Techniques of persuasion

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This slideshow provides an introduction to the techniques of persuasion.

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<ul><li> 1. Techniques of PersuasionSeries 1: Techniques of Persuasion(978-0-9808397-2-2)This step-by-step introduction to persuasivetechniques provides the perfect foundation forstudents in Years 7 to 8. This workbook focuses on: the authors views, tone, style and choiceof words; the authors evidence and reasons and the authors appeals and values.The Why boxes help students think about theimpact of these techniques.Students will build an analytical vocabulary and startto write essays.</li></ul> <p> 2. The task of analysisFocus on the authorsviews and values.Do not offer your ownviews on the issue.Ask yourself: What does the author say, how and why. How do they seek your support? 3. The task of analysis Focus on: What the author says (views) How the author says it(their tone and style). The authors choice of words. The authors evidence and reasons. The authors appeals and values. The authors purpose and impact: see the whycomments for each technique.The Techniques of Persuasion 4. The authors viewsClearly and concisely identifythe authors viewpoint onthe issue.Do they use the first or the third person? (voice: I,we, he/she/they)On whose behalf do they speak?What is their personal and/or professional experienceand background?The authors voice, their status and position in anorganisation influence their views and values. Can wetrust them?The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 3-8, Ex. 1-4 5. The authors toneHow the author speaks isoften just as importantas what they say. An authors tone reflects their attitude, theirpassion and their personality and influences theirrelationship with the audience. Think about their choice of words (modality: theymust put an end to whaling;) and their sentencestyle (statements and questions). Learn a bank of tone words. (See tone descriptors)The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 9-17, Ex. 9-17 6. Use tone words to accuratelyidentify an authors attitudeAs an adjective: Ms Snare adopts an indignant tone to In an exasperated tone, the author condemnsparents who fail to provide adequate supervision.As an adverb: Ms Snare states dogmatically that Mr Smith assertively supports the rights of all ..(see Language of Persuasion: become an expert p. 59 and 60) 7. Extending yourtone word vocabularyTone descriptors: See tone descriptors and definitions on pp.74-75.See tone clues: imperative, modal, rhetorical sentences (p. 10.)Tone words are modelled in the Suggested Responses.See CD-Rom and website: word games tone test matchups. extended tone list and definitions.(See Language of Persuasion: pp. 74-75 and CD-Rom word games) 8. The authors styleThe authors stylecomplements theirmessage and their tone.Is the text formal orinformal or a combinationof both?The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 9-17, Ex. 9-17 9. The authors styleLook for:Colloquial language: closely imitates spokenlanguage. (He doesnt give a stuff!)Questions: interrogative sentences(What is the governments response tothe whaling crisis?) and rhetorical questions(Why does he listen so loudly to the music?)Repetition: the author often repeats words orphrases for an effect. (Tripling, use of three (thesystem lacks rigour, repetition and routine), andlisting (so obese is the child that he snacks on marsbars, chips, smarties and roll-ups every 20 minutes)are often used for effect.)The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 9-17, Ex. 9-17 10. The authors wordsWords mean differentthings to differentpeople.Some words are neutral;others are loaded or colourfuland reveal a personsapproval or disapproval.A fat catThe Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 18-27, Ex. 11-18 11. The authors words Words have connotations:that is, extra meanings apartfrom the literal, dictionarymeaning. Words may be inclusive orexclusive. Words may be figurative:similes, clichs, metaphors,idioms. Such wordshave connotations.Barking up the wrong treeThe Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 18-27, Ex. 11-18 12. The authors evidenceWhat evidence does theauthor rely on?Facts and figures: statistics, survey,expert opinion, quotes, researchPeople stories: anecdotes, humaninterest stories, personal and first-handexperience and observations;eye-witness accounts.The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 28-34, Ex. 30-34 13. The authors evidenceThe Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 28-34, Ex. 30-34 14. The authors evidence: exercisesThe Techniques of Persuasion: p. 31, Ex. 20 15. The authors evidence: see responsesExercise 20: P-plate extensions overdue (Mr Jonathon Sprinter (p. 31) The author refers to an expert, the commissioner of traffic, who asserts that a seven yearprobationary period that includes zero-alcohol readings, would reduce traffic accidents.He is credible because he has professional experience with regards to traffic control. Statistics: the statistics prove that there are too many young adults involved in tragic caraccidents. The young adults are disproportionately represented in car accidents whichsuggests that there is a problem with drinking, speed and young adults. Expert opinion: the reference to the surgeon proves that young peoples brains areunderdeveloped. They cannot be trusted to measure their alcohol intake and thereforeare potentially endangering their lives and that of other road users. The author refers to the real-life anecdotal story of Emma Richardson to show thedevastating consequences of one fatal mistake. Emma is cited as a typical example ofteenagers who are killed because they seem to underestimate the dangers on the road.They also jeopardize the safety of other drivers. The quotes from her mother alsoreinforce the tragic consequences and devastating impact to the family. The authorincludes this story to show both parents and young adults that mistakes can have tragicconsequences, and to encourage them to be keen about tighter regulations.The Techniques of Persuasion: p. 31, Ex. 20 16. The authors reasonsWhat links does the author make, and whatconclusions does the author draw fromthe evidence?Authors often appeal to logicand common sense.Authors often makecomparisons or analogies withother situations, issues,schemes and proposals.Look for generalisations and stereotypes.The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 35-38, Ex. 24-27 17. The authorsattackAuthors often attack or criticise opponents inorder to show the superiority of their views.How does the author criticise opponents?What words do they use?The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 39-43, Ex. 28-32 18. The authorsappealsappeal to the nanny stateThe authors appeals reflecttheir values and priorities.An authors appeals are a clue to how theyseek to influence our thoughts andemotions.The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 39-43, Ex. 28-32 19. Common appealsAppeal to common senseAppeal to emotionsAppeal to morals and guiltAppeal to duty of careand leadershipAppeal to civil libertiesand freedomAppeal to fearAppeal to family valuesAppeal to health and wellbeingThe Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 44-55, Ex.33-40 20. Impact and purposeThink about how the author seeks toinfluence our thoughts and emotions.SympathyFear and uncertaintyGuilt and shameAngerHope and reassuranceThe Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 54-55, Ex.34 21. Purpose and impact 22. OutcomesYou will: learn to pinpoint the authors views: Ms Johnson criticises the installation of CCTV cameras becausethey invade peoples privacy identify an authors persuasive techniques and their purpose write sentences relating to the authors tone and techniques: Adopting an authoritative tone, Mr Jon comments that its use is shaming their religion and is of nobenefit to anyone. Build an analytical vocabulary: In order to accurately identify the authors attitude and values, youwill need an extensive vocabulary relating to tone. Tone descriptors: The workbook encourages you to become familiar with the extensive list of tonewords on pp. 63-64. Tone words are modelled in the responses. There are also tone tests and match-upexercises to constantly test and reinforce the tone words.The Techniques of Persuasion: pp. 54-55, Ex.34 23. Language Analysispathway program(Yr 7-12)Series 1. Techniques of PersuasionSeries 2. Language analysis:become an expertSeries 3. Language analysis:an essay-writing guidewww.englishworks.com.au 24. Language analysispathway programSuggested ResponsesEach workbook has a corresponding Suggested Responses bookletfor 20-40 exercises.The Responses and Taking it Further extension activities are anideal correction resource for teachers.They are also ideal as an independent self-directed learning programfor students.www.englishworks.com.au </p>

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