is the amount of material is a substance or object.
is the amount of space taken up by a substance or object.
Weight: is the force of gravity on an object or substance.
5. Elements and Atoms
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
EX: nitrogen, gold, iron, and etc.
6. Each Element has a
each symbol is based on the Greek or Latin alphabet. WHY?
EX: gold - Au,oxygen - O, helium - He,Potassium - K, hydrogen - H
7. John Dalton
He believed that each element was made of tiny particles calledatoms .
8. Atoms are made of:
0 or no charge
9. Parts of an Atom
Each electron is in anorbitalorshell . Each orbital can contain only a certain number of electrons.
Orbital or shell 11. Parts of an Atom
99.9% of an atom is the nucleus
12. Most atoms
tend to have a neutral charge. This usually means that they have the same number of protons and electrons
(6) protons - (6) electrons =
13. Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom
14. Mass Number
Gives the average number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Atomic # - mass # = # of neutrons
are atoms of the same chemical element that have different mass numbers ( different number of neutrons).
16. 17. Compound
2 or more elements chemically combined.
The smallest part of a compound is a molecule
H 2 0is the formula for1 moleculeof water.
H 2 SO 4is the formula for 1 molecule of sulfuric acid.
19. What is a Mineral?
1. Occur naturally
2. Isa solid
3. Has a definite chemical composition
4. Has its atoms arranged in an orderly pattern
5. Is inorganic
May be elements or compounds
21. Most common elements in the crust are...
Most minerals are composed of 2 or more elements or bonded together.
Ion- is a charged atom.
1 more electron then total of protons gives a negative charge to the atom.
23. Types of Bonding
Ionic bonding - forms when electrons are gained or lost
metals- make good positive ions( loose electrons)
non-metals- make good negative ions(gain electrons)
24. 25. Types of Bonding
Covalent bonding - forms when electrons are shared
oxygen and silicon share electrons
Metallic bonding forms when electrons are shared by metal ions
26. 27. Noble Gases
These gases do not share electrons readily. Therefore they generally do not form bonds.
28. How minerals form
1.Volcanism- magma heating and cooling.
2.Precipitation- when water evaporates some of the dissolved substances in the water crystallize.
3.Pressure and Temperature form when existing minerals are subjected to changes in pressure and temperature. The atoms rearrange.
29. 4.Hydrothermal Solutions Chemical reactions take place when warm hydrothermal solutions come in contact with existing minerals. Also, when these solutions cool they can crystallize into new minerals. 30. Mineral Groups
These groups are classified in groups according to their composition.
Silicates Silicon and oxygen form a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.
90%of all the minerals in the crust are:
Carbonates are minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one other metallic element.
Oxides are minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, which are usually metals.
Sulfates and Sulfides minerals that contain the element sulfur.
Halides minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements.
Native Elements a group of minerals that exist in relatively pure form. Gold, silver, copper, sulfur, graphite
Crystals are solids with a regular geometric shape. Each side is called aface .
Crystalsizedepends on how slowly or quickly they form.Slowercooling produces larger crystals.
The crystalline structure of a mineral is dependent upon the bonding of the various atoms and ions.
Bonds determine crystal shape or better the molecular shape.