Junos routing overview from Juniper

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  • 1. Juniper NetworksNetworking EssentialsModule 1: TCP/IP InternetworkingCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks, Inc. IJNR-6.b.6.1.2

2. Module ObjectivesAfter successfully completing this module, you will beable to: Identify the components of an internetwork and explain therole of each component Explain how packets are routed on a TCP/IP network Describe the role of an IP address on an internetworkCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 3. Internetwork ExampleNetwork 1192.168.1.0Network 2192.168.2.0Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 4. Local-Area NetworksA computer network that spans a small areaConfined to a single building or corporate campusCan connect to other LANs through telephone linesand wireless connectionsLAN characteristics differentiated by: Topology Protocols MediaCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 5. Wide-Area NetworksA computer network that spans a large geographicalareaWANs interconnect LANsComputers connected to WAN through publictelephone system, leased lines, or wireless connectionThe Internet consists of many WANs and WAN linksCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 6. Intermediate Internetworking DevicesCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.Bridges Connect multiple LAN segments to form a larger LAN Usually the same media type Bridges forward broadcasts by defaultRouters Connect multiple LANs but maintain LAN boundaries Connect LANs across WAN links LAN and WAN links may be different media types Implement logical network structure (e.g., IP networks) Routers block broadcasts by defaultSwitches High-speed multi-port bridges with many ports Many implement Virtual LANs (VLANs) 7. Routing on a TCP/IP NetworkNetwork 2192.168.2.0Network 1192.168.1.0Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 8. Role of IP and the IP AddressEnd-to-End DeliveryIP Protocol Internet (IP) IP ProtocolCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.ApplicationTCP/UDPIP Address XApplicationTCP/UDPIP Address YNetwork-Dependent Network-Dependent 9. Format of the IP AddressIP address is a 32-bit numeric addressWritten as four numbers separated by periods: Dotted Quad notation for human convenience Examples 10.0.15.1 172.20.10.24 192.168.94.122The IP address is used to identify a particular networkand host on that network Must be globally unique (with some exceptions)Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 10. Relationship of the IP Address to theHardware AddressApplicationPresentationSessionTransportNetworkMACPhysicalOSI Reference Model802.2 Logical Link ControlCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.7654321LLC802.3CSMA/CD802.4Token Bus802.5Token RingIP Address 11. Mapping Address Layers: ARPAddress Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps an IP addressto a physical MAC address Host broadcasts an ARP request to obtain a physical addressIP: 192.168.2.1MAC: 0000.2222.1111IP: 192.168.2.23MAC: 0000.2222.2323(1) Requester sendsBROADCAST ARP_REQUEST(MAC dest = ffff.ffff.ffff, targetIP = 192.168.2.23)IP: 192.168.2.2(2) ALL hosts readARP_REQUEST, but do notrespond if theyre not theMAC: 0000.2222.2222IP: 192.168.2.11MAC: 0000.2222.0011IP: 192.168.2.43MAC: 0000.2222.4343Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.target(3) Target host responds torequester via UNICAST(192.168.2.23 maps to MAC0000.2222.2323, MAC dest =0000.2222.1111)(4) Requester stores themapping in local ARP cacheand can now communicatedirectly with target 12. Logical Network TypesCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. Broadcast Multiple sources anddestinations "on the wire" One packet can be read bymany receivers Typical for LANs Example: Ethernet Point-to-Point Two ends/"stations" Typical for WANs Example: T1Router A Router B 13. Review Questions1. How does a router differ from a bridge?2. What is ARP?3. What are two types of Logical Networks?Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 14. Juniper NetworksNetworking EssentialsModule 2: IP Addressing.Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks, Inc. IJNR-6.b.6.1.2 15. Module ObjectivesAfter successfully completing this module, you will beable to: Create IP addresses in binary notation and decimal format,and identify the corresponding address classes Define subnetting and subnet masks, and create effectivesubnets for a given network Define classless interdomain routing (CIDR), and aggregate agiven range of network addresses to the highest degreepossibleCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 16. Importance of IP AddressingUnique addresses make information delivery systemswork Telephone numbers Postal addressesIP addressing scheme integral to process of routing IPdata through an internetworkTwo major Internet scaling issues: IPv4 address space depletion Routing traffic given increasing number of networks thatmake up the InternetCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 17. Classful IP AddressingOriginal Classful IP addressing defines a 32-bit IPaddressTwo-part Internet address structure32-Bit IP AddressNetwork Part Host PartCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 18. Binary Overview7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bit position27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 2^(bit position)Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.1286432168 4 2 1 Decimal value1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 128+16+8+2=1540 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 16+4+2+1=231 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 128+64+32+8=2320 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 64+1=651 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=2551 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 128+32+8+4=172 19. Primary Address ClassesNetwork Host Host128 64 32 16 8 4 2 11 0 NetworkCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.Host8Host16Host24HostNetworkNetwork Network01 1 0 Network24168No. of bitsClass AClass BClass C 20. Dotted Decimal NotationBit# 31 0. . .10101100 00010000 00100011 00001000172 16 35 8172.16.35.8Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 21. High-Order Bits Class addresses specified by the high-order bits:Class High-Order BitsClass A 0Class B 10Class C 110 IP Address 192.168.21.40 is a Class C address:11000000.10101000.00010101.00101000Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 22. First Octet RuleClass determined by location of first 0 in binaryaddress:Class First Octet RangeClass A 00000001 01111110 (Binary)1 126* (Decimal)Class B 10000000 10111111128 191Class C 11000000 11011111192 223*0 and 127 reservedCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 23. First Octet Rule ExamplesAddress Class172. 18.192.3410101100.00010010.11000000.00100010Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.B10.155.128.200001010.10011011.10000000.00000010A192.12.3.4211000000.00001100.00000011.00101010C 24. Default MasksIdentify the location of the network part (1s) and hostpart (0s) of an addressClass A 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000255 . 0 . 0 . 0Class B 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000255 . 255 . 0 . 0Class C 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000255 . 255 . 255 . 0Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 25. Reserved AddressesNetwork Address: all host bits are binary 0 10.0.0.0 172.23.0.0 192.168.14.0Broadcast Address: all host bits are binary 1 10.255.255.255 172.23.255.255 192.168.14.255Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 26. IPv4 Address Management IssuesCentral authority: IANAInefficient allocation of limited address spaceIPv4 32-bit address spaceAddress allocations based on organizations requestsrather than actual needEarly depletion of Class B addressesCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 27. IP SubnettingAll Classful IP addresses can be divided into smallernetworks called subnetsClass B Address: Before Subnetting1 0 Network Network Host HostClass B Address: After Subnetting1 0 Network Network Subnet HostCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 28. Problems Solved with SubnettingProvides network administrators with extra flexibilityProvides more efficient use of network addressutilizationContains broadcast traffic; broadcast will not cross arouterSubnets under local administrator controlExternal users and organizations see only singlenetworkCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 29. Subnet MaskExample subnet mask for Class B addressNetwork Network Subnet HostBinary 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.RepresentationDotted DecimalRepresentation 255 . 255 . 255 . 0 30. Subnet Example 1Assigned Network Number: 172.25.0.0/16Create 256 subnets 172.25.0.0/24 172.25.1.0/24 172.25.2.0/24 172.25.3.0/24 . . . 172.25.255.0/24Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 31. Subnet Example 2Assigned Network Number: 192.168.1.0/24Create 4 subnets 192.168.1.0/26 192.168.1.64/26 192.168.1.128/26 192.168.1.192/26Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 32. Subnet Example 3Assigned Network Number: 10.0.0.0/11Create 8 subnets 10.0.0.0/11 10.32.0.0/11 10.64.0.0/11 10.96.0.0/11 10.128.0.0/11 10.160.0.0/11 10.192.0.0/11 10.224.0.0/11Copyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 33. Growth of the InternetThe Internet is todays largest public data networkConnects millions of users worldwideOngoing technical advancements in networkinghardware contribute to growthIncreasing number of networks over the past decadeCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 34. Growth of Internet Routing TablesCaused by Internet expansionBackbone routers must maintain complete Internetrouting informationAdditional factors include: Increased CPU processing speed for routing table topologyupdates Dynamic nature of todays WWW Increased volume of diverse informationIP Next Generation (IPv6) Long-term solution, but deployment is limitedIPv4 modified to allow continued growthCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc. 35. Classless Inter-Domain RoutingCIDR ignores the concept of Network Address ClassesReduces the amount of route advertisementsNo CIDR192.168.64 /24192.168.65 /24CIDRCopyright 2003, Juniper Networks,Inc.192.168.64 /22192.168.64.0.65.0.66.0.67.0192.168.66 /24192.168.67 /24 36. Implications of CIDR on the RouterCIDR officially documented in 1993CIDR supports following important features that benefitglobal Internet routing system: Ignores traditional concept of Class A, B, and C networkaddresses Supports route aggregation where single routing table entrycan represent address space of thousands of traditionalclassful routesCopyright 2003,