Advertising through sport: Master's Thesis (final version)

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Presentation about my Master's Thesis in my Master Communication Management @ University of Ghent.

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  • 1. Summary Masters Thesis:A scientific study concerning the consumers attitude toward advertising through sportMasters Thesis1

2. 12IntroMetho34ResultsTalkMasters Thesis2 3. Intro1.1 Advertising through sportProblemIncreasingly negative consumers attitude toward advertising Why? Too much, too aggresifSolutionUse sport as advertising platform to foster positive consumersattitudes toward advertising Why? Broad range and high brand exposure via sportsEffectSport has become an important advertising platformMasters Thesis 3 4. Intro1.2 Problem with previously researchOnly about RECALL and RECOGNITION= exposureLack of insight in consumers PERCEPTION towardadvertising through sport= cognitive structureRecent scientific research provides a new frameworkfor defining purchase intentions and buying behaviourMasters Thesis 4 5. Intro1.3 Theoretical model of attitude towardadvertising through sport (Pyun & James, 2011)1 Multiple belief constructs 3 42 Potential moderating effect3 Beliefs and attitude toward advertising through sport4 Attitude toward 1 advertising through sport and Aad 2 Masters Thesis5 6. Intro1.4 Key theories Reasoned action theory (Fishbein, 1963) Primair structure of beliefs and attitudes towardadvertising (Pollay & Mittal, 1993) Categorisation theory (Mervis & Rosh, 1981) Conceptual framework of Aad (Lutz, 1985) Masters Thesis6 7. Intro1.5 Beliefs Product information Advertising is an usefull source of informationSocial role and image Advertising sells a lifestyle to the consumers Hedonism/Pleasure Likeability of advertisingGood for the economy Local and global market economy are improved by advertisingAnnoyance/Irritation Ads that bother or irrate youMaterialism Buying goods is the way to happiness Falsity/No-Sense Ads mislead the consumersMasters Thesis 7 8. Intro1.6 Interesting but... no segmentation between consumers!Masters Thesis8 9. Intro1.7 Ad Masters Thesis 9 10. Intro1.8 Model of Sport Participation (Scheeder,2007)Masters Thesis 10 11. Intro1.9 Research question for my MasterThesisWhats the effect of consumerssport participation (or age or gender) on their attitude toward advertising through sport? Masters Thesis11 12. 12IntroMetho34ResultsTalkMasters Thesis12 13. Metho 2.1 Questionnaire Validated questionnaire from study of Pyun & James(2011) Based on explorative research: Explorative factor analysis : structure of relation between differentvariables Confirmatory factor analysis: optimizing model Structural equation model: relation between constructs of beliefsand attituds Online questionnaire on enqutemaken.be Available from 8/03/2012 until 20/03/2012Masters Thesis 13 14. Metho [2.1 Questionnaire] All closed-ended questions Set-up: 2 items about demografic data (gender and age) 1 item about active sport participation (h/w) 1 item about passive sport participation (h/w) 45 items on 7 points Likert-scale measuring concepts of model Analysis with SPSS Statistics 20 Masters Thesis 14 15. Metho2.2 SegmentationDepending on results Sports participation No sports participation Only passive sports participation Only active sports participation Attitude toward Passive and active sports participation Ad GenderAttitude toward Men Womenadvertising through sport Age 15 20 7 beliefs 21 30 31 40 41 50 51 60 60 +Masters Thesis 15 16. Metho 2.3 Important note Definition Advertising through sport Any paid, non-personal message conveyed through some type of mass communication channel in relation to all types of sporting eventsMasters Thesis 16 17. 12IntroMetho34ResultsTalkMasters Thesis17 18. Results 3.1 Sample descriptionAge Gender Age817 Women10742GenderAgeFrequency47103 Men137 2715 - 20 0 50 10015021 - 30Number31 - 40Frequency 41 - 5051 - 6060+244 valid respondents Masters Thesis18 19. Results3.2 Intern consistency conceptsConcept Number of items Cronbachs alfa(initially)Belief 1: product information50,859Belief 2: social role and image80,865Belief 3: hedonism & pleasure40,814Belief 4: irritation 30,6260,712Belief 5: good for the economy 30,6980,768Belief 6: materialism50,747Belief 7: falsity50,766Attitude toward advertising through90,8910,911sportGlobal attitude toward advertising 30,796 Masters Thesis> 0,7019 20. Results3.3 Multiple regression analysis The 7 beliefs explain 77,0 % of the variance in attitude toward advertising through sport. Model RR SquareAdjusted RStd. Error of the Durbin - Watson Square Estimate2,033 1,878a Masters Thesis ,770,764 ,46962 20 21. Results[3.3 Multiple regression analysis]Standardized cofficients Standardized cofficients of beliefsMaterialism -0,176Irritation -0,133Falsity -0,119BeliefProductInformation 0,081Good for the 0,109economySocial role0,117and ImagePleasure0,401 -0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0,00,1 0,20,3 0,40,5 Masters ThesisStandardized cofficients 21 22. Results3.4 Single regression analysis Attitude toward advertising throuhg sport explains 29,5 % of the variance in attitude toward the Ad. Model RR Square Adjusted RStd. Error of the Durbin - WatsonSquare Estimate 1,543a,295 Masters Thesis,292 ,95011 221,868 23. Results3.5 Correlation analysis Correlations Passief sporten Actief sporten Pearson Correlation 1 ,323**Passief sportenSig. (2-tailed) ,000 N 244244 Pearson Correlation ,323**1Actief sporten Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 N 244244**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).Correlatie of 0,323 means limited coherence:positive for the segmentation.Masters Thesis 23 24. Results3.6 Segmentation Statistics Passive sport Active sportValid 244244NMissing 0 0Mean 4,6053,876Median2,000 3,000Passive sport participation Active sport participation(> 2 hours/week)(> 3 hours/week)Group 1Group 2XGroup 3 XGroup 4XXMasters Thesis24 25. Results[3.6 Segmentation] Dividing up Cum f.Group 1 82 33,6 %Group 2 51 PAtt_sport 54,5 %Group 3 43 A 72,1 %Group 4 68A&P100 %0 20 406080100FrequencyMasters Thesis 25 26. Results 3.7 Attitude toward advertising through sport Attitude toward advertising through sportGroup 11(N=82)Group (N=82) 4,2622Group 22(N=51)Group (N=51) 4,5613PGroup 3 (N=43)Group 3 (N=43) 4,5436 AGroup 4 (N=68)Group 4 (N=68)5,0790 A&PAverageAverage (N=244)4,6019 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Score Masters Thesis 26 27. Results[3.7 Attitude toward advertising throughsport]ANOVAAtt_adv_sport Sum of SquaresdfMean Square F Sig.Between Groups25,174 3 8,391 9,998 ,000Within Groups201,430240 ,839Total226,605243There are significant differences between the groups. Masters Thesis27 28. Results[3.7 Attitude toward advertising throughsport]Differenceswith group 4 Multiple ComparisonsDependent Variable: Att_adv_sport Scheffe(I) Att_sport (J) Att_sport Mean Std. ErrorSig. 95% Confidence IntervalDifference (I- Lower Bound Upper BoundJ)2,00-,29908 ,16338,343 -,7591,16091,003,00-,28141,17249 ,448 -,7671,20424,00 -,81685*,15026 ,000-1,2399 -,39381,00,29908 ,16338 ,343 -,1609,75912,003,00,01767 ,189671,000 -,5163,55174,00 -,51777*,16970 ,027 -,9956 -,04001,00,28141 ,17249 ,448 -,2042,76713,002,00-,01767,189671,000 -,5517,51634,00 -,53544*,17850 ,031-1,0380 -,03291,00,81685*,15026 ,000 ,3938 1,23994,002,00,51777*,16970 ,027 ,0400 ,99563,00,53544*,17850 ,031 ,0329 1,0380 Masters Thesis 28 29. Results[3.7 Attitude toward advertising throughsport] Difference with group 4Group 1 (N=82)Group 2 (N=51) PGroup 3 (N=43) A 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1Masters Thesis29 Difference score with group 4 30. Results 3.8 Attitude toward AdAttitude toward advertising in generalGroup 1 (N=82)Group 3,8537Group 2 (N=51)Group 2 (N=51)3,9608 PGroup 3 (N=43)3,7287 AGroup 3 (N=43)Group 4 (N=68)4,2206 A&PGroup 4 (N=68) AverageAverage (N=244) 3,95630 1 2345 6 7ScoreMasters Thesis30 31. Results[3.8 Attitude toward Ad] ANOVAAtt_adv Sum of Squares dfMean SquareF Sig.Between Groups7,842 32,614 2,078 ,104Within Groups 301,913240 1,258Total 309,756243There are no significant differences between the groups.Masters Thesis 31 32. Results 3.9 Benchmarking attitude sport vs Ad Minimum BenchmarkingGroup 1 Group 1 3,8537Group 1 (N=82) 4,2622 Group 23,9608PGroup 2Group 2 (N=51)4,5613 Group 33,7287 AGroup 3Group 3 (N=43)4,5436 Group 4 4,2206 A&PGroup 4Group 4 (N=68) 5,0790Average3,9563AverageAverage4,6019 0 1 234 56 7ScoreMasters ThesisAdSport32 33. Results3.9 Benchmarking attitude sport vs Ad Group 1 (N=82) 0,4085 Group 2 (N=51)0,6005P Group 3 (N=43) 0,8149A Group 4 (N=68) 0,8584 A&PAverage (N=244)0,64560 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,81 Difference Masters Thesis 34. Results 3.10 Beliefs There were many differences between the groups but only onthe 5% significance level for the following beliefs: Product Information Social role and Image Hedonisme/Pleasure Masters Thesis 34 35. Results 3.10.1 Product Information Product InformationGroup 1 (N=82) 3,4000Group 3 (N=43) 3,2837AGroup 4 (N=68) 3,9765 A&P 0 12 345 6 7 Masters Thesis Score35 36. Results3.10.2 Social role and Image Social role and ImageGroup 3 (N=43)3,2837A A&PGroup 4 (N=68)3,9765 0 1 23 45 6 7Masters Thesis Score 36 37. Results3.10.3 Hedonism/Pleasure Hedonism/PleasureGroup 1 (N=82)4,1372Group 4 (N=68) 5,0000 A&P 0 1 23 456 7Masters Thesis Score37 38. Results3.11 Gender and Age Limited significant differences between men and women Men are more convinced then women that advertising through sport delivers them a certain image/lifestyle. Limited significant differences between the age groups 50-60 year old people have a less positive attitude toward advertising through sport then 20-30 year old people and 40-50 year old people. Masters Thesis38 39. 12IntroMetho34ResultsTalkMasters Thesis39 40. TalkQuick reminder:Whats the effect of consumerssport participation (or age or gender) on their attitude toward advertising through sport?Masters Thesis40 41. Talk 4.1 General The respondents have a positive attitude toward advertisingthrough sport. The respondents have a more positive attitude towardadvertising through sport compared to their attitude towardAd. Masters Thesis41 42. Talk [4.1 General] Hedonism/Pleasure is the most important belief concerningattitude toward advertising through sport (= literature). Product information is the less important belief concerningattitude toward advertising through sport (= literature). Advertisers through sport may not focus on the specificbuying aspect (= materialsm).Masters Thesis 42 43. Talk4.2 Segmentation Targeting - PositioningVariableGroups GenderAgeMaterialismFalsityProduct Information G1 G4G3 G4Good for the economySocial role and Image G3 G4 Women MenPleasureG1 G4Attitude toward G1 G4 51-60y 21-30yadvertising through G2 G4 51-60y 41-50ysport G3 G4Attitude toward Ad Masters Thesis43 44. Talk [4.2 Segmentation Targeting - Positioning] When you want to target the A+P group with advertisingthrough sport then you have to focus on Product Information,Social role & Image and Pleasure. When you want to target men with advertising through sportthen you have to focus on Social role and Image. [When you want to target people of 50-60 years then youcant focus on advertising through sport.] Masters Thesis 44 45. Talk 4.3 Limitations Sample Understanding concept Advertising through sport Masters Thesis45 46. Talk4.4 Further researchPractical implications forRole of different actorsOther segmentation ofadvertisers through in advertising throughrespondents sport sport Effect of different Motivation for sport Federationsadvertising formatsparticipation Individual athletes Develop specific Geografic Stateadvertisements that Psychografic Sports organisationsfocus on different Demograficbeliefs Masters Thesis46 47. Blondeel PieterjanBachelors Degree Sports Management @ KHBOMasters Degree Communications Management @ University of Ghent More info: 47