Tapping brain science to improve online learning

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Tapping Cognitive Science to Optimize Online LearningCarole HamiltonCary AcademyCary, NC1

Learning CurveStudentTeachersTeachersAdmin2

Look under the Hood!

3Cognitive Science Tells Us That Students Need ToRe-Learn Just Prior to Forgetting (Bjork 2011)Start with a Question (Williams, 2012)Build Mental Analogies (Hofstadter, 2003)Explain and Defend Concepts (Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes, 2008; Williams 2012)Transfer Knowledge (Willingham, 2002)6. Engage in Metacognition (How People Learn)

Mental schemas are needed because it makes the learner active sense-maker, instead of passively recipient. It becomes part of the learners world view. 41. Re-Learn JustPrior To Forgetting

As we forgetwhen things are presented again, we get a larger increase in storage strength. Soforgetting, rather than undoing learning, creates the opportunity to reach additional levels of learning. Robert Bjork, 2011

5There is substantial evidence that students can learn far more by trying to answer questions themselves (than by receiving the answers), or by being pushed to construct explanations (rather than be provided with them). Joseph Jay Williams 2009

2. Startwith a Question

??63. Build Mental AnalogiesAnalogysimply pervades every tiny nook and cranny of cognition, it shapes our every thinking moment. Not seeing that is like fish not perceiving water. Douglas Hofstadter

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4. Explain and Defend ConceptsSince students systematically misunderstand most of what we tell them the emphasis [must be] placed on student articulation of the concepts. (Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes, 2008)

85. Transfer KnowledgeWhat turns the inflexible knowledge of a beginning student into the flexible knowledge of an expert seems to be a lot more knowledge, more examples, and more practice. (Daniel T. Willingham)

9In research with experts who were asked to verbalize their thinking as they worked, it was revealed that they monitored their own understanding carefully, making note of when additional information was required for understanding, whether new information was consistent with what they already knew,, and what analogies could be drawn that would advance their understanding. How People Learn 6. Engage in Metacognition

How Does Online Learning Stack Up?

Cognitive Science11

1. Re-Learn Just Prior To Forgetting

As we forgetwhen things are presented again, we get a larger increase in storage strength. Soforgetting, rather than undoing learning, creates the opportunity to reach additional levels of learning. Robert Bjork, 2011

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There is substantial evidence that students can learn far more by trying to answer questions themselves (than by receiving the answers), or by being pushed to construct explanations (rather than provided with them). Joseph Jay Williams

2. Start with a Question

??

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3. Build Mental AnalogiesAnalogysimply pervades every tiny nook and cranny of cognition, it shapes our every thinking moment. Not seeing that is like fish not perceiving water. Douglas Hofstadter

154. Explain and Defend ConceptsSince students systematically misunderstand most of what we tell them the emphasis [must be] placed on student articulation of the concepts. (Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes, 2008)

165. Transfer of KnowledgeWhat turns the inflexible knowledge of a beginning student into the flexible knowledge of an expert seems to be a lot more knowledge, more examples, and more practice. (Daniel T. Willingham)

17In research with experts who were asked to verbalize their thinking as they worked, it was revealed that they monitored their own understanding carefully, making note of when additional information was required for understanding, whether new information was consistent with what they already knew,, and what analogies could be drawn that would advance their understanding. How People Learn 6. Engage in MetacognitionX

What Else Technology Can OfferAdapt Dynamically to Student Learning Rate and StyleTrack Productive Time on TaskAssess Mastery of MaterialReinforce Concepts, not Just Content

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Genuine Learning

20Further ReadingBjork, Robert. The Theory of Disuse and the Role of Forgetting in Memory. http://gocognitive.net/interviews/theory-disuse-and-role-forgetting-human-memory Go Cognitive. 2011.

Donovan, M. Suzanne . Et al. How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice. 1999.

W. Pellegrino, EditorsHofstadter, Douglas. Analogy at the Core of Cognition. http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/hofstadter/analogy.html 2001.

Jackson, Jane, Dukerich, Larry, and Hestenes, David (2008). Modeling Instruction: An Effective Model for Science Education, Science Educator 17(1): 10-17. http://www.nsela.org/images/stories/scienceeducator/17article7.pdf

Williams, Joseph Jay. How Can Cognitive Science Improve Online Learning?, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKW5lZqBWgI

Willingham, Daniel T. Inflexible Knowledge: The First Step to Expertise. American Educator. Winter 2002. http://www.aft.org/newspubs/periodicals/ae/winter2002/willingham.cfm

web1.caryacademy.org/facultywebs/carole_hamilton