Sustaining Mainstream English Language Learners with Universal Design for Learning
Dr. Leslie Cook, Appalachian State Universitycookls@appstate.edu
October 3rd, 20152:30 Room: Robinson 109
Introduce self---tell about why I became involved with UDL (research with extranormative youth)---tell about why I became involved with ELL (experience as a language minority)
La Cigal et La Fourmi
Ater simulation Introduce self---tell about why I became involved with UDL (research with extranormative youth)---tell about why I became involved with ELL (experience as a language minority)
AgendaSimulation of mainstream language learners IntroductionsSome research on Mainstream ELLsSome talk about UDLPoints of Contact Case Studies Wrap up
Talk about how this session is only an introduction UDL with ELs
Where are you coming from?LanguageHow many of you speak another language?How many of you have been a linguistic minority?How many of you teach English Language Learners?UDLHow many of you have a good sense of what Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is?
Ask participants for a show of hands for questions--have some respond at length
English Language LearnersThe bottom line is that every schoolage child in North Carolina is constitutionally guaranteed equal access to a sound, basic education. Regardless of budgetary limitations or immigration status, ELL students in North Carolina have for years been recipients of a subpar public education and must not be ignored if the state wishes to improve economically and socially.N.C. Justice Center
Education and Law Project | NC Justice CenterNorth Carolina Clearinghouse for Language AcquisitionNC English Language Development Wiki
98K+ in NC Schools in 2012-13In 2009, or the 50K ELL students in NC, only 45% taking the 3-8th grade EOG scored proficient in reading.The assertion that what is good teaching for one is inherently good teaching for all is not always beneficial for ELLs, who often need special focus on morphology, syntax, and semantics. (National Research Council, 2002).
What is Universal Design for Learning?Theoretical and pedagogical bases for UDL can be found in the work of Lev Vygotsky and in the work of sociocultural researchers. One of Vygotskys positions envisions learning as directly affected by the environment. (Cook, 2105)
CAST (2011) asserts that being a language learner can be a barrier to academic success and emphasizes the need for more inclusive pre-service teacher education and professional development in teaching English as a second or other language (TESOL). Content-area teachers require a level of familiarity with the process of language acquisition. Professional development for mainstream teachers in teaching ELLs can address myths about language learners. For example, many teachers equate first (L1) and second language (L2) learning (Harper & de Jong, 2004). In doing so, teachers equate literacy for ELLs to oral language: Language learners must also learn to write and read in the target language, all the while navigating the challenges of social and academic discourses. L1 learners learn oral language and then gain literacies; whereas, L2 learners already have literacies but need the oral competence (Harklau, 2002).
EngagementIncorporating choice and promoting self-directed learning (through scaffolding and self-monitoring)
Purposeful and flexible grouping (reducing language anxiety)
Mastery approach to language learning and providing mastery-oriented feedback (removing the barrier of deficiency)
RepresentationOffering alternatives for auditory and visual information and for customizing the display of informationCurriculum design that activates students prior knowledge and highlights connections between academic content and personal experiences Cross-language teaching and learningExamining the words, symbols, numbers, and icons through which content is representedClarifying syntax and structure
ExpressionMultimodal assignments challenge students to acquire the ability to combine print, spoken, visual, and digital processesOptions for responding orally or in writingEncouraging and guiding metacognitive strategies that aid in critical self-reflection
Fluency for language learners in academic contexts takes 5 to 7 years to obtain.
CASE #1Miri is a new student from Japan who recently moved to the U.S. because of her mothers job. She is enrolled in your American Literature class and is struggling to get through The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; the dialect is very confusing for her. Though she has taken multiple English language classes in Japan and has a good command of oral and written language, this is the first time she has had to read and respond to literature that contains non-standard English.
Case #2Mario was a junior in high school who had come to the U.S. in 8th grade, spent a year in ESL support classes, and was then moved into mainstream courses. He had taken English in Mexico and was considered an average student there. He reported that he enjoyed school in Mexico, but since coming to the U.S. he had developed a strong dislike for school and was working in a plastics factory where he planned on working after graduation. Mario appeared to fluent in spoken English and his writing revealed errors typical to an ELL. Aware that Mario had failed English previously, his teacher noticed quickly that Mario had not learned to read strategically, found no purpose for reading beyond assignments, and was not reading for meaning, only decoding. Mario did state that even reading in Spanish was not something he did regularly.adapted from: Cohen, J. (2007). A case study of a high school English-language learner and his reading. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 51(2). 164-175.
Ask them to use the UDL chart to find out how they might adjust instruction for Mario.
Discussion of Application of UDL PrinciplesHelpful sites
CASTNational Center on Universal Design for Learning
For Further ReadingCAST (2014). National Center on Universal Design for Learning. http://cast.org/index.html
Hall, T. E., Meyer, A., Rose, D. H. (2012). Universal Design for Learning in the Classroom Practical Applications What Works for Special-Needs Learners. New York: Guilford Press.
Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., Daley, S. G., & Rose, L. T. (2012). A research reader in universal design for learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Roberge, M., Siegal, M., & Harklau, L. (Eds.). (2008). Generation 1.5 in College Composition: Teaching academic writing to U.S.-educated learners of ESL. New York: Routledge.
Rose, D. H., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the Digital Age : Universal design for learning. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Sanguineti, V. R. (2007). The rosetta stone of the human mind: Three languages tointegrate neurobiology and psychology. New York: Springer.