The future of percutaneous Uterine fibroid embolisationThe Mater HospitalMultifaculty/ multidisciplinary professional development20th march 2015Breakfast lectureBy Dr. Henry Wanga Interventional Radiologist
Who gets fibroids?Incidence increase with age 20% of women in their 20s 40% of women in their 40s 50% at autopsyGenetic predispositionAfrican-American women 3 to 9 timesRisk of sarcoma is 0.04% to 0.13%
Introduction Hysterectomy is one of the most common operation done in the developed worldIn USA, it is second only to caesarian section in women in the reproductive age groupRoy Gordon in UCSF in 2OO7 stated that more than one third of US women will have undergone hysterectomy at the age of 60 years
Anatomy of fibroidsSubserosal- grow outwards, possibly pedunculated, differential diagnosis, gives pressure rather than bleedingIntramural most common ; gives rise to bleeding, pressure symptomsSub mucosal fibroids- are the least common, may cause bleeding and if pedunculated they lead to extrusion
MRI imaging of the uterus showing Myoma MRI scanogram axial setting
MRI Female pelvis
Coronal view ,left Sagittal view ,right
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Pelvic embolisation in Obstetrics and GynecologyPost partum/caesarian section birth canal laceration, placenta, retained products atony or ruptureEctopicPost surgicalCancerArterio-venous malformation
Indications Heavy bleedingPain and pressure on back/abdomenUrinary frequency and or obstructionConstipationDysparauniaBody habitusInfertilityRecurrent pregnancy loss
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology(ACOG) Criteria for Hysterectomy1. asymptomatic leiomyoma >12 weeks/ patient concernsProfuse bleeding with clots. flooding> 8days , anemiaPelvic discomfortDistended abdomenBack painsBladder symptoms
Patient selectionPatient preference; UFEUterus-sparingRapid recoveryAversion to surgery
Patient selectionConsider alternate procedurePatients with small pedunculated fibroids with narrow attachment; may slough into endo cavityPedunculated serosal fibroids >10cm, particularly with narrow attachmentAre easily removed at myomectomyShrink more slowly post-UFEMay detachProne to adhesionsUterus greater than 24 weeksReproductive ambitions/ this position has since changed.
fibroidMultiple mural and subserosal fibroid
MRI; fibroidPosterior fibroid pressing on bladder
Bulky uterusSubmucosal fibroid
What are the absolute contraindications for a Uterine Fibroid Embolisation?Asymptomatic fibroid disease, leiomyosarcoma of the uterus and pregnancy are absolute contraindications and will be worked up as part of the consultation process. Relative contraindications include allergies to iodinated contrast and infection, but these can be premedicated or treated prior to undergoing the procedure.
UFE Clinical outcomesSummary of published results:Improvement in menorrhagia- Mean: 88% -range 79% to 98%Improvement in pain/pressure-mean; 71%-range 64-98% improvedLeiomyoma volume reductionMean 20% at two monthsMean 60% at 12.2 months
Prospective follow up 200 patientsSpies Obs/Gynae Nov 2005 Patients 200Follow up 182(91%)Improved 73% N.B 18were lost to follow upFailed or recurred 36(20%)Hysterectomy 25 (13%)Myomectomy 8(4.4%)Repeat embolisation 3(1.6%)Note 4 hysterectomies were unrelated to UFE3 deaths un related to UFE
UFE-Fertility+PregnancyDo fibroids cause infertilityDoes myomectomy help?Can one conceive after UFEIs outcome normal for age etc?Is fetal growth retarded?
What are the adverse effects of a Uterine Fibroid Embolisation?Post embolisation syndrome is common in the immediate post procedure period. It is usually managed within the hospital before discharge. Patients will be discharged with a management plan and medications. Post embolisation syndrome is a triad of pelvic pain, low grade fever and nausea and is thought to be due to ischemia/infarction of the fibroids.Welcome to Inside RadiologyRadiology Information:Dr Stuart Lyon Dr James Burnes Date last modified: May 01, 2009 Expert advice for the consumer and health professional
Infection of the infarcted fibroid is the complication that needs to be watched for and the patient adequately informed about. It is uncommon (less than 2%) and the patient will usually get antibiotics during the procedure and for 5-10 days after the procedure. However, the exact mechanism for infection is not clear and it is also unclear whether antibiotics will reduce the risk. Classically it occurs 4-6 weeks post embolisation, in a previously well patient who then develops fever, sweats and/ or pelvic pain. It is important that the patient see the interventional radiologist as soon as possible. Hysterectomy may be required in those patients not responding to other forms of management.The period is often disrupted for a number of cycles post procedure. If the period has not returned after 3 cycles then the concern is one of permanent amenorrhea and consultation to a gynecologist should be performed either through yourself or usually the radiologist.
Recommendations Increase public awareness as to the fact that the service is readily available at The MaterReady to answer questionsIntroduce once monthly a gynae/counseling/ interventional radiology joint clinicProvide easy access to the highest standard of uterine fibroid embolisation, post procedure management and long term follow upConsumables to be readily availableTrain nursing, imaging and anesthetic assistant teams to motivate, stimulate and harness desired skills by themCarry out regular users audits
Customer satisfactionJN after years of fighting back frustration, he became fertile
INTRODUCTION TO IR PHILOSOPHY From inability to let well alone, from too much zeal for the new and contempt for what is old: from putting knowledge before wisdom, science before art, and cleverness before common sense, from treating patients as cases and from making the cure of the disease more grievous and the endurance thereof, GOOD LORD, DELIVER US!Sir Robert Hutchinson, BMJ, March12, 1953, p671
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