Absolute Beginner's Guide to Digital Photography 

  • Published on
    15-Oct-2015

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • AbsoluteBeginnersGuide

    to

    DigitalPhotography

    800 East 96th Street,Indianapolis, Indiana 46240

    Joseph Ciaglia, Barbara London, John Upton, Ken Kobr, and Betsy Brillwith Peter Kuhns

    00 0789731207_fm.qxd 4/6/04 2:16 PM Page i

  • Absolute Beginners Guide to DigitalPhotographyCopyright 2004 by Que PublishingAll rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

    system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, record-

    ing, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability

    is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although

    every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and

    author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed

    for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

    International Standard Book Number: 0-7897-3120-7

    Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2004100876

    Printed in the United States of America

    First Printing: April 2004

    07 06 05 04 4 3 2 1

    TrademarksAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks

    have been appropriately capitalized. Que Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of

    this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the

    validity of any trademark or service mark.

    Warning and DisclaimerEvery effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as pos-

    sible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an as

    is basis. The authors and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility

    to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the infor-

    mation contained in this book.

    Bulk SalesQue Publishing offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for

    bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, please contact

    U.S. Corporate and Government Sales

    1-800-382-3419

    corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com

    For sales outside of the U.S., please contact

    International Sales

    1-317-428-3341

    international@pearsontechgroup.com

    Executive EditorCandace Hall

    Acquisitions EditorKaren Whitehouse

    DevelopmentEditorKaren Whitehouse

    Managing EditorCharlotte Clapp

    Project EditorGeorge Nedeff

    Copy EditorKaren Whitehouse

    IndexerMandie Frank

    Production EditorSeth Kerney

    PublishingCoordinatorSharry Lee Gregory

    Interior DesignerAnne Jones

    Cover DesignerDan Armstrong

    Page LayoutEric S. Miller

    00 0789731207_fm.qxd 4/6/04 2:16 PM Page ii

  • Contents at a Glance

    Part I Digital Quickstart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

    1 Quickstart to Digital: Pix to Print in Seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Advantages & Disadvantages of Digital Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Film Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

    Part II Digital Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

    4 The Importance of Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455 Exposure and Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636 Getting Your Pix Onscreen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .717 Files & File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .818 File Recovery: Finding Lost Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

    Part III Image Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

    9 Basic Editing with Photoshop Elements and iPhoto . . . . . . . . . . . . .11310 Editing with Selection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13311 Advanced Selection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15112 The Importance of Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17313 The Importance of Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19114 The Importance of Brightness/Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20515 The Importance of Levels & Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21916 The Importance of Layers & Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23517 The Importance of Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255

    Part IV Digital Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

    18 Printers and Printer Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26919 Preserving Your Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28520 Color Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29321 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

    Part V Using Your Digital Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323

    22 The Portrait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32523 Digital Photography & the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353

    00 0789731207_fm.qxd 4/6/04 2:16 PM Page iii

  • Table of Contents

    I Digital Quickstart . . . . . . . . . .1

    1 Quickstart to Digital: Pix to Print inSeconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    What Do You Mean by DigitalPhotography? . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    Why Flash Media Is Important . . 5

    Photography and the Internet . . 6

    Is Digital Photography Expensive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    Is Traditional Photography ReallyLess Expensive? . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Cameras . . . . . . . . 11

    Capture Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    Sensor Resolution and CrummyLenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    The RGB Color Space . . . . . . . . . 15

    The CCD Image Sensor . . . . . . . 17CCD and Color: Using a Color Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18CCD Competition: Low-Cost CMOS Image Sensors . . . . . . . . 20What About Foveon? . . . . . . . . 20

    Aliasing and Other ImagerProblems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Highlights and CCD Sensitivity . 23

    Digital Camera Technologies andStandards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23EXIF 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Exif Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26PictBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    Direct Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Design Rule for Camera FileSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Digital Print Order Format . . . . 27

    3 Film Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    Choosing a Color Film . . . . . . . . 30

    Types of Color Film . . . . . . . . . . 31Negative Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Reversal Film (Slide Film,Transparency Film, or Chromes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Professional Film . . . . . . . . . . . 31Films for Specialized Color Balance and Exposure Times . . . 32

    Selecting and Using Film . . . . . . 32Color Balance and Film . . . . . . 33Do You Need a Film for a Special Purpose? . . . . . . . . . . . 34Storing Film Properly . . . . . . . . 35Film Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Film Speed Rating Systems . . . . 36Film Speed and Grain . . . . . . . . 37

    How Film Responds to Light . . . 41

    II Digital Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

    4 The Importance of Lenses . . . . . 45

    Lens Focal Length . . . . . . . . . . . 46Normal Focal-Length Lenses . . . 47

    Focal Length and Digital Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Long Focal-Length Lenses . . . . . 49Short Focal-Length Lenses . . . . 51Special-Purpose Lenses . . . . . . . 52

    00 0789731207_fm.qxd 4/6/04 2:16 PM Page iv

  • Automatic Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Types of Autofocus . . . . . . . . . 55Center-Weighted Autofocus Lock . 56

    Focus and Depth of Field . . . . . . 58Controlling Depth of Field . . . . 58Lens Focal Length, Aperture, and Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    5 Exposure and Focus . . . . . . . . . . 63

    Digital Cameras and Color Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Color Balance and Film . . . . . . 66Color Balance and Slide Film . . 66

    Exposure Latitude . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    Film Latitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    6 Getting Your Pix Onscreen . . . . 71Working with Scan Software . . 73

    Making a Scan Step by Step . . . 74Determining the Samples per Inch of a Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Scanning for Internet Output . . 77Scanning for Inkjet and Dye-Sublimation Output . . . . . . . . . 78Scanning for Laser and OffsetPrinting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    Alternatives to Scanning . . . . . . 79

    7 Files and File Formats . . . . . . . . 81

    Photoshop Elements andPhotoshop: File FormatCompatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    JPEG File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 86How JPEG Works . . . . . . . . . . . 88The Replacement for JPEG:JPEG2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    TIFF File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

    Photoshop File Format . . . . . . . 95

    8 File Recovery: Finding LostImages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    Using PC Inspector File Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    Recovering Lost Images from Flash Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100Recovering Specific Images . . . 102Partially Corrupt Files . . . . . . . 102

    Filesystems at Work: The FileAllocation Table (FAT) . . . . . 103What Happens to Lost Data . . 106

    Preventative Maintenance:Defragmenting Flash Media 107Formatting Flash Media . . . . . 108Formatting in the Camera . . . 108

    Another Disaster Point: USB . . 109

    III Image Editing . . . . . . . . . . .111

    9 Basic Editing with PhotoshopElements and iPhoto . . . . . . 113

    Finding an Image on YourComputer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

    Editing with Photoshop Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Printing Resolution . . . . . . . . . 116Resizing an Image Step by Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Resampling an Image . . . . . . . 118

    Rescan or Resample a Photo . . 119Resampling 101 . . . . . . . . . . . 120

    00 0789731207_fm.qxd 4/6/04 2:16 PM Page v

  • Modifying an Image in Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121Perspective Correction in Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121Rotating an Image in Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122Unlimited Transformations inElements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

    Editing with iPhoto . . . . . . . . . 126Working with the Print Dialog Box in iPhoto . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127Resizing an Image Step by Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    10 Editing with Selection Tools . . 133

    Introduction to Selection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Toolbox Options . . . . . . . . . . . 137Fly-Out Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

    The Most Popular Selection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138Using the Magic Wand Tool . . 140Using the Lasso Tool . . . . . . . 142Using the Rectangular MarqueeTool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143Using the Elliptical Marquee Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

    Introduction to Image Editing . 145

    Color Balance 101 . . . . . . . . . . 148

    11 Advanced Selection Tools . . . . 151

    The Polygonal Lasso Tool . . . . 153

    Magnetic Lasso . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

    Single Row and Single ColumnMarquees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

    Quick Mask Mode . . . . . . . . . . 156

    The Amazingly Versatile Pen Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

    Saving Selections . . . . . . . . . . . 163

    When Your Software Tools QuitWorking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163The Power of the Color RangeCommand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164Modifying Selections . . . . . . . 165Feathering and AntialiasedSelections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168Dont Forget the Crop Tool . . . 170

    Photoshop Elements Workaroundsfor Pen and Quick Mask . . . 170

    12 The Importance of Resolution . 173

    Understanding Different Terms for Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . 174

    Input Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . 176Digital Cameras and Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176Resolution of Film: How ManyPixels? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178Scanner Software and Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180Understanding Bit Depth . . . . 18312- and 16-bit Scan Rates . . . 184How Can a 48-Bit Scan Help Me? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184Drawbacks to 48-Bit Images . . 185

    Output Resolution . . . . . . . . . . 186Digital Methods for IncreasingResolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186Printing Press Output andResolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

    13 The Importance of Filters . . . . 191

    Sharpening Prints . . . . . . . . . . 192

    vi ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS GUIDE TO DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    00 0789731207_fm.qxd 4/6/04 2:16 PM Page vi

  • CONTENTS vii

    Degrees of Unsharp Masking . 193An Exercise with Unsharp Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

    Taking Advantage of Blur . . . . 197Removing Moir Patterns and Halftone Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . 197Using Blur to Add an Artistic Touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198Noise Filters: Despeckle and Dust & Scratches . . . . . . . . . . 200

    14 The Importance of Brightness/Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

    Introduction to Histograms . . . 207Correcting Brightness and Contrast for Dark Images . . . . . . . . . . . 207Correcting Brightness and Contrast for Low-Contrast Images . . . . 209

    Using Histograms to DiagnoseExposure Problems . . . . . . . 210Setting Brightness and Contrastwith the Black Point and the White Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212Black-Point and White-Point Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214Brightness and Contrast Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

    15 The Importance of Levels andCurves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

    Using Levels to Fix Your Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220Levels Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . 221How Can Color Images Use GrayValues? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222Working with Histograms andLevels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222Fixing an Image . . . . . . . . . . . 223The Purpose of Levels Triangles 224The Output Levels Section . . . 225

    Correcting Images with Curves 226Curves for People in a Hurry . . 226Understanding the Curves Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Getting Information About theImage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230Color Corrections with Curves 231

    Accessing Levels and CurvesAdjustment Layers . . . . . . . 231

    16 The Importance of Layers andMasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

    Adjustment Layers Are a DifferentKind of Layer . . . . . . . . . . . 236

    Creating Image Layers . . . . . . . 237Blending and Opacity Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

    Harmonizing the Elements of a Collage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239Scale and Resolution in a Collage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240Managing Layers . . . . . ....

Recommended

View more >