Smart Grids. More efficient and reliable grids

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Intervención de Inés Romero, ABB, en el marco de la jornada técnica Smartgrids - The making of, en colaboración con IMDEA 3 de noviembre de 2010

Text of Smart Grids. More efficient and reliable grids

  • 1. 3rd November 2010, Madrid. Ins RomeroSmart grids More efficient and reliable grids ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 1

2. Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 2 3. Todays energy challenge growing demand Electricity demand rising twice as fastChina Europe and105%195% North America 11% 31% India M. East and South Africa America 126% 282%56% 81%73% 131%Growth in primary Growth in electricity IEA forecast energy demand demand2006-30 ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 3 4. Major challenge: improving reliability # disturbance events in US Source: FERC 2008 In U.S. the annual cost of system disturbances is an estimated $80 billion*Commercial ($57 billion), industrial ($20 billion) and residential ($3 billion)sectors affectedMost cost ($52 billion) due to short momentary interruptions * Berkley National Laboratory 2005 Poor reliability is a huge economic disadvantage ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 4 5. Two major ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources45 550* 450*Annual emission of CO2 in Gigatons policy policyscenario scenario 40 9% Nuclear 14% Carbon capture and sequestration 3523% RenewablesEnergy efficiency 3054% 25* ppm concentration in the atmosphere 20Source2005 2010 20152020 2025 2030IEA 2008 Reference scenario550 policy scenario450 policy scenario Energy efficiency and renewable power generation could provide almost 80 percent of the targeted reduction ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 5 6. Major challenge: environmental concerns10 Electricity plants Annual emission of CO2 in GigatonsSource: IPCC Mitigation9of Climate Change, Cambridge University8Press, 2007 76 Industry (excl. cement) 5 Road transport 4 Residential and service sector Deforestation 3 Others 2 Refineries etc 1 International transport 0 1970 1980 19902000CO2 is responsible for 80 percent of all greenhouse gas effectsMore than 40 percent of CO2 is generated by traditional power plantsElectric power generation is the largest single source CO2 emissions ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 6 7. Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 7 8. Smart grid value proposition Four main areas of emphasisCapacity for increasing demandProviding the backbone of the future electrical system Reliability of electricity supplyUpgrades and new installations to meet the future challenges Efficiency along the value chainActions to mitigate climate change Sustainability by integrating renewableRegulatory influence and customer behavior are critical ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 8 9. Economic build up of capacity Capacity CapacityReliability Investment in global grid infrastructure is estimated to total $6 trillion byEfficiency 20301Sustainability Present grids can be refurbished to operate at full capacity without compromising safety New installations must provide maximum flow of energy to any location in the grid In 2020 the fleet of electric cars could reach 40 million world wide, around 2 percent of the cars on the road by then1 The infrastructure for charging the vehicles has to be built Fast charging options cannot be provided by the current grid infrastructure The future electrical system must be used at its full capacityand must be able to cope with new challenges1 Source: IEA ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 9 10. Electrical energy all the time, everywhere Reliability in Transmission systemsCapacityReliability Safe operation with minimum reserves isEfficiency the most economic way of operating PSSustainability Systems must be designed for utmost reliability and maximum power quality Impact of unavoidable faults must be limited to local areas Immediate restoration of full performance is essential The European grid covers the whole continent The future electrical system must provide a completelyreliable energy supply without interruptions ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 10 11. Electrical energy all the time, everywhere Reliability in Distribution systemsCapacityDistribution grids are pending from a largeReliabilityEfficiencyscale implementation of technologies to supportSustainabilityremote monitoring and controlautomated switchingfast fault locationResulting inreduced outage timeincreased power qualityimproved maintenanceReliability of power distribution is of prime importance infuture electrical systems ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 11 12. Power generation and grid coupling EfficiencyCapacity Conversion efficiency of primary energy toReliabilityConversion efficiency electricity is steadily increasingEfficiencySustainability Advanced process control adds to the overall traditional efficiencypower plants Equipment and systems to couple generation to the grid are becoming more efficientTransformers An improvement of only 1% in efficiency can saveAC-DC100 million tons of CO2 (emission of 50 M cars1)solar plantsconverters Estimates allocate a double digit energy savingSubstationspotential in power generation2 wind farms 1 at 200g/km of CO2 emission and 10,000 km/year Process improvement 2 Graus: Energy policy 2007; Gielen: IEA 2007 distributed generationIn future electric systems highly efficient power generation is mandatory ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 12 13. Saving potential in transmission and distribution EfficiencyCapacityLosses of electrical energy in the grid can reach 6-10 %ReliabilityEfficiencyAging equipment with lower efficiency and thermal losses in conductors areSustainabilitythe main reasonsInefficient distribution transformers account for about 30 percent of lossesNetwork losses in EU are an estimated 50 TWh, the annual consumption of13 million households11Source:European CommissionIn future electrical systems losses must be reduced significantly ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 13 14. Integrating renewable power Bridging long distances (Sustainability)CapacityReliability Large hydropower plantsEfficiency offer the biggest contributionSustainability to renewable energy over the next 20 years Several gigawatts of power must be transported over thousands of kilometers to the centers of consumption Technologies for economic and reliable transport are requiredThe future electrical system must provide viable solutions ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 18 15. Integrating renewable power Intermittent power generation (Sustainability)CapacityElectricity from wind and solarReliabilityEfficiencyplants is intermittentSustainabilitySpinning reserves between 5and 18 percent of installed windenergy are required1Plant interconnections and awide range of storagetechnologies could reduce theneed for reserves 1Wind impact on power system, Bremen 2009The future electrical system must be ableto cope with these challenges ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 19 16. AgendaDrivers and challengesHow future electric systems must performSmart grids and applicationsWorldwide on-going projectsConclusions ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 22 17. Smart electricity efficient power for a sustainable world A smart grid is the evolved system that manages the electricity demandin asustainable, reliable and economic mannerbuilt onadvanced infrastructure and tuned to facilitate the integration of behavior of all involved ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 23 18. The visionary smart grid Summing up the major requirementsCapacityUpgrade/install capacity economically Provide additional infrastructure (e-cars)Reliability Stabilize the system and avoid outagesProvide high quality power all the time Improve efficiency of power generationEfficiencyReduce losses in transport and consumptionConnect renewable energy to the gridSustainability Manage intermittent generation ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 24 19. Smart grids Focus of activities Focus area Activities Distribution grid automation Network Management for distribution grids Intelligent equipment Distribution communication e-Mobility EV charging infrastructure Grid intelligence On board and manufacturing segment Storage services Demand response Home / building automation Demand response applications Commercial and Domestic Connectivity to grid Distributed generation Residential / community renewables Networked CHP and other generation integration Micro and Personal grids MV / LV DC grids Distributed storage Building / community level storage. (1MW) Mitigation of renewable intermittency ABB Group ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 25 20. Smart Cities Integration into the Smart GridStorage ofpeak supplypower in carbatteries(future) Local distribution grid extensionsChargingBattery switch stations:scheduling forStorageresidential areasPower quality services Used car batteries Ultra-fast charging stations: as central storage Storagecapacity Power quality services ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 27 21. Distribution Automation Integration of Power and InformationDistribution Control Center Network management SCADA/DMS OMS with AMR/AMI connection Models sub-transmission and distribution (including medium- and low voltage) networks Workforce management Primary Substation Automation Protection Monitoring and control Automatic functions Information refinement MV/LV Network Automation (FA) Protection Monitoring and control Automatic functions Information refinement Home/Building Automation Smart metering (AMR/AMI) Smart home integration (demand response) ABB Group November 10, 2010 | ABB GroupSlide 28 November 10, 2010 | Slide 28 22. Demand Response Addressing the temporary change in electricity consumption ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 29 23. Demand Response Peak Load reductionUse more efficient productionGenerally utilities run 10-20%