of 3 higher than internal combustion engine vehicles. Energy is not consumed while the vehicle is stationary, unlike internal combustion engines which consume fuel while idling. However, looking at the well-to-wheel efficiency of electric vehicles, their total emissions, while still lower, are closer to an efficient gasoline or diesel in most countries where electricity generation relies on fossil fuels.

It is worth noting that well-to-wheel efficiency of an electric vehicle has far less to do with the vehicle itself and more to do with the method of electricity production. A particular electric vehicle would instantly become twice as efficient if electricity production were switched from fossil fuel to a wind or tidal primary source of energy. Thus when "well-to-wheels" is cited, one should keep in mind that the discussion is no longer about the vehicle, but rather about the entire energy supply infrastructure - in the case of fossil fuels this should also include energy spent on exploration, mining, refining, and distribution.

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Types of Batteries

Previously banks of conventional lead-acid car batteries were commonly used for EV propulsion.

Then later the 75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery prototypes came. The newer Li-poly

cells provide up to 130 watt-hour/kilogram and last through thousands of charging cycles.


Because of the different methods of charging possible, the emissions produced have been quantified

in different ways. Plug-in all-electric and hybrid vehicles also have different consumption



Many electric designs have limited range, due to the low energy density of batteries compared to the

fuel of internal combustion engined vehicles. Electric vehicles also often have long recharge times

compared to the relatively fast process of refuelling a tank. This is further complicated by the current

scarcity of public charging stations. "Range anxiety" is a label for consumer concern about EV range.

Lead- Acid Battery Li-ion Polymer Battery

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Grid capacity: If a large proportion of private vehicles were to convert to grid electricity it would increase the demand for generation and transmission, and consequent emissions. However, overall energy consumption and emissions would diminish because of the higher efficiency of electric vehicles over the entire cycle.

Stabilization of the grid: Since electric vehicles can be plugged into the electric grid when not in use, there is a potential for battery powered vehicles to even out the demand for electricity by feeding electricity into the grid from their batteries during peak use periods (such as mid-afternoon air conditioning use) while doing most of their charging at night, when there is unused generating capacity. This vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection has the potential to reduce the need for new power plants, as long as vehicle owners do not mind their batteries being drained during the day by the power company prior to needing to use their vehicle for a return-commute home in the evening.

Furthermore, our current electricity infrastructure may need to cope with increasing shares of variable-output power sources such as windmills and PV solar panels. This variability could be addressed by adjusting the speed at which EV batteries are charged, or possibly even discharged.

Some concepts see battery exchanges and battery charging stations, much like gas/petrol stations today. Clearly these will require enormous storage and charging potentials, which could be manipulated to vary the rate of charging, and to output power during shortage periods, much as diesel generators are used for short periods to stabilize some national grids.

Heating of electric vehicles: In cold climates, considerable energy is needed to heat the interior of a vehicle and to defrost the windows. With internal combustion engines, this heat already exists as waste combustion heat diverted from the engine cooling circuit. This process offsets the greenhouse gases external costs. If this is done with battery electric vehicles, the interior heating requires extra energy from the vehicles batteries. Although some heat could be harvested from the motor(s) and battery, their greater efficiency means there is not as much waste heat available as from a combustion engine.

However, for vehicles which are connected to the grid, battery electric vehicles can be preheated, or cooled, with little or no need for battery energy, especially for short trips.

Newer designs are focused on using super-insulated cabins which can heat the vehicle using the body heat of the passengers. This is not enough, however, in colder climates as a driver delivers only about 100 W of heating power. A reversible AC-system, cooling the cabin during summer and heating it during winter, seems to be the most practical and promising way of solving the thermal management of the EV. Ricardo Arboix introduced (2008) a new concept based on the principle of combining the thermal-management of the EV-battery with the thermal-management of the cabin using a reversible AC-system. This is done by adding a third heat-exchanger, thermally connected with the battery-core, to the traditional heat pump/air conditioning system used in previous EV-models like the GM EV1 and Toyota RAV4 EV. The concept has proven to bring several benefits, such as prolonging the life-span of the battery as well as improving the performance and overall energy-efficiency of the EV.

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About Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional (usually fossil fuel-powered) powertrain with some form of electric propulsion. Common examples include hybrid electric cars such as the Toyota Prius. The Chevrolet Volt is an example of a production Extended Range Plug-In Electric Vehicle.

Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles.

In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured models are of this type. See Motorized bicycles, Mopeds and for more information.

In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Ford Escape Hybrid the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85(ethanol).

In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or input types ("fuels") using the same engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles:

Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank — typically gasoline and ethanol, or methanol, or biobutanol.

Bi-fuel vehicle:Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. Instead vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the duplicated tanks cost space in some applications, the increased range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a significant incentive to purchase.

Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included (see Motorized bicycle).

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Parallel hybrid

In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the single electric motor and the internal combustion engine are installed such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together. In contrast to the power split configuration typically only one electric motor is installed. Most commonly the internal combustion engine, the electric motor and gear box are coupled by automatically controlled clutches. For electric driving the clutch between the internal combustion engine is open while the clutch to the gear box is engaged. While in combustion mode the engine and motor run at the same speed.

Mild parallel hybrid

These types use a generally compact electric motor (usually <20 kW) to provide auto-stop/start features and to provide extra power assist during the acceleration, and to generate on the deceleration phase (aka regenerative braking).

On-road examples include Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda CR-Z, Honda Accord Hybrid, Mercedes Benz S400 Blue-HYBRID, BMW 7-Series hybrids, General Motors BAS Hybrids and Smart-for-two with micro hybrid drive.

Power-split or series-parallel hybrid

Typical passenger car installations include the Toyota Prius, the Ford Escape, Ford Fusion, the Lexus RX400h, RX450h, GS450h, LS600h and CT200h.

In a power-split hybrid electric drive train there are two motors: an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The power from these two motors can be shared to drive the wheels via a power splitter, which is a simple planetary gear set. The ratio can be from 0–100% for the combustion engine, or 0–100% for the electric motor, or anything in between, such as 40% for the electric motor and 60% for the combustion engine. The electric motor can act as a generator charging the batteries.

Modern versions such as the Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive have a second electric motor/generator on the output shaft (connected to the wheels). In cooperation with the "primary" motor/generator and the mechanical power-split this provides a continuously variable transmission.

On the open road, the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. When maximum power is required, for example to overtake, the electric motor is used to assist. This increases the available power for a short period, giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. In most applications, the engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary reducing curbside emissions.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle typically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), resulting in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are primarily achieved by three elements of a typical hybrid design:

1. Relying on both the engine and the electric motors for peak power needs, resulting in a smaller engine sized more for average usage rather than peak power usage. A smaller engine can have less internal losses and lower weight.

2. Having significant battery storage capacity to store and reuse recaptured energy, especially in stop-and-go traffic typical of the city driving cycle.

3. Recapturing significant amounts of energy during braking that are normally wasted as heat. This regenerative braking reduces vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into electricity, depending upon the power rating of the motor/generator;

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Environmental Impact of Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

Environmental impact of electric vehicles

Due to efficiency of electric engines as compared to combustion engines, even when the electricity used to charge electric vehicles comes from a CO2-emitting source, such as a coal- or gas-fired powered plant, the net CO2 production from an electric car is typically one-half to one-third of that from a comparable combustion vehicle.

Electric vehicles release almost no air pollutants at the place where they are operated. In addition, it is generally easier to build pollution-control systems into centralised power stations than retrofit enormous numbers of cars.

Electric vehicles typically have less noise pollution than an internal combustion engine vehicle, whether it is at rest or in motion. Electric vehicles emit no tailpipe CO 2 or pollutants such as NOx, NMHC, CO and PM at the point of use.

Electric motors don't require oxygen, unlike internal combustion engines; this is useful for submarines.

While electric and hybrid cars have reduced tailpipe carbon emissions, the energy they consume is sometimes produced by means that have environmental impacts. For example, the majority of electricity produced in the United States comes from fossil fuels (coal and natural gas), so use of an electric vehicle in the United States would not be completely carbon neutral. Electric and hybrid cars can help decrease energy use and pollution, with local no pollution at all being generated by electric vehicles, and may someday use only renewable resources, but the choice that would have the lowest negative environmental impact would be a lifestyle change in favour of walking, biking, use of public transit or telecommuting. Governments may invest in research and development of electric cars with the intention of reducing the impact on the environment, where they could instead develop pedestrian-friendly communities or electric mass transit.

Environmental impact of hybrid car battery

Though hybrid cars consume less fuel than conventional cars, there is still an issue regarding the environmental damage of the hybrid car battery. Today most hybrid car batteries are one of two types: 1) Nickel metal hydride, or

2) Lithium ion; both are regarded as more environmentally friendly than lead-based batteries which constitute the bulk of petro car starter batteries today. There are many types of batteries. Some are far more toxic than others. Lithium ion is the least toxic of the three mentioned above.

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The toxicity levels and environmental impact of nickel metal hydride batteries—the type currently used in hybrids—are much lower than batteries like lead acid or nickel cadmium. However, nickel-based batteries are known carcinogens, and have been shown to cause a variety of teratogenic effects.

The Lithium-ion battery has attracted attention due to its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Hitachi is a leader in its development. In addition to its smaller size and lighter weight, lithium-ion batteries deliver performance that helps to protect the environment with features such as improved charge efficiency without memory effect. The lithium-ion batteries are appealing because they have the highest energy density of any rechargeable batteries and can produce a voltage more than three times that of nickel–metal hydride battery cell while simultaneously storing large quantities of electricity as well. The batteries also produce higher output (boosting vehicle power), higher efficiency (avoiding wasteful use of electricity), and provides excellent durability, compared with the life of the battery being roughly equivalent to the life of the vehicle. Additionally, use of lithium-ion batteries reduces the overall weight of the vehicle and also achieves improved fuel economy of 30% better than petro-powered vehicles with a consequent reduction in CO2 emissions helping to prevent global warming.

Raw materials increasing costs

There is an impending increase in the costs of many rare materials used in the manufacture of hybrid cars. For example, the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems. Neodymium is another rare earth metal which is a crucial ingredient in high-strength magnets that are found in permanent magnet electric motors.

Nearly all the rare earth elements in the world come from China, and many analysts believe that an overall increase in Chinese electronics manufacturing will consume this entire supply by 2012. In addition, export quotas on Chinese rare earth elements have resulted in an unknown amount of supply.

A few non-Chinese sources such as the advanced Hoidas Lake project in northern Canada as well as Mount Weld in Australia are currently under development; however, the barriers to entry are high and require years to go online.

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The various articles, previous reports used for this projects has come from various sources Business Standard Newspapers, Mint Newspapers


“Gaining traction: Will consumers ride the electric vehicle wave?” India results

The report broadly covers topics on:

• Market opportunity

• Target customers

• Barriers to adoption

• Conclusions

The analysis presented in the report was done with primary and secondary research, including interviews with executives from major automotive OEMs, clean-tech start-ups, dealers, and energy companies, as well as a survey of nearly 1008 current vehicle owners in India.

The study was carried out across 17 countries covering 13,500 respondents. To this qualitative and quantitative data, was applied Deloitte’s Demand Driven Analytics Methodology.


– distinctive styling

– improving speed

– torque characteristics

– will make EV usage a satisfying experience


– rapid rise of fuel prices

– desire to be on par with the rest of the world in terms of emission

would facilitate the growth of the EV market.

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• “potential first movers”

• “might be willing to consider”

• category are from urban locations

• consisting of both genders

• EVs are considered within the reach of the middle-class customer in most other markets, the manufacturers selling EVs in India would have to target the upper-middle or rich customers

Consumer Segmentation Profiles for Electric Vehicles

In India

• Potential first movers 59%

• Might be willing to consider 34%

• Not likely to consider 07%

In China

• Potential first movers 50%

• Might be willing to consider 43%

• Not likely to consider 07%

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They are:

• Battery charge time

• Expected purchase price after government incentives

• Acceptable price premium

• Range anxiety

• Fuel prices

Acceptable battery charging time

– 8 hours 24%

– 4 hours 27%

– 2 hours to 30 minutes 49%

Expected purchase price after government incentives

In INR lakh

– <4 32%

– 4 to 7 33%

– 7 to 9 12%

In India, 76% of the total population surveyed would expect an electric vehicle to travel up to 320 kilometres per charge before they would consider purchasing one. This indicates a gap in expectations versus current EV range capabilities in India

While fuel price increase may not be the only factor that drives customers to buy EVs, it is a fact that they have a mental benchmark of 130-150% of the current fuel prices that will make them reconsider EVs.

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Magazine Articles

“Is India Ready for a Green Drive” from “The Journal of AIMA (All India Management Association) Indian Management”, Vol.51 Issue Dated 6 June 2012.

This article is about the current motto ‘GO GREEN’ which is followed by all leading economies. It has a brief description about US President Obama’s vision of targeting One million Electric cars on US road by 2015.

It tells us about the various departments of Government of India formed for promotion and adoption of Electric Vehicles.

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been the front runner formed for promotion and adoption of Electric Vehicles.

In November 2010, the ministry formulated The Alternative Fuels for Surface Transportation programme under which 20% subsidy was provided t manufacturers.

Dr. Manmohan Singh announced an apex body, the National Council for Electric Mobility (NCEM), the key objective of the NCEM is to provide sustainable electric mobility to make electric vehicles a viable alternate vehicle by ensuring adequate support infrastructure for sufficient dissemination of electric vehicles.

The Union Budget propped full exemption from basic customs duty and a concessional rate of excise duty on batteries imported by electric vehicles manufacturers.

All this developments highlights the growing emphasis of Indian Government on encouraging the growth of electric vehicles.

It also tells about the current nascent stage of Indian market with Mahindra Reva being the only player in the electric vehicles market, it was able to sell 5000 cars since 2001 till 2011 with nearly 50% domestic sales. Reva is a very well established player globally and currently sells in about 24 countries and is looking to begin distribution in 40-50 countries by 2012.

It is seen that electric vehicles are becoming popular among women and students who don’t have stringent commuting requirements. It is predicted that once the supportive government policies are formulated the market for these vehicles would become developed. India has a maximum market potential owing to an established auto component infrastructure, low manufacturing and R&D costs, mechanical hardware availability, high urban congestion and the presence of a large domestic market.

Price positioning is the main concern for electric and hybrid vehicles, owing to the expensive battery costs. Reva is priced at a price point which is comparable to other petrol-driven budget hatch back (A segment) cars while similarly Toyota Prius is positioned in a price category which falls in the luxury segment. The high price combined with the low consumer awareness and environmental sensitivity is leading to the big question on whether India is ready for such vehicles.

In fact, most manufacturers are planning to launch vehicles in other countries or have launched already launched electric cars globally like Nissan Leaf and Mitsubishi iMiEV. However, they are playing it safe in India by watching the government moments and would eventually target Indian market only if the policies formulated under NCEM for Electric mobility are favourable.

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Besides infrastructure is also another concern for electric vehicles in India. Since these cars can run approximately 80km on one charge, they are recommended for short distance as charging infrastructure is not developed in the country. There have been initiatives under which BSES in Delhi established charging ports in 50 locations across its sub-stations in the city. Likewise in Bengaluru, parking spaces in mall and offices have been equipped with charging points for electric cars. However it is important to develop rapid charging stations which can provide quick charging in lesser time.

The key challenge here is that for a developing country like India where we are struggling to deal with problem of electricity shortage, do we have enough resources to build charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. Also it is difficult to assess in the long run, if we are trying to reduce the carbon footprint by decreasing the fuel-driven vehicles, or on the contrary are we burning more coal in the thermal stations to generate the required electricity for charging these vehicles. As per statistics in India, transport contributes to 7 percent of total green house gas emissions while electricity contributes to 35 percent.

Customer perception and out look further pose the challenge of product acceptability in India. Electric vehicles are perceived to be under power vehicles at higher cost. The cars can only cover short distance of about 80 km per charge and hence the value proposition for electric vehicles as a first car is also currently non-existent as compared to petrol vehicle.

The whole phenomenon of electric vehicles have picked up in recent years owing to the increasing oil prices and pressure on developed nations to reduce the carbon footprint. Globally smart cities are being developed which are focused on promoting electric vehicle usage. Indian government is also planning four smart cities in Manesar, Shendra, Changodar and Dahej to be built along the dedicated freight corridor. These cities are being designed in association with Japanese firms like Hitachi, Mitsubishi and Toshiba and would b based on successful models of Japanese cities Kitakyushu, Toyota City and Yokohoma.

Smart cities are going to be built under the main objective of 3-Rs: recycle, reuse and reduce. It would focus on promoting energy efficient facilities with networking function along with environmentally friendly public transportation system and personal vehicles.

By 2020, India’s population in cities is expected to grow manifold to a staggering 200 million while population is expected to grow by five times as compared to 2010. With this tremendous growth has emerged a very critical issue of keeping air and noise pollution in urban areas under control. It is desired to have 3 lakh electric vehicles on the roads by 2020, including three-wheelers, cars and scooters which could result in a reduction of over 16 lakh metric tons of population by 2020, savings of over Rs.3, 700 crore in foreign exchange and significant health costs savings.

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Articles from Business Standard

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Some Other Articles from DWS Auto Blog

“Do hybrids really reduce running costs and give better fuel efficiency?”

Wednesday, February 20, 2013 by Roshun Povaiah

Hybrid cars are a likely future direction that cars in India will take now that the Government is considering norms for hybrid cars in India. At the moment, there is only the Toyota Prius that’s on sale India at a price point of Rs. 30 lakh that is a true hybrid.

Recently, the Government said it is considering framing norms to convert existing petrol and diesel cars to petrol-electric and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. This would achieve two things – one, lower pollution levels in congested cities and two, increase in fuel economy would technically mean savings for the car buyer.

How much do you save driving a hybrid?

But by how much do hybrid cars really improve fuel economy and are there any considerable savings when it comes to long-term running costs? That’s something to ponder about.

Although these two cars are not strictly comparable, let’s for a moment put them together to compare notes – given that both cars are imports. Let’s see how a Toyota Prius compares with entry-level Audi A4 1.8 petrol, both priced around Rs. 29 lakh.

The Toyota Prius is powered by a 1.8 litre petrol engine that puts out 98 bhp of power, coupled with a 35 bhp electric motor, making the car good for a total power output of 134 bhp. The Prius “hybrid synergy drive” system can power the car on only the electric motor, only the petrol motor or both together depending on the driving conditions. For city speeds up to a range of about 30 km, the car can drive on electric power alone. When speeds go above 40 kmph, the petrol motor kicks in, and when peak acceleration is required the car uses both motors for maximum power.

It is because of this hybrid combination that despite good performance, the car gives a phenomenal mileage of 22 kmpl in the city.

Now, look at a regular petrol sedan like the Audi A4 with a 1.8 litre motor putting out better performance of 168 bhp. It has better top-end performance no doubt, but when it comes to pollution levels at slow city speeds and on fuel economy the Audi A4 loses out, as the petrol motor is always running, while the Prius can run on electric power alone as needed. The Audi A4 has a fuel-efficiency rating of 13 kmpl, giving only about 11 kmpl in the city, half that of the Prius.

Long-term running costs are more expensive

So straight away, running costs should be half right? Not quite. The Prius uses far more technology and hence has expensive maintenance. Also the battery packs in the Prius need replacing after a few years, which would cost at least Rs. 2.5 lakh to replace. And that negates all the savings on fuel cost that one would have saved because of better overall fuel efficiency.

However, the reason to buy a hybrid is not just running cost or fuel cost – it is more to do with the environment. With a hybrid you pollute just half as much as you would with a regular petrol engine, not to mention consuming less fuel, which in its own way goes to saving the planet. That’s one of the reason celebrities have been lapping up hybrids like the Prius – it gives to bragging rights about caring for the environment.

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Petrol-electric hybrid vs CNG conversion: Pros and cons

Thursday, February 21, 2013 by Roshun Povaiah

The government recently said it is framing norms to convert petrol and diesel cars to petrol-electric or diesel-electric hybrids. And one company, Revolo, is ready with a kit that can be retrofitted in any petrol or diesel car, but costs about Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 80,000.

During the Auto Expo we came across some interesting gizmos, and one of them was the Revolo hybrid solution, that promised to turn any car, petrol or diesel, into an electric hybrid.

About Revolvo

Revolo is a plug-in parallel hybrid technology that can be retrofitted in both existing and new cars.

This technology has been designed and engineered by KPIT Cummins and the product will be manufactured through a joint venture (JV) of Rs. 100 crore (initial) between Bharat Forge Ltd and KPIT Cummins. As part of the joint venture, KPIT Cummins will license the hybrid technology while Bharat Forge will provide manufacturing, assembly & integration to the JV.

The idea of Revolo first occurred to a young KPIT Cummins engineer Tejas Khsatriya in 2008when he was stuck in Mumbai traffic en route to Pune.

KPIT Cummins sanctioned a team of four engineers for the project, which was kept separate from CREST, the research and development centre at KPIT Cummins. It took 2 years of research and a budget under USD 2 million to evolve the idea through trial and error and several failures, including the inability of the system to withstand sudden surge in power when breaks were applied.

The research and development team studied the firing pattern of internal combustion engines and identified the weak spots that lead to fuel wastage and finally created a technology that can convert a passenger car to a hybrid that is environmentally friendly, cheap, fuel-efficient and at the same time offers good performance.

Revolo is designed to work in typical stop-and-go city traffic and allows cars to cruise at about 30 km/h in the third gear without straining the engine.

Latest Developments: KPIT Cummins continues the road tests of pilot vehicles as well as consumer trials with results so far having validated the pre-announced performance results. The team has further reduced the overall weight of the solution, improved on the durability and standardized many components across multiple vehicle platforms. Construction at the assembly and manufacturing plants continues. It is expected to be operational by July 2011.

The company will test various vehicles, including passenger cars, with engines sizes between 800 cc and 2,500 cc.

Production of limited hybrid kits is planned to start by first half of 2011-12. The commercial production would begin in 2012-13.

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Intrigued? We were too and decided to check out how the system works. The Revolo system, from KPIT Cummins, is a parallel hybrid solution. What it does is connect an electric motor in parallel with your engine. The electric motor runs off a stack of batteries that are charged by plugging into a household electric socket. The motor provides “boost” to the regular petrol or diesel engine, reducing the effort of the engine. In effect, it claims to increase “in-city” mileage by about 35% (and this is apparently ARAI certified).

Now, if you look at CNG cars (which are essentially dual-fuel hybrids running on either petrol or CNG), the cost of converting a petrol car to a CNG car works out to almost the same as that of converting a petrol car to a petrol-electric hybrid.

Which one of these systems should you pick? We take a look at the pros and cons of both, comparing a Maruti Alto fitted with the Revolo hybrid system and one fitted with a sequential CNG system.

Revolo petrol-electric system

The petrol-electric hybrid system from Revolo (a KPIT Cummins offering) uses an electric motor coupled with the petrol engine through a drive-belt connected to the crankshaft pulley. The electric motor draws power from a battery pack (two 12V batteries) in the boot or from a single Lithium ion battery. This battery pack can be charged overnight from a standard household socket and it also gets recharged when the car is moving – especially during braking.

Pros of the petrol-electric system

Revolo claims an additional fuel efficiency of 35% compared to a regular petrol Alto in the city. Given the city mileage of about 17 kmpl for a regular Alto one can get about 23 kmpl using this system. This would result in savings of up to 30% on fuel bills per year. Running costs would come down by 30% overall, given that electricity to charge the system is nearly 1/10 th the cost.

Also the system is quite compact and does not take up as much space as a CNG system would – there is no big cylinder in the boot as the battery pack is small and can be fitted in one corner of the boot saving space.

The system, once fully charged, can run much longer than a CNG system would as it also gets trickle charged during the day when the car is running.

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Cons of the Petrol-Electric System

The cost projection for installing such a system of between Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 80,000 is fairly high. You need to drive over 2000 km a month to realize the benefits of the system. With this kind of driving you would save about Rs 2,100 per month, making the system pay for itself by the third year of use. However, in the fourth year, expect your savings to drop considerably, as you would need to spend about Rs. 14,000 on new batteries. And this is a recurring cost every three to four years.

CNG-petrol dual fuel systems

With a CNG conversion, the car can run on natural gas or petrol. Running it on CNG often gives slightly better fuel efficiency – in the case of the Alto about 22 km per Kg of CNG. With CNG prices at about Rs. 40 per Kg, it is nearly Rs. 30 cheaper than petrol per litre.

Pros of a CNG system

CNG conversion allows for pure CNG driving, without a drop of petrol being burned unlike the petrol-electric system, where you only get a boost from the electric motor, but are still consuming petrol. Therefore the savings (given the cost difference with petrol) are much higher. You realize the investment in CNG much faster than you would with a petrol electric system.

CNG filling networks are quite widespread in about 35 cities now, which means much easier access to gas. Electric charging points are not easily accessible unless you have a garage or easy access to a plug point. It also takes about 5 minutes to tank up on CNG, while it takes about 8 hours for a full-charge of the batteries.

Cons of a CNG system

The size of the CNG tank takes up almost the entire boot in an Alto, leaving no space for luggage. It also is substantially heavier and takes its toll on the suspension of the car. When one travels out of town this becomes an issue as CNG networks don’t exist outside of major cities, forcing the driver to drive on petrol and negate any savings.

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By 2025, India’s pollution in cities is expected to grow five times as compared to 2010.

It is desired to have 3 lakh EVs which could result in a reduction of over 16 lakh metric

tons of pollution by 2020, savings of over Rs.3,700 crore in foreign exchange and

significant health costs savings.

It is expected that the government will make regulations specific to financial, incentives

for manufacturers, parking and toll benefits to customers and research and development

grants to build next generation technologies.

The government will also form norms for promoting petrol-electric or diesel-electric

hybrids. We expect to see lots of Hybrid Vehicles on road within a short span. The

Revolvo Kit is meeting the current consumer’s expectations hence it will be preferred by

consumers on a larger extent.

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The main purpose behind the study was to meet the wants and needs of the consumers and provide valuable information regarding Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Also to know whether the consumers

Primary data

The first hand data was collected by us through various sources. Sources of primary data are the sampling units chosen.

Sample size

For the present study 60 respondents were selected.

Sampling technique

For selecting required respondents simple random sampling technique was used.

Tools and techniques

Tools for collecting primary data

Interview method

A Questionnaire of 16 Questions was prepared for which appropriate options were made available for respondents to select from. The questionnaire was created with the help of Google Docs which was in a format of Electronic Survey Form. It was easy to send the form via mail to n number of users. Apart from this the Questionnaire was easily uploaded on various social networking sites.


It was easy for respondent to fill up the questionnaire and submit it online, the result of which was saving of time and reach maximum respondents.

Secondary data

These are second hand readymade data collected by some other agency but not by the researcher. Source could be internal or external records. Secondary data gives the detailed information about the company. The main detail about when the company was started, where the company was started, first etc. the secondary data gives all information which is unavailable in primary data.

Sources of secondary data

Journals, Internet, Newspaper and Reports were used.

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The following is the questionnaire format

Hello we the students of Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute Of Management Studies & Research 1 st year MMS batch are

gathering information related to acceptance and knowledge of people about alternative technologies in automobiles such as

Electric/Hybrid Vehicles for our Research Methodology project. Please help us by filling up this questionnaire which will

take 10-15 minutes.

Please put a ( P ) mark against each option where ever required.

Your Profession: - Student House wife Retired

Self Employed Job Other (please specify) _____________

Gender: - M F

1) Do you have any vehicle? Yes No If yes total no. of vehicles ____

2) Is it a

Two Wheeler Three Wheeler Hatch Back Sedan SUV

MUV Pickup Truck Other (please specify)


3) Is most of your daily travelling in city, on the highway or mixed?

City Highway Mixed

4) Also let us know the mode of transportation you prefer and approx. distance travelled.

Own Vehicle Taxi/Auto Rickshaw Public Bus Train

<100km <150km >200km Other (please specify) _____________

5) Have you heard about Electric/Hybrid vehicle? Yes No

6) Would you be interested in owning/converting your vehicle into Electric/Hybrid Vehicle?

Yes No Can‘t say

7) If yes then how much would you expect to be the price of an Electric Vehicle/ Hybrid Vehicle?

Two wheeler _____________ Three wheeler__________ Hatchback__________

Sedan ____________ SUV _____________ MUV _______________

Pickup Truck ___________ Other (please specify) _____________

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8) What is preventing you from purchasing an Electric Vehicle?

Nothing, I plan to buy an electric vehicle soon

The present cost of electric vehicles is too high

The vehicles available at the moment don't have enough range on a single charge to meet my needs

I need more information about the technology before I would make a purchase

It would be difficult to set up charging in my building/home

Other (please specify) _________________

9) Would you like to know more about Electric/Hybrid vehicle? Yes No

10) If yes from which source? Television Ads Auto Expo Magazines

Live Demo Internet Websites Blogs Newspaper Ads

11) Where would you prefer to charge your Electric Vehicle if you were to buy one in the future?

At home At work Using public charging facilities

12) What should be the range of an Electric Vehicle when fully charged? (In approx.)

Less than 100 km 100-150 km 150-200 km Other (please specify)


13) What should be the expected maximum speed of an Electric Vehicle? (In approx.)

Up to 80kmph 150kmph Other (please specify) _____________

14) How much would you spend on changing the batteries once it gets exhausted? (In INR approx.)

5000 15000 250000 50000 Other (please specify)


15) How much subsidies you expect from Government on the price of batteries of Electric/Hybrid Vehicles? (In approx.)

10% 20 % Other (please specify) _____________

16) How much premium would you pay for additional development or manufacturing cost of infrastructure? (In INR


25000 50000 75000 100000 Other (please specify)


Thank you for taking time to complete our survey with your valuable inputs.

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The Result’s of the Questionnaire

The survey was taken with the help of 60 respondents out of which

Job Student Self Employed Retired Other0











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Q.1. Do you have any vehicle? If yes, total no. of vehicles?

Yes No One vehicle Two Vehicles More than two vehicles






Q.2. If yes, what is the Vehicle-type?






Two WheelerThree WheelerHatch Back SedanSUV MUV Pickup TruckOther

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Q.3. Would you be interested in owning/converting your vehicle into Electric/Hybrid Vehicle?

Yes No Can't Say










Total Male Female

Q.4. Is most of your daily travelling in city, on the highway or mixed? Also let us know

the mode of transportation you prefer and approx. distance travelled.

Own Vehicle

Taxi/Auto Rickshaw

Public Bus


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18













Mixed Highway City

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Q.5. What is the total approx. distance travelled by you daily?







0 to 56 to 1011 to 2021 to 4040 to 8080 to 120120 and above

Q.6. Have you heard about Electric/Hybrid vehicle?

No Yes







Male Female Total

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Q.7. Would you be interested in owning/converting your vehicle into Electric/Hybrid


Yes No Can't Say










Heard about electric vehicles Not heard about electric vehicles Total

If yes, then how much would you expect to be the price of an Electric Vehicle/ Hybrid


Two wheeler

Three wheeler

Hatch back

Sedan SUV MUV Pickup Truck









Price inbetween 5000 to 1000010001 to 3000030001 to 6000060001 to 100000100001 to 300000300001 to 600000600001 to 10000001000001 to 2000000

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Q.8. What is preventing you from purchasing an Electric Vehicle?


12 12 12


No. of respondants

Q.9. Would you like to know more about Electric/Hybrid vehicle? If yes, from which


Television Ads Auto Expo Magazines Live Demo Internet Websites

Blogs Newspaper Ads















Total no. of Respondants

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Q.10. Where would you prefer to charge your Electric Vehicle if you were to buy one in

the future?

At home At work Using public charging facilities0









No. of espondants

Q.11. What should be the range of an Electric Vehicle when fully charged?

less than 81 km 81 to 200 km 200 to 300 km more than 300 km












Total no. of respondants

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Q.12.What should be the expected maximum speed of an Electric Vehicle?

0 to 80 81 to 150 200 and above0







Total no. of people

Q.13. How much would you spend on changing the batteries once it gets exhausted?


Three Wheeler





Pick up Truck


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

more tan 5000020000 to 5000010000 to 200005000 to 100003001 to 50001000 to 3000

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Q.14 How much subsidies you expect from Government on the price of batteries of

Electric/Hybrid Vehicles?

5101520more than 20

Q.15. How much premium would you pay for additional development or manufacturing

cost of infrastructure?

Two w





Sedan SU


Pick up Tr











2001 to 50005001 to 1000010001 to 2000020001 to 5000050001 to 100000more than 1000000 to 2000

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Analysis of the Data

More no. of males compared to females has opted for the survey. A large no. of people have their profession as job More of the two-wheeler owners were interested in buying/converting their vehicles into

Electric/Hybrid vehicles Most of the people (male) prefer their own vehicles for daily travelling and the distance travelled

by them daily falls in between 40-80 km. Most of the people have their daily travelling in the city as well as on the highway (mixed) or

only in the city. A major section of female students has shown much interest to get more details about

Electric/Hybrid vehicles technologies. Most of the two-wheeler owners expect the price of their electric vehicle (two-wheeler) should

be in between 30000 to 60000 INR. Most of the Sedan owners expect the price of their electric vehicle to be around 60000 to 100000

INR. It is assumed with this price they are interested in converting their existing car into Hybrid Vehicles.

It was found that – The present cost of electric vehicles which is too high– The insufficient range on a single charge– The lack of information about the technology before I would make a purchase

Where the main cause of concern and were preventing people from buying an Electric Vehicle.

Majority of the people would like to know more about Electric Vehicles from News Paper Ads and Live Demo Vehicles.

Almost all of the people would prefer to charge their vehicles at home and from public charging stations. Which is a cause of concern as development of such infrastructure is still in nascent stage.

Though it was found that majority of the people daily travel around 80km, however still most of the people would expect an Electric Vehicle to travel around 80 to 150 km on single charge. The current Reva can cover 100 km (max.) when fully charged.

Majority of two-wheeler owners and hatchback owners are willing to pay around 5000 to 10000 and 20000 to 50000 INR respectively for the replacement of batteries once exhausted, which is a positive response from consumers. An Electric Vehicle’s batteries have to be replaced with in 4-5 yrs (Min.) regularly which cost around 20000 to 50000 depending on quality of the battery.

Speed the Electric Vehicle is not a concern with people for buying an Electric Vehicle. Even government subsidies are not a concern with people for buying an Electric Vehicle. It is found that most of the people are ready to pay a onetime premium amount as an additional

development or manufacturing cost of infrastructure. It depends on the type of vehicles own by people for e.g. two wheeler owners expect to pay a premium amount of 2000 to 5000INR.

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The responses for the questionnaire proved to be crucial for the conclusion of our research as the results were positive and where matching with what was predicted by us.

The perception of people towards EVs is still unsatisfactory as a major section of our society is still unaware of various Alternative Technologies used in Automobiles.

The current EVs don’t meet the consumer’s expectations to a larger extent.

The Government Initiatives taken for the promotion of EVs is still in developing stage and is up to papers, though various agencies have been formed and various plans have been brought by them but still its implementation is not yet done.

The consumers will prefer EVs only if they are comparable with current vehicles on road, so a change in consumer’s behavior is important. They should gradually become more conscious about the use of cleaner technologies.

Though many consumers will not prefer the current Electric/Hybrid vehicles but still there are lots of options available which is built to meet consumer’s expectations such as REVOLVO KIT.

Marketing of such products will really play an important role as a stepping foot towards GREENER ENVIRONMET.

Various companies should take initiatives to promote electric vehicles as a part of their corporate social responsibilities.

Finally the future of the Electric/Hybrid Vehicles is GREEN.