- 1.English Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom
To learn to read is to learn to walk.To learn to write is to learn to rise. Jos Mart
To learn to read is to learn to walk.To learn to write is to learn to rise. Jos Mart
Karen M. Adrin
Connecticut Writing Project
Karen M. Adrin
Connecticut Writing Project
El Inmigrante (Coti)
Introduccin a Barack Obama
Actividad de Vocabulario
Discurso de Obama a los Estudiantes
Aquellosterminos con un mismoorigenetimolgico
Words that have a common etymological origin
Lista de Cognados del Discurso de Obama a los Estudiantes
4. ConocimientoAntecedente: Obama
1. QuinesBarack Obama?
El presidente de los EstadosUnidos
2. Cuntosde ustedeseschucharnelDiscursode Obama a losEstudiantes?
Cuentenen grupos detres personas (uno, dos, tres, uno, dos, tres...)
Dividense en susgruposytomenunaseccion de laspalabras del vocabulario
Busquenlaspalabras en el diccionario de la red: http://www.wordreference.com/definicion/
Completen el Arbol de Vocabulario con lastres (3) palabrasmasimportantes de sulista
Voy a ir a cadagrupoparapronunciarlaspalabrascorrectamente
Si necesitantraducirlaspalabrasusen la pagina del red: www.spanishdict.com
6. Discurso de Obama a los Estudiantes/Obama Speech to Students (septiembre 2009)
En susgrupos, cadagrupova a teneruna parte del discurso de Obama a losEstudiantes(con la versin en ingles)
Tienenque leer el discursoypresentar un proyectoresumiendosuseccion a la clase en manera de diagrama/dibujo (diagram/drawing)
NOTA: Necesitanusarlastrespalabras del vocabulariomasimportantesen sudiagrama/dibujo
Tienen 15 minutos. BUENA SUERTE!
7. Diagramas del Discursode Obama a los Estudiantes
8. REFLECCIN/ REFLECTION
Please reflect on the activity that we just did:
How did you feel about yourself as a Spanish language learner?
What was the most difficult part of the activity?
What observations did you make about the instruction?
9. Jenny B.
When I couldnt speak English and I couldnt read English and I couldnt write English, it was like going to school and not learning anything because I couldnt understand the teachers and they couldnt understand me.Now that I speak English, I still dont understand my teachers!
I know what I need to know and no teacher showed me that.I learned from my friends and from TV.
Writing in English is not important because they dont make me do it since I dont know the language well enough.
11. Statistics (based on the Urban Institute):
76% of ELLs elementary-age are born in the United States
56% of ELLs middle- and high school-age are born in the United States
80% of ELL parents are born outside of the United States
80% of all ELLs are Spanish-speakers
Most ELLs are at risk for poor school outcomes not only because of language, but also because of socioeconomic factors (Goldenberg 10).
12. Basic Information:
About a third of children of immigrants and half of limited English proficient students have parents with less than a high school education... LEP students or English language learners then tend to be highly segregated.That is, as a result of the ongoing racial and ethnic segregation and segregation by income in Americas public schools, we see heavily concentrations of children of immigrants and LEPs in the same schools, mostly in inner city but increasingly in places like Allentown (PA) and suburban areas as well (Courrier).
These children comprise the fastest-growing segment of the student population, with the highest growth rates occurring in grades 7-12 (Kindler 2002 as referenced by the Alliance for Excellence Education 2007)
13. More Information:
42% of the teachers surveyed by the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that they had ELLs in their classroom, but only 12.5% of these teacher received more than eight hours of professional development specifically related to ELLs (NCES, 2002).
In a study of content-area teachers held by Short (2002), one social studies teacher stated, I believed that was someone elses job.
The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) holds that in order for ELL students to receive an appropriate, effective, and meaningful education, all school personnel should understand the basic issues of second-language acquisition, bilingualism, the difference between social and academic language proficiency, and the roles that language and culture play in learning (McGraner 6)
14. Legislation: NCLB, Title III
The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (known as the No Child Left Behind Act) prompted an unprecedented focus on the academic achievement of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students (National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality)
Schools and districts nationwide are now accountable for helping limited English proficient children meet the same challenging state academic and content and student academic achievement standards as all students are expected to meet (NCLB, Part A, Subpart 1).
Only 11 states met their accountability goals for English-language learners under the No Child Left Behind Act in the 2007-08 school year, concludes a study commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education.
Do educators in your school assume shared responsibility for the achievement of English Language Learners, or do they leave up to the ELL/Bilingual teachers and tutors (if there are any)?
15. School and the English Language Learners
School is often ELL students first point of contact with U.S. culture, and educators must be well poised to ensure this contact results in strong family, community, and academic engagement (MacGraner 5).
16. First (L1) and Second (L2)Language Acquisition
A students proficiency in their first language is likely to be more predictive of how easily they will acquire English literacy (Thompson 4).
CREDE (Center for Research on Education) researchers concluded that the longer ELLs received instruction in a mix of their first language and English, the better their achievement in English (Goldenberg 12).
In other words, students who acquire literacy skills in their first language are able to transfer those skills to their second language provided that they have received adequate education to exposure to literacy in their first language (Pappamihiel et al 2008).
Unfortunately, student who dont receive the chance to continue to grow in both their languages are often without fluency in either (Hubbard & Shorey 53).
17. Conversational vs. Academic English
What is conversational English?
ELLsdevelop conversational English much more quickly than academic English . Although students typically learn social language through interaction with their peers, academic language must be taught explicitly and takes much longer (Connecting Research to English Language Learners to Practice 2009).
What is academic English?
Academic English the type that is essential for school success is particularly difficult to master because it is generally not used outside of the classroom and it draws on new vocabulary, more complex sentence structures, and rhetorical forms not typically encountered in nonacademic settings (Goldenberg 13).
Moreover, teachers must understand that students may demonstrate a solid command of conversational or social English and may be successful in nonacademic environments without possessing the knowledge and skills required to successfully access and master academic core content in academic environments (National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (2009).
18. Mainstream Teachers
Before mainstream teachers can effectively teach ELL students academic content, they must have a solid knowledge of teaching their subject matter (Graner & Saenz 7).
Reading and writing are mutually reinforcing skills for ELLs just as they are for native English speaker (Echevarra, Short & Powers 2006 as referenced by Alliance for Excellence Education)
The disconnect between the two cultures makes the students feel lost when they return to their mainstream classroom community after being away for one or two periods... To deal with this dilemma and provide effective instruction for ELLs, collaboration models or team teaching between ESL teachers and mainstream classroom teachers are highly recommended by researchers (Fu 326).
19. STRATEGIES THAT WORK
Students learn English when they are immersed in reading and writing (Custodio & Sutton 1998)
Educators must have a repertoire of strategies so that they can vary their interactions and curriculum as needed (MacGillivray & Rueda )
20. Cognitive Strategies
Curriculum that balances basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction for certain tasks (particularly in acquiring learning strategies), instructional approaches to enhance comprehension, and articulation and coordination of programs and practices within and between schools (Olson & Land 2007).
How can we break this quote down instructionally?
Directives vs. high-level cognitive and open-ended questions study (Verpleatse 1998)
21. Background Knowledge
Learning builds on previous experience (National Research Council 2000).
The languages used by the students and their family members, the students cross-cultural experiences, and their [first language] and [second language] literacy history are integral parts of ELLs knowledge, skills, and identity (de Jong & Harper 2005).
Teachers must either activate what prior knowledge exists and apply it to lessons or explicitly build background knowledge for these students (Short & Echevarra 2005).
Gibbons suggest many activities to help build students background knowledge, including creating a semantic web, wallpapering, creating a list of questions about that students would like to learn, reading about the topic, using cooperative activities (such as jigsaw), using electronic resources, interviewing an expert, watching a video, visiting a museum, and practicing grammatical structures that will be useful in writing about a topic (Liviant 2006)
22. Vocabulary and Language Development
A[n] effective instructional practice is the explicit teaching of academic vocabulary (National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality)
Teachers introduce new concepts by discussing vocabulary words key to that concept (Alliance for Excellence Education 2005)
2 to 3 receptive and 5to 9 productive vocabulary words are identified for lesson emphasis: Receptive vocabulary words are those that are low frequency and not necessarily everyday speech, and productive vocabulary words may be new or confusing to ELLs even though they are commonly used (figurative language or phrases without literal translations) (Avalos et al 2007).
The language curriculum should include not only instruction in the specialized language of each academic subject area (for example in math, hypotenuse, angle and so on), but also academic cohesion words and phrases (such as thus, therefore, as a result of) and specialized academic process words (such as explicate, enumerate, define) (Rance-Roney 32).
23. Supporting ELLs in English-Only Settings
Predictable and consistent classroom management routines aided by diagrams, lists, and easy-to-read schedules on the board or on charts
Additional time and opportunities for practice
Visual cues, pictures and physical gestures
Identifying, highlighting and clarifying difficult words and passages
Summarize and paraphrase
Provide opportunities for extended interactions with teacher and peers
Adjust instruction (teacher vocabulary, rate of speech, sentence complexity)
Targeting both content and English language objectives in every lesson
24. The Education Alliance
Teachers demonstrate how writing and reading are connected
Teachers demonstrate how writing and reading are tools for thinking and learning
Teacher explicitly demonstrate the process of writing
Teachers model exemplary writing practices and demonstrate how writers write about topics that are meaningful to them
Teachers teach grammar in the context of actual writing
Teachers provide varied and increasingly challenging writing experiences
Teachers develop a list of core words for their students to use in their writing
Teachers regularly integrate spelling into writing and reading instruction
25. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality
Instruction should be explicit and systematic (scaffolding, whole-group instruction, supplemental interventions)
Teaching of academic vocabulary (short, explicit segments of class time in which the teacher directly teacher key vocabulary; saying the vocabulary word, writing it on the boadr, asking students to say it and write it and defining the term with pictures, demonstration, and examples familiar to students
ELL students must have the opportunity to speak and hear academic vocabulary in the classroom
Effectively using visuals in teaching academic content
Give purposeful, consistent and systematic feedback
26. Alliance for Excellent Education
Vocabulary and language development
Guided interaction (listening, speaking, reading and writing collaboratively)
Metacognition and authentic assessment (i.e. portfolio of improved writing)
Explicit instruction, or direct teaching
Meaning-based context and universal themes
Modeling, graphic organizers, and visuals
27. Writing Assignments
Journal writing where English words are inserted into the journals that are first mostly in the L1 then progress throughout the year until the majority of the entry is in English (Fu 2007)
28. 29. Writing with ELLs(Hubbard & Shorey)
Emphasize writing for genuine audiences, student choice, and teacher supported through revision and editing
Write with your students, conferring with them about your own writing as well as theirs, and demonstrating strategies and writing techniques through minilessons
Offer an opportunity to draw
Do not underestimate the power of the first language because it is the language of the heart (PUT ASIDE ENGLISH-ONLY THINKING)
Model writing by reading published immigrant authors
30. Journaling with Spanish:
Write about a teaching experience you had using the Spanish vocabulary you learned today (it could be a funny, embarrassing, difficult or horrible time).
31. But if we understand writing as a medium through which language learners attempt to understand and control the shifting perspectives in their lives, to express and explore new identities, and to position themselves in new ways, writing in a second language becomes a powerfully motivating and potentially transformative force (Vollmer 2002)