Ut testing Level III- Self Study Note

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My Exam Self-study Note for ASNT Level III UT- Ut testing self study notes 20140807 Uploade on - 20140818

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  • 1. Preparatory Notes for ASNT NDT Level III Examination - Ultrasonic Testing, UT 2014-July Facilitators: Fion Zhang/ Charliechong

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_alphabet 3. Numerical Prefix Micro - () a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting a factor of 10-6 (one millionth) Nano - a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting a factor of 10-9 (one billionth) Pico - a prefix in the International System of Units (SI) denoting a factor of 10-12 4. Speaker: Fion Zhang 2014/July/31 http://meilishouxihu.blog.163.com/ 5. Contents: 1. ASNT Level III Exam Topical Outline 2. AE Codes and Standards ASTM. ASME V. 3. Reading 01 Introduction to UT by ndt-ed.org with thanks (always) 1. Others reading. 2. Addendum 1 Equipment Calibrations 3. Addendum 2 Equations & Calculations. 4. Addendum 3 Questions & Answers 5. Addendum 4 Questions & Answers Part Calculations 6. Addendum 5 Questions & Answers Level I, II, III 6. ASNT UT Level III Examination Topical Outline This examination is 4 hours in length, having 135 questions of equal value. 1. Principles/Theory 2. Equipment/Materials 3. Techniques/Calibrations Contact Immersion Comparison of contact and immersion methods Remote monitoring Calibration (electronic and functional) https://www.asnt.org/MajorSiteSections/Certification/ASNT%20NDT%20Level%20I II%20Program/NDT%20Level%20III%20Examinations 7. 4. Interpretation/Evaluations Evaluation of base metal product forms Evaluation of weldments Evaluation of bonded structures Variables affecting test results Evaluation (general) 5. Procedures Specific applications Codes/Standards/Specifications 6. Safety and Health 8. References 1. Level III Study Guide: Ultrasonic Testing (2261) 2. NDT Handbook: Volume 7, Ultrasonic Testing (147) 3. Supplement to Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book) - Ultrasonic Testing Method (2028) 4. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications (341) 5. Refresher Course: ASNT offers a UT Refresher Course based on the Body of Knowledge outlined above. The number in parentheses following each reference is the ASNT catalog number. 9. UT - Ultrasonic Testing Length: 4 hours Questions: 135 1. Principles/Theory Nature of sound waves Modes of sound wave generation Velocity, frequency, and wavelength of sound waves Attenuation of sound waves Acoustic impedance Reflection Refraction and mode conversion Snells law and critical angles Fresnel and Fraunhofer effects 10. 2. Equipment/Materials Pulse/echo instrumentation Digital thickness instrumentation Transducer operation and theory Transducer operation/manipulations Resonance testing equipment Couplants Calibration blocks Cables/connectors Test specimen Miscellaneous materials 11. 3. Techniques/Calibrations Contact Immersion Comparison of contact and immersion methods Remote monitoring Calibration (electronic and functional) 12. 4. Interpretation/Evaluations Evaluation of base metal product forms Evaluation of weldments Evaluation of bonded structures Variables affecting test results Evaluation (general) 5. Procedures Specific applications Codes/Standards/Specifications Reference Catalog Number NDT Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 7, Ultrasonic Testing 132 ASNT Level III Study Guide: Ultrasonic Testing 2261A Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications 341 13. ASME V Article Numbers: Gen Article 1 RT Article 2 Nil Article 3 UT Article 4 for welds UT Article 5 for materials PT Article 6 MT Article 7 ET Article 8 Visual Article 9 LT Article 10 AE Article 11 (FRP) /Article 12 (Metallic) / Article 13 (Continuous) Qualif. Article 14 ACFM Article 15 14. ASTM/ AWS Standards ASTM E494 10: Practice for Measuring Ultrasonic Velocity in Materials. ASTM standard E-164, "Standard Practice for Contact Examination of Weldments. AWS Structural Welding Code, section 6. Annual Book of the American Society of Testing and Materials, ASTM. Volume 03.03, Nondestructive Testing 15. Other Reading http://techcorr.com/services/Inspection-and-Testing/Ultrasonic-Shear-Wave.cfm http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/faa- casr/engineers/Supporting%20Info/Supporting%20Info%20Pages/Ultrasonic%20Pages/Ultra- principles.html http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n09/berke/berke1.htm#0 http://www.mie.utoronto.ca/labs/undel/index.php?menu_path=menu_pages/projects_menu.htm l&content_path=content_pages/fac2_2.html&main_menu=projects&side_menu=page1&sub_si de_menu=s2 https://www.nde-ed.org/GeneralResources/Glossary/letter/d.htm http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/general/ http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/ http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/knowledge/ http://wenku.baidu.com/view/3cf257781711cc7931b716e0.html http://www.docin.com/p-148566003.html http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ut-asnt-level-ii/deck/6278710 16. Study Note 1: Ultrasonic Testing Source: http://www.ndt- ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultra sonics/cc_ut_index.htm 17. Content: Section 1: Introduction 1.1: Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing 1.2: Advantages and Disadvantages 1.3: Limitations 18. Content: Section 2: Physics of Ultrasound 2.1: Wave Propagation 2.2: Modes of Sound Wave Propagation 2.3: Properties of Acoustic Plane Wave 2.4: Wavelength and Defect Detection 2.5: Sound Propagation in Elastic Materials 2.6: Attenuation of Sound Waves 2.7: Acoustic Impedance 2.8: Reflection and Transmission Coefficients (Pressure) 2.9: Refraction and Snell's Law 2.10: Mode Conversion 2.11: Signal-to-Noise Ratio 2.12: Wave Interaction or Interference 2.13: Inverse Square Rule/ Inverse Rule 2.14: Resonance 2.15 Measurement of Sound 2.16 Practice Makes Perfect 19. Content: Section 3: Equipment & Transducers 3.1: Piezoelectric Transducers 3.2: Characteristics of Piezoelectric Transducers 3.3: Radiated Fields of Ultrasonic Transducers 3.4: Transducer Beam Spread 3.5: Transducer Types 3.6: Transducer Testing I 3.7: Transducer Testing II 3.8: Transducer Modeling 3.9: Couplants 3.10: Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) Continues Next Page 20. 3.11: Pulser-Receivers 3.12: Tone Burst Generators In Research 3.13: Arbitrary Function Generators 3.14: Electrical Impedance Matching and Termination 3.15: Data Presentation 3.16: Error Analysis 3.17: Transducer Quality Factor Q 3.18: Testing Techniques 3.19: UT Equipment Circuitry 3.20: Further Reading on Sub-Section 3 21. Content: Section 4: Calibration Methods 4.1: Calibration Methods 4.2: The Calibrations 4.2.1: Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC) 4.2.2: Finding the probe index 4.2.3: Checking the probe angle 4.2.4: Calibration of shear waves for range V1 Block 4.2.5: Dead Zone 4.2.7: Transfer Correction 4.2.8: Linearity Checks (Time Base/ Equipment Gain/ Vertical Gain) 4.2.9: TCG-Time Correction Gain 4.3: Curvature Correction 4.4: Calibration References & Standards 4.5: Exercises 4.6: Video Time 22. Content: Section 5: Measurement Techniques 5.1: Normal Beam Inspection 5.2: Angle Beams 5.3: Reflector Sizing 5.4: Automated Scanning 5.5: Precision Velocity Measurements 5.6: Attenuation Measurements 5.7: Spread Spectrum Ultrasonics 5.8: Signal Processing Techniques 5.9: Scanning Methods 5.10: Scanning Patterns 5.11: Pulse Repetition Rate and Penetration 5.12: Interferences & Non Relevant Indications 5.13: Entry Surface Variables 5.14: The Concept of Effective Distance 5.15: Exercises 23. Content: Section 6: Selected Applications & Techniques 6.1: Defects & Discontinuities 6.2: Rail Inspection 6.3: Weldments (Welded Joints) 6.4: Pipe & Tube 6.5: Echo Dynamic 6.6: Technique Sheets 6.7: Material Properties-Elastic Modulus Measurements 6.8: High Temperature Ultrasonic Testing 6.9: TOFD Introduction 24. Content: Section 7: Reference Material 7.1: UT Material Properties 7.2: General References & Resources 7.3: Video Time Content: Section 8: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes 8.1: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes 8.2: Online UT Quizzes 25. Section 1: Introduction 26. 1.1: Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing ULTRASONIC INSPECTION is a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency sound waves are introduced into materials for the detection of surface and subsurface flaws in the material. The sound waves travel through the material with some attendant loss of energy (attenuation) and are reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is displayed and then analyzed to define the presence and location of flaws or discontinuities. The degree of reflection depends largely on the physical state of the materials forming the interface and to a lesser extent on the specific physical properties of the material. 27. For example, sound waves are almost completely reflected at metal/gas interfaces. Partial reflection occurs at metal/liquid or metal/solid interfaces, with the specific percentage of reflected energy depending mainly on the ratios of certain properties of the material on opposing sides of the interface. Cracks, laminations, shrinkage cavities, bursts, flakes, pores, disbonds, and other discontinuities that produce reflective interfaces can be easily detected. Inclusions and other in-homogeneities can also be detected by causing partial reflection or scattering of the ultrasonic waves or by producing some other detectable effect on the ultrasonic waves. 28. In ultrasonic testing, the reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. In the applet below, the reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to when a echo was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, orientation and other features can sometimes be gained. 29. http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrason