Unit vi transactional analysis

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<ul><li><p>Transactional Analysis</p><p>How We Spend Our Time</p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisTransactional Analysis or TA is a way of understanding</p><p> and changing human behavior why communication fails and how it can be corrected. one to one relationships </p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisTA Ego States or Personality AspectsParentAdultChild</p></li><li><p>These are called EGO STATESThey are Felt states of being and not just roles.Parent is our 'Taught' concept of lifeAdult is our 'Thought' concept of lifeChild is our 'Felt' concept of life</p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisParent learned to act and feel much as those that raised us.</p><p>ParentPrejudiced Parentfollows rules, accepts slogans, holds opinions without thinking first of facts.Nurturing ParentSupportive and protective toward others, offers help and guidance.</p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisClues to Someone in Their Parent</p><p> a frown or stern look.tone of voice. pointing of the index finger. arms folded as to say what are you doing? uses phrases like; you should, you ought to, that is right! words such as; sympathizing, punishing. moralizing, judging, giving orders, criticizing. </p></li><li><p>Physical - angry or impatient body-language and expressions, finger-pointing, patronising gestures,Verbal - always, never, for once and for all, judgmental words, critical words, patronising language, posturing language.N.B. beware of cultural differences in body-language or emphases that appear 'Parental'.</p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisChild what we were when we were young.</p><p>ChildFree ChildOpen to life, spontaneous, filled with the sense of wonder and delight, self centered, aggressive, rebellious, does not consider the consequences of feeling or actions.Adapted ChildPolite, sociable, recognizes the rights of others,adapts behavior to suit them, can resent the rights/demands of others, complies grudgingly, feels unsure about themselves, procrastinates .</p></li><li><p>Natural/ Free Child- Spontaneous (positive) and Immature (negative). Intuitive Child (LITTLE PROFESSOR)- Thoughtful/ imaginative/ creativeAdapted Child- Co-operative (positive) and Compliant/Resistant (negative). </p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisClues to Someone in Their Child</p><p> smiling, laughing, having fun.tone of voice. crying, having tantrums, getting into trouble. childlike facial expressions. uses words/phrases like; Wow!, Gosh!, I wish, I feel. </p></li><li><p>Physical - emotionally sad expressions, despair, temper tantrums, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, teasing, delight, laughter, speaking behind hand, raising hand to speak, squirming and giggling.Verbal - baby talk, I wish, I dunno, I want, I'm gonna, I don't care, oh no, not again, things never go right for me, worst day of my life, bigger, biggest, best, many superlatives, words to impress.</p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisAdult looks at the facts and reasons out the answer - the computer ins us.Adult figures things out logically. Has no emotions able to detach from feelings. takes responsibility for thoughts, feeling and actions. solves problems and makes decisions.</p></li><li><p>Transactional AnalysisClues to Someone in Their Adult</p><p> straight forward facial expression.active listener, eyes blink every 3 to 5 seconds showing attention. speaks of probabilities. uses phrases like; In my opinion, Based on what I have observed, So far the facts seem to indicate. </p></li><li><p>Physical - attentive, interested, straight-forward, tilted head, non-threatening and non-threatened.Verbal - why, what, how, who, where and when, how much, in what way, comparative expressions, reasoned statements, true, false, probably, possibly, I think, I realise, I see, I believe, in my opinion.And remember, when you are trying to identify ego states: words are only part of the story.To analyse a transaction you need to see and feel what is being said as well.Only 7% of meaning is in the words spoken.38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said).55% is in facial expression. (source: Albert Mehrabian)</p></li><li><p>ContaminationWhen the Adult uses information which has its source in the Child or in the Parent and which may be incorrect. Prejudice.</p></li><li><p>RELATIONSHIPSChild to ChildParent to parentChild to AdultAdult to ParentAdult to Adult</p></li><li><p>STROKESThe recognition that one person gives to another Essential to a person's life Can vary from actual physical touch to praise MOST OF US SUFFER FROM STROKE HUNGER!</p></li><li><p>Positive Strokes- I love you, you did a good job- Warm FuzziesNegative Strokes- I hate you- cold Pricklies.When positive strokes are not given, we look for negative strokes rather than be without strokes at all!!We should learn to ask for strokes.It makes life easier.</p></li><li><p>There are five ways people can structure their time to get strokes: RITUAL - A pre-set exchange of recognition strokes. "Hi!How are you? "Fine, thanks." Well, see you around. Bye!" This is a four-stroke ritual.PASTIME - A pre-set conversation around a certain subject. Pastimes are most evident at cocktail parties and family get-together. GAMES - Repetitive, devious series of transactions intended to get strokes. Unfortunately, the strokes obtained in games are mostly negative.A game is a failed method of getting strokes. INTIMACY - A direct and powerful exchange of strokes which people crave but seldom attain. The Child is frightened away from it by hurtful experiences. WORK - An activity which has a product as its result. Good work results in the exchange of strokes as a side effect. </p></li><li><p>TRANSACTIONSTransactions occur when any person relates to any other person. The three types of transactions: COMPLEMENTARY,CROSSED &amp; COVERT. Every transaction is made up of a stimulus and response. </p></li><li><p>TRANSACTIONS</p></li><li><p>Complementary Transactionbetween Adult and AdultParent to Child Parent to ParentCommunication can continue between ego states as long as trans-actions are parallel. Whenever a disruption of communication occurs, a crossed transaction caused it. </p></li><li><p>Parallel communication arrows, communication continues. Example 1: </p><p>#1 What time do you have? #2 Ive got 11:15 Example 2:</p><p>#1 Youre late again! #2 Im sorry. It wont happen again. </p></li><li><p>Cross TransactionThe transactional response is addressed to an ego state different from the one which started the stimulusThey disrupt communication. DISCOUNT - One very important kind of crossed transaction Here one person completely disregards what the other one is saying. Discounts are not always obvious but are always unpleasant </p></li><li><p>Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown. Example 1:</p><p>#1 What time do you have? #2 Theres a clock on the wall, why dont you figure it out yourself? Example 2:</p><p>#1 Youre late again! #2 Yeah, I know, I had a flat tire. </p></li><li><p>ULTERIOR/Covert TransactionsA covert transaction is when people say one thing and mean another. Are the basis of games and are especially interesting because they are crooked. </p><p>They have a social (overt) and a psychological (covert) level. </p></li><li><p>Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly stated Example #1: How about coming up to my room and listening to some music? Example #2: </p></li><li><p>Implications of TADevelop an adaptive selling strategy for parent, adult, child customers.Best communication exchange for selling? Remember to respond in complementary manner.Most effective selling involves adult to adult Strokes, or positive interactions, important Verbal (e.g. hello, compliment) Touch (handshake, pat on back).A gift Listening </p></li><li><p>Being Response AbleRecognize you cannot control anothers behavior, but you can affect their behavior by the way you respond to them.Remember you control your own behavior and thoughts. Keep things in perspective.Dont sweat small stuff. Give it test of time. Ask if its happened before. Distinguish what can be changed from what cant.Have realistic expectations Life is not fair or perfect Bad (good) things happen, usually dont last forever. Things dont always go according to plan. People dont always act as youd like (remember ego state explanations, people have bad days, etc.) </p></li><li><p>Dealing with Difficult PeopleKeep adult ego state in control of yourself. Dont get defensive, argumentative, emotional. Dont take it personally. Move cautiously, stay cool, remember complementary transactions and strokes. Do not need to take continued abuse. If handled well (e.g. didnt embarrass customer, allowed them to take something out on you), can turn out to be positive later. </p></li></ul>


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