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Youth’s Problems

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Author: ibn al-Uthaymeen | Pages: 57 | Size: 977kb | Format: PDF In this unique and lucid booklet and revered contemporary scholar, Shaykh Muhammad al-’uthamyeen addresses some of the ideological and sociological challenges faced by modern youth. Starting with an astute description of the state of contemporary young adults, he outlines major issues hindering their progress on the straight path of Islam. He not only covers current issues such as joblessness, estrangement between the young and their elders, and keeping good company but also discusses subjects predestination and the limits Islam places on individuals. In all instances al-’uthamyeen draws on the Quran and the authentic Sunnah to offer tangible solutions and to inspire the hearts of young people. The simplicity and straight forwardness of this work make even complicated issues easy to grasp. The wise advice the author offers is not only well presented but practical and compassionate. This book will benefit not only the young of the society but their parents and educators as well.

Text of Youth’s Problems

  • 1. IN THE NAME OFALLAHTHE ALL-COMPASSIONATE, ALL-MERCIFULYOUTHS PROBLEMS.Issues that Affect Young PeopleDiscussed in Light of the Quran and the Sunnah
  • 2. Title: Youths Problems - Issues that affect young peopleAuthor: Shaykh Muhammad Salih al-UthaymeenEnglish Edition l (1999)New and Revised English Edition 2 (2011)Translator: Ahdur-Raafi Adewale ImaamLayout Design: IIPH, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaFilming and Cover Design: Sarno Press Group
  • 3. YOUTHSPROBLEMSIssues that Affect Young PeopleDiscussed in Light of the Quran and the SunnahNew and revised editionShaykh Muhammad Salih al-UthaymeenTranslated byAbdur-Raafi Adewale ImaamINTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC PUBLISHING HOUSE
  • 4. Copyright 2011 International Islamic Publishing HouseKing Fahd National Library Cataloging-in-Publication DataAl- Uthaymeen, Muhammad SalihYouths Problems - Issues that affect young people. IMuhammad Salih al-Uthaymeen .- Riyadh, 201164 p; 21 emISBN Paperback: 978-603-501-095-51- Muslim youth1- Title219 de2- Muslim youth - Religious life1432/3212Legal Deposit no. 1432/3212ISBN Paperback: 978-603-501-095-5All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be refrroduced or transmitted in any formor !Jy any means, electronic or mechanica~ including photocopying, recording, or !Jyany information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from thePublisher.The scanning, uploading and distribution of this book via the Internet or via anyother means without the written permission ofthe Publisher is illegal and punishable!Jy law. Please purchase only authorized electronic editions, and do not participate inor encourage electronic piracy ofcopyrighted materials. Your support is appreciated.Intemational Islamic Publishing House (IIPH)P.O. Box 55195 Riyadh 11534, Saudi ArabiaTel: 966 1 4650818 I 4647213 - Fax: 966 1 4633489E-mail: [email protected] - [email protected]
  • 5. IContentsPronunciation and transliteration chart ..................................... 07Arabic honorific symbols used in this book ............................ 11About the word Lord.............................................................. 12When jihad refers to fighting ................................................ 131be Islamic viewpoint on slavery............................................ 15Publishers Note...................................................................... 19Translators Preface................................................................. 21Introduction............................................................................. 24CHAPTER 1A LOOK AT YOUNG PEOPLE............................................. 27Upright young people......................................................... 27Corrupt young people......................................................... 33Confused young people...................................................... 34CHAPTER 2THE CORRUPTION AND PROBLEMS OF YOUNG PEOPLE 371. Joblessness..................................................................... 372. Estrangement between the youth and their elders............ 383. Being in contact with corrupt peopleand keeping their company ............................................ 39
  • 6. 6 Contents4. Reading and viewing destructive, un-Islamic materialin books and magazines, on TV and the Internet ........... 405. Wrong assumption of some young people thatIslam imposes restrictions on liberties andsuppresses human energy.............................................. 41CHAPTER 3ISSUES TROUBLING THE MINDS OF YOUNG PEOPLE... 47CHAPTER 4CONFUSION ON THE ISSUE OF QADR.............................. 51CHAPTER 5SOME HADITHS ABOUT YOUNG PEOPLE........................ 57Glossary of Islamic terms........................................................ 62
  • 7. iIPronunciation andTransliteration ChartArabic script Pronunciationi short a, as in cat..s - T onger a, as in cab (not as in cake.._, fbi as in bell, rubber and tab...:..> ltf as in tap, mustard and sit0 takes the sound of the preceding~iactrical mark sometimes ending in hwhen in pausal form): ah, ih, or ooh;or atu(n), ati(n) or ata(n) when inuninterrupted speech..;., /th/ as in thing, maths and wealth(. /j/ as in jam, ajar and agec a harsher sound than the Englishnitial /h/, and may occur medially andin word-final position as wellc as in Bach (in German); may occurinitially and medially as well~ /d/ as in do, muddy and red; as in this, father, and withJ1r/ as in raw, art and war; may also bea rolled r, as with Spanish wordsTransliteratedas:aabth or t (whenfollowed byanotherArabic word)thj1).khddhr
  • 8. 8 Pronunciation and transliteration chartArabic script Pronunciation Transliteratedas:J /zl as in zoo, easy and gaze zV" Is/ as in so, messy and grass s. as in ship, ashes and rush shV"~no close equivalent in English, but ~may be approximated bypronouncing it as /sw/ orIs/ farther back in the mouthv4 no close equivalent in English, Qbut may be approximated bypronouncing /d/farther back in the mouthJ:, no close equivalent in English, tbut may be approximated bypronouncing It!farther back in the mouthj; no close equivalent in English, dh-but may be approximated bypronouncing thefarther back in the moutht no close equivalent in English: a guttural sound inthe back of the throatt no close equivalent in English, ghbut may be closely approximatedby pronouncing it like theFrench /r/ in rouge- Iff as in fill, effort and muff f
  • 9. Youths Problems 9,, Aplir script Pronunciation Transliteratedas:~ no close equivalent in English, qbut may be approximated bypronouncing lklfarther back in the mouth!l lkl as in king, buckle and tack kJ VV as in lap, halo; in the word Allah, 1"it becomes velarized as in ballr (ml as in men, simple and ram mj In/ as in net, ant and can n- - 0---"" /hi as in hat; unlike /hi in English, hin Arabic /hi is pronouncedin medial and word-finalpositions as well.J as in wet and away w.J long u, as in boot and too 00(as a vowel)~as in yet and yard y~ long e, as in eat, beef and see ee(as a vowel)glottal stop: may be closely ~approximated by pronouncing it (Omitted inlike t in the Cockney Englishinitial position)pronunciation of butter: buer, or thestop sound in uh - oh!
  • 10. 10 Pronunciation and transliteration chartDiphthongs:Arabic script Pronunciation Transliteratedas:j ji Long o, as in owe, boat and go au, aw, owC? L?i Long a, as in able, ay, ai, eirain and sayDiacritical marks (tashkeel):IName of mark Pronunciation Transliteratedas:/ very short a or schwa afatl}ah (unstressed vowel)shorter version of ee or schwa 1/kasrah (unstressed vowel)~ shorter version of oo uDammah" a doubled consonant is stressed Double lettershaddah in the word, and the length of thesound is also doubled0 no vowel sound between Absence ofsukoon consonants or at the end of a word vowel
  • 11. Arabic honorific symbolsused in this book(~): SubiJanahu wa taGla - The Exalted(JW: Salla-Allahu alayhi wa sallam - Blessings and peacebe upon him(~ ): Alayhis-salam - Peace be upon him(~): Ratjiya Allahu anhu- May Allah be pleased with him(~): Ratjiya Allahu anha- May Allah be pleased with her
  • 12. Itlitr~IPublishers Notec.t{ll thanks and praise are for Allah, the Exalted, Lord ofthe worlds. Blessings and peace be upon Muhammad, his family,his Companions, and all those who follow in their footsteps untilthe Last Day.Youth is a time of great change and hope for the future. Itcan be the happiest and most productive time ofa persons life, yetthis stage of development can also be fraught with numerouspsychological, sociological, and spiritual crises. Because theyoung people of any society carry the future of their nations ontheir shoulders, their problems and troubles should be of utmostconcern for everyone around them and solutions to thesedifficulties must be practical and concrete.Islam offers a perfect code of life which addresses humanconcerns at all stages of life. The dilemmas faced bycontemporary young people are no exception. Worries andmisconceptions creep into their minds, make them feel confusedand distressed, and may cause them to tum in the wrong direction;this may result in their being led astray. Allah the Creator,however; has bestowed upon humanity complete guidance which,if understood and followed, offers direction to even the mosttroubled minds and hearts. Young people who follow Allahsguidance will become a source of pride, inspiration, and strengthfor the global Muslim community. They offer hope for the futureand a cure for the ills that plague the world. Their reward lies notonly in this world but in the eternal life to come.
  • 13. 20 Publishers NoteIn this concise book, Shaykh Muhammad Salil:_l al-Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him), one of the greatestIslamic scholars of the twentieth century, has clearly andintelligently addressed problems of young people and theirsolutions according to the Quran and Sunnah1of the Prophet(~alla Allahu alayhi wa sallam - blessings and peace be uponhim).May Allah accept these noble endeavours from him andthrough them may He grant us the illumination and guidance tosolve all our problems.Muhammad Abdul Mohsin AI-TuwaijriManaging DirectorInternational Islamic Publishing HouseRiyadh, Saudi Arabia1Sunnah: the practice and collected sayings of Prophet Muhammad (~) thattogether with the Quran forms the basis of Islamic law
  • 14. ITranslators Prefacev{11 praise is due to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. May hebestow peace and blessings upon our noble Prophet Muhammad,his family and Companions as well as those who follow theirguidance until the Day of Judgement.It is a great honour that Allah, the Exalted, made it possiblefor me to translate a book of tremendous importance to todaysyouth into English. The book is authored by the renowned scholarand sagacious and erudite jurist, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salil.t al-uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him).My interest in translating this book was aroused by theuniqueness of its title and the simplicity of its style. As a matter offact, many books have been written on youth and much has beensaid about them by contemporary Muslim writers and orators butnone has been found to be so unique, so precise, and so encom-passing as this book entitled: LIIJ -:"l::s::.ll ,.,.;. ~ -:"~I ..::,;%:.!,..meaning Issues that Affect Young People Discussed in Light oftheQuran and Sunnah. The author has carefully analyzed problemsfacing young adults, especially those subtle and sensitive onessuch as ideological and intellectual problems, and proffered forthem the best solutions, which are derived from the Quran, theSunnah, and substantial rational proofs, thereby putting the roundpeg in the round hole. I hope that the reader will find the bookinteresting and understandable. May Allah reward the author andadd this work to the scale of his good deeds.My work procedure in this book is as follows:
  • 15. 22 Translators Prefacea. I ascribed the numbers of chapters and ayat (verses) to theirplaces in the Holy Quran where the author did not do so.b. I verified and classified the quoted hadiths (statements oractions of the Prophet (~), relying on the sayings of pastand contemporary scholars of Hadith.2c. I completed the partially-quoted hadiths whenever there was need for that.d. I made a general commentary on the hadiths quoted inChapter Five.e. In translating hadiths I relied on Muhsin Khans translationof Sal;eel; Bukhari for hadiths recorded by Bukhari alone.For hadiths agreed upon by both Bukhari and Muslim Iconsulted Khans translation of Al-Lulu wal Marjan.Otherwise, the translations were done by my humble self.Nevertheless, I do not claim to have given this book the best itneeds in translation, I only did the best I could - though it maynot be good enough - to bring the meaning of the message thatthe author would like to pass across as close as possible toEnglish-speaking readers. If I therefore succeed in my mission,the success solely belongs to Allah, but if the mission isunsuccessful, that is attributable to my meagre knowledge andlittle understanding, and the blame is solely mine. However:.I only intend reform as much as I am able. And my success is notbut through Allah. Upon him I have relied, and to Him I return) 3(Quran 11: 88)2Hadith: the collected statements and actions of Prophet Muhammad (~) thatwith the Quran form the basis of Islamic law3All English meanings of the Quranic verses used in this book are adapted=
  • 16. IIIYouths Problems 23I beseech Allah the Almighty, Lord of the majestic Throne,to make this humble translation pure for His sake and to rewardthe author and the translator abundantly. May He also make thebook beneficial for all Muslims.Abdur Raafi A. Imaamt MadinahIII=from the Umm Muhammad translation, Saheeh International Translations(Riyadh: Abul Qasim Publishing House, 1997)
  • 17. IIntroductionc7"{ll praise is due to Allah, the Exalted. We praise Him,seek His assistance and forgiveness, and return to Him inrepentance. We equally seek His protection from our evils andmisdeeds. No one can mislead whom He guides and no one canguide whom He misleads.I testify that there is no god worthy of worship except AllahAlone. He has no partner. I also testify that Muhammad (*) is Hisslave and Messenger. May Allah bestow His peace and blessingsupon him, his family, his Companions, and those who rightlyfollow them.It is my pleasure to discuss with my brothers and sisters oneof the most important topics of this age. This concern is notpeculiar to Muslim society alone but rather presents itselfin everysocial setting: it is the subject ofproblems affecting todays youngpeople.Many ideological and psychological questions creep intothe minds of todays young adults that sometimes make themconfused about life and they try to escape from that confusion andrelieve the distress caused thereby.The aim of escaping from confusion can never be achieved,however, except through religion and good morals, which are themain ingredients of a sound society and keys to the good of thisworld and the hereafter. Indeed, it is through them that prosperityand blessings are attained and evils and adversity are averted.
  • 18. ~!Youths Problems 25A society can only be made by those who live in it; so alsocan religion stand firmly only by the help of its adherents.Whenever they stand by it, Allah makes them victorious no matterwho their enemies are. Allah, the Exalted, says:oyou who have believed, if you support Allah, He will supportyou and plant fmnly your feet. But those who disbelieve - forthem is misery, and He will waste their deeds) (Quran 47: 7-8)If religion cannot stand except with the help of itsadherents, we - the people of Islam and its flag bearers - arethen obliged to set ourselves straight so that we may qualify tolead and guide others and subsequently deserve success fromAllah.It is also our obligation to learn from the Book of Allah andthe Sunnah ofHis Prophet (~) that which will qualify us to speak,work, direct people, and propagate Islam and make us capable ofusing glorified weapons against those who want falsehood andoffering clear light to those who want truth.It is therefore incumbent upon us to put into action all thatv.e learn which emanates from faith, conviction, sincerity, andfollowing the Sunnah. We should not occupy ourselves withspeech alone, because the effect of speech that is not supported byaction will not go beyond the air that carries it and its end resultwill be negative. Allah, the Exalted, says:
  • 19. 26 Introduction~0 you who have believed, why do you say what you do not do?Great is hatred in the sight of Allah that you say what you do notdo) (Quran 61: 2-3)It is, therefore, more suitable for us to start from thebeginning and cast a cursory look at our young people and theirthoughts and actions so that we can develop their goodcharacteristics and correct their inappropriate ones, becausetodays youths are tomorrows elders and they are the basis uponwhich the future of this Ummah is built. It is in view of this thatSharia 4texts enjoin their perfect upbringing, directing them to allthat is good and righteous. When young people, who are the basisupon which the future of this Ummah is built, are good and theirgoodness is based on strong religious foundations and moralstandards, the Ummah will have a bright future and its elders willhave righteous successors, Allah willing.4Sharia: Islamic law derived from the Quran and the Sunnah
  • 20. CHAPTER 1A Look at Young People8f we take a careful look at young people, we will be ableID conclude that they are generally of three categories: the upright,lbe corrupt, and the confused.Upright young peopleUpright young people are believers - in every sense of theword. They believe in their religion in such a way that they love itatd are convinced by and content with it. They regard embracingil as profit and denial of it as a clear loss.They sincerely worship Allah alone and follow the ProphetMuhammad (~) in their words and deeds because of their beliefthat he was truly a Messenger of Allah and that he is the leaderthat should be followed.They observe ~a!Gh (obligatory prayer) perfectly to the bestof their abilities because they believe in its temporal, eternal, andsocial benefits and advantages as well as in woeful consequencesof its neglect for individuals and nations.They pay zakah (obligatory fixed alms) fully to those whodeserve it because they believe that it satisfies the needs of Islamand Muslims: a reason that makes it one of the pillars of Islam.They fast in the month of Ramadan and abandon theirdesires and pleasures, whether in winter or summer, because they
  • 21. 28 A look at young peoplebelieve that it pleases Allah and therefore give what pleases Himpreference over their own desires.They perform the obligatory pilgrimage (Hajj) to the SacredHouse of Allah because they love Allah and as a result love HisHouse. They go to places of His mercy and forgiveness and sharetheir experiences with their Muslim brothers and sisters who alsovisit those places.They believe that it is Allah who created them as well as theheavens and the earth because they see in the signs of Allah thatwhich leaves no iota of doubt or reluctance in the fact that Allahexists. They see in this universe - vast and marvellous in itsshape and order - a decisive proof of the existence, the perfectability, and the extreme wisdom of its Creator for it is impossiblefor it to create itself. They know it is also out of the question for itto exist accidentally because it was non-existent before it wascreated and a thing that is non-existent cannot make another existbecause the thing itself is non-existent. They realize it isunfeasible for the universe to exist accidentally because it has awonderful and symmetrical order that does not change or deviatefrom the path on which it is destined to move. Allah (~) says:( fl : )>t,; .)_,.....)( ..But you will never find in the way of Allah any change, andyou will never find in the way of Allah any alteration.~(Quran 35: 43)He also says:
  • 22. ateJ).~Youths Problems 29t ..You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful anyinconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see anybreaks? Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision willreturn to you humbled while it is fatigued) (Quran _67: 3-4)Ifit is agreed that this universe possesses such a marvellousand well-arranged order, it is impossible for it to have existedaccidentally because whatever accidentally exists will, as a result,be prone to changes and disruption at any moment.The upright youth believe in Allahs angels because Hespeaks about them in His Book and because His Prophet (~) alsospoke about them in the Sunnah. The Quran and Sunnah containmany of their descriptions, acts of worship, and the works theycarry out that are for the benefit of all creatures, which give usclear-cut evidence of their real existence.They believe in the Books of Allah which He revealed toHis Prophets, that with them they may guide humankind to thestraight path, because it is impossible for human intellect toperceive the detailed benefits inherent in acts of worship andhuman interaction without divine guidance.They believe that Allahs Prophets and Messengers weresent to call people to all that is virtuous, enjoin all that is good, andforbid all that is evil so that the human race should have no pleaagainst Allah after the coming of the Messengers. The first ofthem was Adam and the last of them was Muhammad, may thebest of blessings and peace be upon all of them.
  • 23. 30 A look at young peopleThey believe in the Last Day: the day people will beresurrected after their deaths in order to be rewarded for theirdeeds. Whoever does an atom weight of good will see it andwhoever does an atom weight of evil will see it (Quran 99: 7-8), forthat is the result of this life. If this were not so, what then is thelogical reason behind it if humankind does not have a day inwhich good-doers will be rewarded for their good deeds and evil-doers will be compensated for their evil acts?They believe in predestination, including that it can be goodor evil. They accept that everything is in accordance with Allahsordainment and predestination, while believing in causes andeffects and that prosperity and misery have their respectivecauses.These young people practice their religion with totalsincerity to Allah, His Messenger, Muslim leaders, and Muslimcommon folk.5They deal with their fellow Muslims with thestraightforwardness and clarity with which they would like to betreated. Treachery, malpractice, crookedness, or hiding facts haveno place in their dealings.They call to the way of Allah with clear knowledge and inaccordance with the methods explained by Allah in His Book.Allah, the Exalted, says:5This is a reference to a hadith recorded by Muslim: [The Prophet (~)] said:Religion is sincerity. We said: To whom? He said: To Allah and His Bookand His Messenger and to the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk.i~IIII
  • 24. Youths Problems 31&vite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodinstruction, and argue with them in a way that is best..)(Quran 16: 125)They enjoin all that is good and forbid all that is evilbecause they believe that the prosperity of communities andnations lies in that which Allah has specified in the gloriousQuran:( : 01~ JT0_)_,..,).You are the best nation produced [as an example] forhumankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrongand believe in Allah..) (Quran 3: 110)They strive to change all that is evil according to the methodrecommended by the Prophet (~) when he said: Whoever ofyousees an evil action let him correct it with his hand, and if he isunable to do that then with his tongue, and if he is unable to do sothen with his heart.6(Recorded by Muslim)They speak and accept only the truth because of theirunderstanding that truthfulness leads to righteousness andrighteousness leads to paradise, and that a person keeps on tellingthe truth until he or she becomes a truthful person.76The remaining part of the hadith is ...and that is the weakest of faith.7This is in reference to a hadith recorded by Bukhari and Muslim:Truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to paradise. And aman keeps on telling the truth until he becomes a truthful person. Falsehoodleads to wickedness and evil-doing and wickedness leads to hellfire and a manmay keep on telling lies until he is written before Allah as a liar.
  • 25. 32 A look at young peopleThey love what is good for their Muslim brothers andsisters because of their belief in the hadith: None of you trulybelieves until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.(Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim)They are aware of their responsibilities to Allah, theUmmah, and their countries and they always strive for the benefitofthe religion, the Islamic nation, and their homelands -far fromselfishness and pursuance of personal interests at the expense ofother peoples interests.They strive in the way of Allah with His assistance andbecause of Him only. They strive with sincerity to Him withoutintending to be seen or heard by people. They strive while seekingassistance from Allah without self-admiration or depending ontheir wits and energy alone. They strive in the way ofAllah withinthe framework ofHis religion without exaggeration or negligence.They strive with their words, hands, and property in accordancewith the needs of Islam and Muslims.They are religious and possess good conduct. They arewell-mannered, religiously upright, lenient, magnanimous, noble,good-hearted, extremely patient, and tolerant but decisive. Theydo not waste opportunities or allow sentiments to overpower theirsense of reason and the establishment of peace and order.The balanced and orderly young people work wisely andsilently with perfection and quality. They do not waste anyopportunities in their lives but rather utilise them in what is ofbenefit to them and their Ummah. These young people, thoughthey preserve their religion, conduct, and manners, arenevertheless abstentious from all that negate these virtues, such askufr (disbelief), atheism, profligacy, disobedience, indecentmanners, and bad dealings.
  • 26. ~lfYouths Problems 33These young people are a pride for this Ummah and thesymbol of its life, its prosperity, and its religion. They are thosewhom we hope Allah will use to repair the Muslims damagedcondition and illuminate the way for the followers of the rightpath. They are those who shall attain the bliss ofthis world and thenext. Allah willing.Corrupt young peopleThese are young people who are religiously deviating,behaviourally reckless, self-deluded, and engulfed by their own-ices. They do not accept truth from others, do not refrain fromlbe falsehood that is inherent in their minds, and are selfish in theirconduct.They are obdurate, do not give truth a chance, and do notcare that they neglect obligations that are due to Allah or thosethat are due to human beings.They are anarchic and partial in their thoughts, theirbehaviour, and their conduct. They are proud of their opinions asif truth flows from their tongues alone. They view themselves asinfallible but others, according to them, are prone to mistakes andfallacy as long as their views run contrary to their own.They deviate from the straight path of their religion andfrom good manners in their behaviour. Their mischievous deedsare portrayed to them as good and they consequently fall amongthe losers.(t :~1-.)_,......)
  • 27. 34 A look at )10111lg people.[They are] those whose effort is lost in worldly life, while theythink that they are doing well in work) (Quran 18: 104)They are a calamity to themselves and a catastrophe tosociety. They bring this Ummah down to the lowest of the low,obstructing its way to glory and honour. They are like a deadlydisease that is not easily curable except by the will of Allah alone,Who is All-Powerful.Confused young peopleThese young people are the ones who are uncertain,irresolute, and at a crossroad. They know the truth and are sure ofit. They live in a religiously conservative society but have themisfortune of being exposed to evil channels from everydirection. They are exposed to evils like scepticism about thetruthfulness of the Muslim creed, corruption in conduct andbehaviour, decadence in actions, attacks on the establishedcustoms and traditions, and other various absurd trends.They live in a mental and psychological whirlpool andstand aghast in front of these trends in confusion, not knowingwhich of the two options is correct: is it that which includes ideas,concepts, and courses of action that have just been imported totheir societies or that which their predecessors and theirconservative societies have been doing before the importation ofthose new ideas? They are so confused and troubled that theysometimes favour the former and on other occasions the latter,depending on the strength of the trends blowing them.They are passive in their lives and need a strong andcaptivating element to lead them to the realm of truth and therighteous way. That is very easy if Allah provides them with
  • 28. t,,,~lIrrrrIl~lYouths Problems 35~teous da wah preachers (those who call others to embraceIslam) who possess wisdom, knowledge, and good intention.They are largely found among those who have someIslamic education and culture but who on the other hand study..mly worldly sciences that run contrary to religion, either inr.ality or according to their imaginations. Hence they standconfused, between the two cultures.They can free themselves from this confusion, however, byaa:entrating on Islamic education and learning it from itsqinal sources, the Quran and the Sunnah, with the help oftiiiCere scholars, and, Allah willing, this will not be difficult for6mL
  • 29. CHAPTER 2The Corruption and Problems ofYoung People~ere are many reasons for the corruption and troubles ofyoung people. During the period of youthfulness, human beingsgo through a number of physical, mental, and intellectualdevelopments. This period is an evolutionary one in which youngpeople experience rapid development in their transformation intoadults, hence the need for providing them with means of self-control and ways of curbing self-defiance as well as wiseleadership that can lead them to the straight path.The corruption of young people can be attributed to manyfactors; prominent among them are:1. JoblessnessJoblessness is a disease that kills mental, intellectual, andphysical capabilities. As a matter of fact, it is inevitable thathuman beings should move and work; ifthey are deprived ofworkand activity, their brains become beset, their intellects becomeexhausted, the discipline of their minds becomes weak, anddevilish insinuations and malicious thoughts take control of theirhearts. Evil and wicked intentions may occur to them as a result ofthe depression that befalls them due to their joblessness.In order to be cured of this disease, the affected youthshould develop interests that suit them like reading, writing,trading, or any other occupation that can stand between them andunemployment and which are capable of making them sound and
  • 30. 38 The corruption and problems ofyoung peopleuseful members of their communities, whether they do the workfor themselves or for others.2. Estrangement between the youth and their eldersThis problem manifests in a situation where some elders seecorruption in young adults and just stand aloof without makingany effort whatsoever to correct them, having lost hope in theirreform and consequently hating them or being afraid of them.They may hold a passive attitude towards their condition, whetherit is good or bad. These elders have already concluded that allyoung people are corrupt and therefore nurse psychologicalgrudges against them all: a situation that tears the society apartand causes elders and young people to regard each other withcontempt and disdain. This, indeed, is one of the dangers thatencircle a society.This problem, however, can be solved if elders and youthsendeavour to remove the estrangement and alienation that existbetween them. Both should bear in mind that society, with itsyounger and older people, is like a single body and if a part of itdecays the decadence will affect the whole body.Elders also are requested to sense the responsibility towardsthe young people that rests upon their shoulders and eliminatefrom their minds ideas of hopelessness regarding the piety of theyoung because Allah is capable of doing anything. Indeed, howoften a person straying far has been guided by Allah and thereafterbecame a torch of guidance and a refOIIDel".Young people, on their part, should bold their elders in highesteem. They should respect their views and accept theirdirectives because they have achieved degrees of experience aridrealities of life which the young have not achieved. When the
  • 31. Youths Problems 39wisdom of the elders is added to the energy of the youth, thesociety can indeed become prosperous by the will of Allah.3. Being in contact with corrupt peopleand keeping their companyThis situation has a great deal ofpsychological, mental, andmoral influence on young people. This is why the Prophet (~)said: A person is on the religion ofhis intimate friend, so let everyone ofyou look critically regarding whom to befriend. (A reliablehadith recorded by Abu Dawood, at-Tirrnidhi, Imam Al)mad, andal-I:Iilim) He (~) also said: An example of a bad companion islike the blower of the blacksmiths bellows: he either bums yourclothes or you get a bad odour from him. (Recorded by Bukhariand Muslim; this wording is translated from Bukharis version)The solution to this problem is that young people shouldchoose righteous, good, and intelligent people as theircompanions in order to benefit from their goodness,righteousness, and intelligence. They should consider peoplevery carefully before befriending them by studying theirconditions and reputations. If they happen to be of noblecharacter, upright, religious, and of good reputation, they will belong-cherished and a form of wealth. They should therefore stickwith them. If, on the other hand, they happen to be people of theopposite character, the young people must be cautious of them,keep away from them, and should not be carried away by theirsweet talk and nice outward appearance. This is because these areonly deceptive and misleading methods employed by devilishpeople to attract ingenious souls in order to swell their ranks withthem and use that as camouflage to cover their decayed situations.How beautiful is this poets saying:
  • 32. 40 The corruption and problems ofyoung peopleStud~ people, i{ you would fi~e to ta~e t~em as 6ret~ren;f>cmtinize t~eir affairs and examine t~em./Jf you are fortunate to find an intelligent and pious person;IJtotd fast onto ~im ~appify, wit~ Cot~ ~ands.4. Reading and viewing destructive, un-lslamic materialin books and magazines, on TV and the InternetThese types of materials make people sceptical about theirreligion and faith and drag them from excellent morality to theabyss of degeneration. This naturally leads to unbelief anddepravity if the young people do not have strong resistance interms of the sound Islamic education, mental acuteness, andsagacity that can enable them to differentiate between truth andfalsehood and between what is useful and what is harmful.Being exposed to these kinds of ideas also turns youngpeople upside down because it meets fertile ground in their mindsfor thinking without any hindrance; its roots strengthen and itsstem solidifies. This is then reflected in their logic and their lives.The solution to this problem is to immediately shift towritings and programs that inculcate the love of Allah and HisProphet(~) in ones heart and those books that help in actualizingfaith and virtuous deeds. People should patiently persist in seekingout beneficial information because their souls will put up a strongfight against them in order to coerce them into reading what theywere used to before and will make them feel bored and irritated atreading useful books. An illustration of this is that of a personwrestling with his or her soul so as to force it to obey Allah but thesoul instead insists on wallowing in falsehood and distraction.
  • 33. Youths Problems 41There are many useful books that help in this situation, themost important of which are the noble Quran and its tafseer(commentary or explanation) written by scholars who base theirexegesis on authentically-transmitted hadiths and unequivocalcommon sense. Equally important and useful are books on hadith,then writings of scholars that are deduced and inferred from thetwo above-mentioned sources.85. Wrong assumption of some young peoplethat Islam imposes restrictions on libertiesand suppresses human energyThis assumption leads young people into shunning Islamand regarding it as a retrogressive religion that draws its adherentsbackwards and prevents them from progress and advancement.In order to solve this problem, the reality of Islam should beunveiled for these youth who are ignorant of it because of theirinadequate knowledge of Islam, misconception of it, or both. Apoet said:ene w~o ~as a titter and diseased mout~Will find cold and sweet water GitterW~en ~e drin~s it.Islam, in truth, does not impose restrictions on liberties.Rather, it regulates and perfectly controls them in such a way thatone persons liberty will not collide with anothers. One whowants absolute freedom will discover that he or she can have it8Many of these wonderful sources are now available on the Internet, but peopleshould take care to take their information from reliable Islamic websites whichdo not promote content that deviates from the Quran and the Sunnah. (Editor)
  • 34. 42 The corruption and problems ofyoung peopleonly at the expense of other peoples rights, and if that shouldhappen there will be a clash between the two. Anarchy will be theorder of the day and immorality will be let loose.It is for this reason that Allah calls religious laws l}udood(limits). When the l}ukm (ordinance) of a particular issue is l}aram(forbidden), He (~) says:(Av :);11 o.;_rM) [email protected] ... ~;~ )G ;tr ~-~ ~ ... ~~...These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them..)(Quran 2: 187)Likewise, when an ordinance on an issue is essential, He(~) says:~ _.(~ ~":" _,,,~ .....-: -:-~ J. J.J. ...... ~U jill ..lJ..b. ~ "?~...These are the limits of Allah, so do not transgress them..)(Quran 2: 229)There is also a difference between restrictions that theseyoung people presume and the regulations that Allah, the All-Wise and All-Aware, ordains for His slaves.In view ofthis, the issue never should have arisen in the ftrstplace as regulation is a realistic matter in all spheres ofthis life andhumans by nature are submissive to such laws. They aresubmissive to the reign of hunger and thirst and to the order ofeating and drinking. Hence, it becomes necessary for them toregulate their eating and drinking in terms ofquantity, quality, andvariety in order to preserve the health and safety of their bodies.They are also submissive to the regulation of their socialenvironment, adhering to the norms of their countries in theirclothing and actions. They submit, for instance, to the acceptedforms of dress, to the customary types of accommodation, and totraffic regulations. If, for whatever reason, they fail to abide by
  • 35. Youths Problems 43these norms they will be considered in their societies as abnormaland odd and will be dealt with accordingly.Therefore, life as a whole involves submission to certainregulations so that things can move along according to set goals. Ifsubmission to the social regulations is for the betterment of thesociety and prevention of anarchy, no citizen should bedissatisfied with conforming. Islamic regulations should also beexpected for the well-being of the Ummah. How, then, can somepeople feel dissatisfied with Islam and feel that it imposesrestrictions on liberties? This is but a lie and a false and sinfulclaim.Furthermore, Islam certainly does not suppress energy.Rather, it is a vast and spacious ground for mental, intellectual,and physical capabilities. Islam enjoins thinking andcontemplation so that humankind may reflect and develop itsmental and intellectual capabilities. Allah, the Exalted, says:~Say: I only advise you of one [thing]- that you stand for Allah,[seeking truth] in pairs and individually, and then give thought...)(Quran 34: 46)Almighty Allah also says:~Say: Observe what is in the heavens and earth..) (Quran 10: 101)Islam not only enjoins thinking and reflection but alsocensures and reproves those who do not ponder, reflect, or think.Allah, the Exalted, says:
  • 36. 44 The corruption and problems ofyoung people.Do they not look into the realm of the heavens and the earth andeverything that Allah has created?...~ (Quran 7: 185)He says in another ayah (verse):.Do they not contemplate within themselves? Allah has notcreated the heavens and the earth and what is between them exceptin truth...~ (Quran 30: 8)He (~) says in yet another ayah:~And he to whom We grant long life We reverse in creation; sowill they not understand?~ (Quran 36: 68)The enjoyment of reflection and thinking is but an eye-opener to mental and intellectual capabilities. How, then, cansome people claim that Islam suppresses energy?~~ 4.$~l G)~ w; ~~~ 5-: ? f:~---= ~~ p>r --~~ ~ ,.,.,.,I (> ,. -".t ~ ,. II u...O_J II ,. . ~.;.-. ... ~ s.z ;. s.z ~~~As for he who gives and fears Allah and believes in the best[reward], We will ease him toward ease. But as for he whowithholds and considers himself free of need and denies the best[reward], We will ease him toward difficulty)(Quran 92: 5-10)The Prophet (~) therefore enjoined his Companions to work anddid not allow them to depend on what has been predestined. Thosewho have been destined to enter paradise will not enter it until
  • 44. Youths Problems 53they do deeds of the people of paradise and the ones destined forhellfire will not enter it until they do deeds of the people ofhellfire.Also, actions are within human capacity because peopleknow that Allah has given them abilities to choose the types ofactions they like and the capabilities to carry them out. It is withthese two capacities that they do what they want and give up whatthey dislike.For instance, when a person wants to travel, he or shetravels; when the person wants to stay, he or she stays. One whosees an inferno runs away from it, and one who sees a lovablething advances towards it. As such, acts of obedience anddisobedience are also carried out by humans willfully and aregiven up willfully.Moreover, there are two problems baffling some people onthe issue of qadr.1. How can the fact that humans do things willingly and givethem up willingly without any feeling of being forced to doso correspond with the belief that everything happensaccording to Allahs predestination and ordainment?Answer: When we reflect on someones actions andmovements we find that they result from two things: freewill and the ability to carry out the actions, for no action cantake place without these two factors. Free will and abilityare both created by Allah. Free will is an intellectualstrength while ability is physical strength. If Allah sowishes, He can deprive humans of their intellect and makethem become creatures with no will or deprive them of theirabilities and make work impossible for them.
  • 45. 54 Confusion on the issue ofqadrIt follows, then, that when someone decides to carry out anaction and actually carries it out, it is known to usconvincingly that Allah wants the action to be carried outand has ordained it. Ifnot so, Allah would have diverted thepersons attention from it and created obstacles betweenhim or her and the ability to execute the plan. A bedouinArab was asked: "How did you know the power of Allah?"He answered: "By His breaking mens decisions anddiverting their attentions."2. It is said that humans are punished for their disobedience,but why is that so since disobedience has been predestinedfor them and it is not possible to escape from what has beenpredestined?Answer: If you are to say that, you are also obliged to say: It issaid that humans are rewarded for performing acts ofobedience, but why is that so since obedience has beenpredestined for them and it is not possible to escape fromwhat has been predestined? In fact, it is unjust to make qadra pretext for disobedience and not to make it an excuse forobedience.Another answer is that Allah (~) falsifies this excuse in thenoble Quran and regards it as baseless saying:1/ &G1: ~/ ~;.i t ~ {l1. .:t i~:i Z,JI j)/~"l...J ...., . J "l" Y ~r -~ . rJi.,....... :/ ,_}._,. ~/ ,,.. / -:,J /~~ /// E./ ,.,..;,...l ...-::c,. I}I~ &> ~ ~ ~~I y.:O ~~ ~:; ~ L _r~~ .. / , -: "" .-: / j. .-; / ~.......... ,} .> ..>.-: .. f/11 J. / ....... ,.}0J -~l;_q "jl ~......:...:; 01 U o->;.:.. .)w ~ -~~ t .. 1:~ ~ t- ~->- !;. J- // / r---- / ~ rJi"~ / _,._,.~-:: ~ ~J--::( tA : ~t;.;IIJ_,...,) ~~ 0~~ ~t _....:.jl 4Those who associated with Allah will say: If Allah hadwilled, we would not have associated [anything] and neither
  • 46. Youths Problems 55would our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.Likewise did those before deny until they tasted Ourpunishment. Say: Do you have any knowledge that you canproduce for us? You follow not except assumption, and youare not but falsifying) (Quran 6: 148)Allah explains in the above verse that those who make qadran excuse for their associating partners with Allah havepredecessors who belied as they do and perpetuated theirmisguidance until they tasted His Wrath. Then, Allahcommanded His Prophet (~) to challenge them to produceproof on the truthfulness of their excuse and explained thatthere was no excuse for them.Thirdly, qadr is a concealed secret which is known to noone except Allah until it occurs. Where, then, has the sinneracquired the knowledge that Allah has preordained the sinfor him or her before he or she advanced to it? Is it then notpossible that an act of obedience has also been preordainedfor him or her? Ifthat should be the case, why not undertakean act of obedience instead of venturing upon an act ofdisobedience and saying that Allah has preordained it?Fourthly, Allah has favoured humans by giving themintellect and understanding. He revealed Books and sentProphets to them, He distingl!ished for them the useful fromthe harmful, and provided them with free will and abilitieswith which they can tread whichever path they like. Why,then, would the sinner prefer treading the harmful way tothe useful one?If this sinner wanted to travel to a country and there weretwo roads leading to it - one of which was easy and safe,while the other was difficult and unsafe - would he or she
  • 47. 56 Confusion on the issue ofqadrnot take the easy and safe road for sure? He or she wouldcertainly not take the tough and insecure road with thepretext that Allah has preordained it. If one did so, peoplewould regard that as foolish and insane.Therefore, the path towards good and the path towards evilshould be treated equally as far as qadr is concerned. Oneshould tread the way of goodness and not deceive himself/herself while treading the way of evil with the excuse thatAllah has preordained it for him or her. Furthermore, real-life experience shows us that every person who is capableof earning a livelihood exploits every possible means toattain it and does not sit in his or her house and give upworking, making qadr an excuse for that. What, then, is thedifference between making efforts in the cause of thebenefits of this world and making efforts in the cause ofactsof obedience to Allah? How can you take qadr as an excusefor your acts of disobedience to Allah and not take it as anexcuse for giving up work for worldly benefits?The issue is crystal clear, but fanciful or rather impiousdesire makes one blind and deaf to the truth.
  • 48. CHAPTER 5Some Hadiths about Young PeopleQ) ince the previous chapters revolve around problems ofyouth, I would like to conclude this book with some hadiths thattalk about young people.111. The Prophet (~) said: Your Lord is delighted (in the waythat suits Him) about a young person who does not haveyouthful (lustful) desire. (An authentic hadith recorded byImam Al).mad, at-Tabarani, Abu Yala, and Ibn Abi A~im)11The author cited these hadiths to underline the merits of youthfulness(hadith 4); the enviable position young people occupied in the heart of theMessenger of Allah (~) (hadith 3) and the care he had for their welfare(hadiths 5, 7, 11, and 13); their religious discipline and self-control (hadith 1);the highly-commendable role they played during the time of the Prophet (~)in demonstrating a high sense of responsibility and generosity (hadith 10); theirgallant fight in the cause of Allah and their sacrifice of their most valuablepossessions in order for the religion of Allah to prevail (hadiths 8 and 9); theconfidence that our rightly-guided predecessors had in them by assigning themthe most arduous tasks (hadith 6); a crucial role one of them will play whenthe end of time is near by showing the highest degree of faith anddemonstrating an unsurpassed sense of bravery in the face of the tribulationsof the Dajjiil (anti-Christ) (hadith 12); and the everlasting reward that awaitsthem on the Day of Judgement (hadith 2).These hadiths go a long way in acquainting the young of this generation withthe lofty and enviable feats of their predecessors so that they may learn fromthem and emulate them in all spheres of their lives in order to be included inthe ranks of those youth to be sheltered under the shade of Allah on the LastDay. [Translator]
  • 49. 58 Some hadiths about young people2. Allah will give shade to seven on the day when there willbe no shade but His. They are: a just ruler; a youth who hasbeen brought up in the worship of Allah sincerely from hischildhood; a man whose heart is attached to the mosques;two people who love each other only for Allahs sake andthey meet and part in Allahs cause alone; a man whorefuses the call of a charming woman of noble birth forillegal sexual intercourse with her and says: I am afraid ofAllah; a man who gives charitable gifts so sincerely that hisleft hand does not know what his right hand has given;12and a person who remembers Allah in seclusion and hiseyes become flooded with tears. (Recorded by Bukhariand Muslim)3. I:Iasan and I:Iusayn will be the chiefs ofthe young dwellersof paradise. (An authentic hadith recorded by at-Tirmidhi,Imam ~hmad, and at-Tabarani)4. The dwellers of paradise will be told: It is for you toremain young and never grow old. (Recorded by Muslim)5. Abu Bakr said to Zayd ibn Thabit in the presence of Umar(may Allah be pleased with them all): You are a wiseyoung man and we do not have any suspicion about you andyou used to write down the divine inspiration for AllahsMessenger. So you should search for the fragmentaryscripts of the Quran and collect them into one book.(Recorded by Bukhari)6. The Prophet (~) went to visit a young man who was dyingand asked him: How do you feel? The youth replied: I seekAllahs mercy, 0 Allahs Messenger, and I am also afraid of12That is, the charity is given so secretly that no one knows the amount
  • 50. Youths Problems 59the consequences of my sins. The Prophet (~) said: Thesetwo feelings cannot be together in a slaves heart at thisparticular moment except that Allah gives the slave what heseeks and saves him from that of which he is afraid. (Areliable hadith recorded by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi)7. Al-Bara ibn Azib (.)said while recalling the events ofthe Battle of J:Iunayn:13No! By Allah, Allahs Messenger(~) did not flee, [what actually happened was that] hisyoung unarmed Companions met a group of men... whohappened to be (excellent) archers. The latter shot at them avolley of arrows that did not miss. The people turned to theMessenger of Allah (~)... So he got down, prayed andinvoked Gods help...- (Recorded by Muslim)148. Ibn Masood (.)said: We used to fight along with theProphet (~) when we were youths. (Recorded by Muslimand Imam AJ.unad)9. Anas ibn Malik (.) said: There were some seventyyouths among the An~ar15who were called the reciters ofthe Quran. They used to stay in the mosque and in the13I:Iunayn is the name of a valley between Makkah and faif where thefamous Battle of I:Iunayn took place between the Prophet (~) and theQuraysh pagans in the eighth year after the Hijrah (emigration of the Muslimsfrom Makkah to Madinah). The pagans were defeated in this battle.[Translator]14The author quoted this hadith because of the mention of the youngCompanions in it in order to underline their active participation at thebattlefront with the Prophet (~). [Translator]15Al-An~ar means helpers. They were Muslim inhabitants of Madinah whohosted the Prophet (~) and his Companions (may Allah be pleased with themall) when they emigrated from Makkah to Madinah and treated them with thebest hospitality ever recorded in human history. [Translator]
  • 51. 60 Some hadiths about young peopleevenings they would go to an area in Madinah and studyand pray there. While they were in that place their familieswould think that they were in the mosque, while the peopleof the mosque would think that they were with theirfamilies. When the dawn appeared, they would fetch waterand firewood and take it to the Prophets apartment.(Recorded by Imam Al)mad, Bukhari, and Muslim) Theseyouths also used to buy food with the proceeds of theirfirewood and water and give it to the poor emigrants fromMakkah who had no family or clan in Madinah. They usedto dwell in the shaded part of the Prophets mosque or nearit.10. Alqamah, one of Ibn Masoods companions, said: I waswalking in Mina along with Ibn Masood when Uthmanmet him and had a conversation with him. Uthman thentold him: 0 Abu Abdur-Ral)man! Can we marry you to ayoung woman who will remind you of some of the pastdays of your life? Ibn Masood replied: As you have saidthat, the Prophet(~) once said: 0 young men! Whoever iscapable of maintaining a wife among you should getmarried, for marriage lowers the gaze and protects theprivate parts from fornication and adultery. And whoever isnot capable should fast, for fasting curbs the sexual urge.(Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim)11. It is also reported in a hadith about the Dajjal16that the16The Dajjal literally means the false, the liar, the impostor. Religiously itmeans the anti-Christ or the lying Christ. He is the one the Prophet (~) toldus would appear before the Day of Resurrection as one of the signs of the endof time. He will be a young man with long hair. He will be blind in one eyeand his eye will look like a bulging-out grape. On his forehead will be=
  • 52. Youths Problems 61Prophet (~) said: The Dajjru will call a man in the primeof his youth and will cut him with a sword into two piecesand will throw them. He will then call him and he willrespond with his face bearing joy and smiling. (Recordedby Muslim)12. Mruik ibn J:Iuwayrith (~) said: We came to AllahsMessenger while we were youths of almost the same ageand stayed with him for twenty days and nights. TheProphet (~) was compassionate and kind. When heassumed that we were yearning for our families, he askedabout those we left behind and we told him. He then said:Go back to your people and stay with them, teach them andcommand them (then he mentioned some things) and prayas you saw me praying. When it is time for prayer, someoneamong you should make the adhan (call to prayer) and theeldest of you should lead you in prayer. (Recorded byBukhari and Muslim)This concludes what we want to say about young peopleand the issues that affect them. We ask Allah to make it useful.Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds and may Hebestow His peace and blessings upon our noble ProphetMuhammad(~), his family, and his Companions.=written the letters: ; ....; !l signifying kiifir or infidel. He will performnumerous wonders and miraculous acts; many unbelievers and partial believerswill be misled by his miracles. He will eventually be slain by the ProphetEesii (Jesus) (alayhi as-salam - peace be upon him). See: Sa}Jeel;l al-Buklulri (M. Muhsin Khans translation), vol. 4, pp 432-433. [Translator]
  • 53. IGlossary of Islamic Terms*adhtin I) I;I the call to prayerAn~ar JL..:a;t people of Madinah who welcomed theProphet (~) and his followers fromMakkahayah (pl. ayat) ~~ verse of the Quran or sign of AllahDajjal J~..UI Antichrist (anti-Christ)dawah ~,) disseminating the teachings of Islam andcalling people to accept and embraceIslameemiin I)~ faith; belief in all the six pillars of thecreed of IslamHadith ~...>- the collected statements and actions ofthe Prophet Muhammad (~) that withthe Quran form the basis of Islamic lawhadith ~...>- a statement or action of the ProphetMuhammad (~) that was rememberedand recorded by his Companions andfollowersHajj ~the major pilgrimage to the SacredMosque, site ofthe Kabah at Makkah, to* The Arabic words are transliterated according to the conventions of theTransliteration Chart found in this book. If a word has become part of theEnglish language (i.e., is found in a dictionary of Standard English), thatspelling is used in this book and appears first in this Glossary, with thetransliterated form in brackets after it.
  • 54. Youths Problems 63be undertaken by every able Muslimonce in his/her lifetime]Jaram ~lr forbidden according to Islamic lawHijrah i_& migration: esp. the migration fromMakkah to Madinah by the ProphetMuhammad (~) and his Companionsthat marks the start of the Islamiccalendarlfudood :>JJ.>. lit. limits; religious laws based on theQuran and the Hadith]Jukmr5- ordinance, rulingktlfir )IS infidel; disbelieverkufr ;s disbelief in Allah and/or what He hasrevealedqadr ;~I divine predestination; destiny; power;exact measureRamadan ~L,.a..) the ninth month in the Islamic calendar;(Ramaq,iin) the month of obligatory fasting; themonth in which the first verses of theQuran were revealed~aliih i~ formal prayer: a combination of physicalpostures, recitation, and supplicationSharia (shariah) ~~ Islamic law derived from the Quran andthe SunnahSunnah 4:..... the practice and collected sayings of theProphet Muhammad (~) that togetherwith the Quran forms the basis ofIslamic lawtafseer ~ exegesis: commentary, or explanation ofthe meanings (usu. of Quranic verses)Ummah ~t community or nation: usu. used to refer
  • 55. 64 Glossary ofIslamic termsto the entire global community ofMuslimswaswas ..,...,_,...J lit. whispering; insinuating whispers/thoughts from Satanzaktlt (or zaktlh) iSj Obligatory charity: an alms tax onwealth payable by Muslims and to bedistributed to other Muslims who qualifyas recipients