DRUG DISCOVERY AND PHARMACOGENOMICS
DRUG DISCOVERYANDPHARMACOGENOMICSBY:SNEHA SUSAN MATHEW
UNIT VDRUGSDRUG DISCOVERYLEAD COMPOUNDSDRUG DEVELOPMENT
COMPUTER ASSISTED DRUG DESIGNPHARMACOGENOMICSANTISENSE TECHNOLOGY
DRUGSA drug is any substance other than food, that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.
In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.
DRUG DISCOVERYIn the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, it is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered. It is done by pharmaceutical companies, with research assistance from universities. The "final product" of drug discovery is a patent on the potential drug.
LEAD COMPOUNDSIn drug discovery it is a chemical compound that has pharmacological or biological activity likely to be therapeutically useful, but may still have suboptimal structure that requires modification to fit better to the target. Lead drugs are followed by back-up compounds. Its chemical structure is used as a starting point for chemical modifications in order to improve potency, selectivity, or pharmacokinetic parameters.
DRUG DEVELOPMENT The process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. It includes pre-clinical research on microorganisms and animals, filing for regulatory status, such as via the United States Food and Drug Administration for an investigational new drug to initiate clinical trials on humans, and may include the step of obtaining regulatory approval with a new drug application to market the drug.
COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN
Drug design with the help of computers may be used at any of the following stages of drug discovery:
hit identification using virtual screening (structure- or ligand-based design)
hit-to-lead optimization of affinity and selectivity (structure-based design, QSAR, etc.)
lead optimization of other pharmaceutical properties while maintaining affinity
HOW DRUGS ARE DISCOVERED
USE OF COMPUTERGRAPHICSIN CADD
PHARMACAGENOMICSPharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response. Its name (pharmaco- + genomics) reflects its combining of pharmacology and genomics. Pharmacogenomics can be defined as the technology that analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects his/her response to drugs. It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination), as well as drug receptor target effects.The term pharmacogenomics is often used interchangeably with pharmacogenetics.
Pharmacogenomics aims to develop rational means to optimize drug therapy, with respect to the patients' genotype, to ensure maximum efficacy with minimal adverse effects. Through the utilization of pharmacogenomics, it is hoped that pharmaceutical drug treatments can deviate from what is dubbed as the "one-dose-fits-all" approach. It attempts to eliminate the trial-and-error method of prescribing, allowing physicians to take into consideration their patient's genes, the functionality of these genes, and how this may affect the efficacy of the patient's current or future treatments (and where applicable, provide an explanation for the failure of past treatments). Such approaches promise the advent of precision medicine and even personalized medicine, in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for narrow subsets of patients or even for each individual's unique genetic makeup
ANTISENSE TECHNOLOGYAntisense technology represents an important breakthrough in the way we treat disease. The explosion in genomic information led to the discovery of many new disease-causing proteins and created new opportunities accessible only to antisense technology.