English Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom

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  • 1.English Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom
    To learn to read is to learn to walk.To learn to write is to learn to rise. Jos Mart
    To learn to read is to learn to walk.To learn to write is to learn to rise. Jos Mart
    Karen M. Adrin
    Connecticut Writing Project
    July 2010
    Karen M. Adrin
    Connecticut Writing Project
    July 2010
    El Inmigrante (Coti)

2. Agenda:
Introduccin a Barack Obama
Actividad de Vocabulario
Discurso de Obama a los Estudiantes
3. Cognados/Cognates
Aquellosterminos con un mismoorigenetimolgico
Words that have a common etymological origin
Lista de Cognados del Discurso de Obama a los Estudiantes
4. ConocimientoAntecedente: Obama
1. QuinesBarack Obama?
El presidente de los EstadosUnidos
2. Cuntosde ustedeseschucharnelDiscursode Obama a losEstudiantes?
Univision 27
5. Vocabulario/Vocabulary
Cuentenen grupos detres personas (uno, dos, tres, uno, dos, tres...)
Dividense en susgruposytomenunaseccion de laspalabras del vocabulario
Busquenlaspalabras en el diccionario de la red: http://www.wordreference.com/definicion/
Completen el Arbol de Vocabulario con lastres (3) palabrasmasimportantes de sulista
Voy a ir a cadagrupoparapronunciarlaspalabrascorrectamente
Si necesitantraducirlaspalabrasusen la pagina del red: www.spanishdict.com
6. Discurso de Obama a los Estudiantes/Obama Speech to Students (septiembre 2009)
En susgrupos, cadagrupova a teneruna parte del discurso de Obama a losEstudiantes(con la versin en ingles)
Tienenque leer el discursoypresentar un proyectoresumiendosuseccion a la clase en manera de diagrama/dibujo (diagram/drawing)
NOTA: Necesitanusarlastrespalabras del vocabulariomasimportantesen sudiagrama/dibujo
Tienen 15 minutos. BUENA SUERTE!
7. Diagramas del Discursode Obama a los Estudiantes
Please reflect on the activity that we just did:
How did you feel about yourself as a Spanish language learner?
What was the most difficult part of the activity?
What observations did you make about the instruction?
9. Jenny B.
When I couldnt speak English and I couldnt read English and I couldnt write English, it was like going to school and not learning anything because I couldnt understand the teachers and they couldnt understand me.Now that I speak English, I still dont understand my teachers!
10. JoleighC.
I know what I need to know and no teacher showed me that.I learned from my friends and from TV.
Writing in English is not important because they dont make me do it since I dont know the language well enough.
11. Statistics (based on the Urban Institute):
76% of ELLs elementary-age are born in the United States
56% of ELLs middle- and high school-age are born in the United States
80% of ELL parents are born outside of the United States
80% of all ELLs are Spanish-speakers
Most ELLs are at risk for poor school outcomes not only because of language, but also because of socioeconomic factors (Goldenberg 10).
12. Basic Information:
About a third of children of immigrants and half of limited English proficient students have parents with less than a high school education... LEP students or English language learners then tend to be highly segregated.That is, as a result of the ongoing racial and ethnic segregation and segregation by income in Americas public schools, we see heavily concentrations of children of immigrants and LEPs in the same schools, mostly in inner city but increasingly in places like Allentown (PA) and suburban areas as well (Courrier).
These children comprise the fastest-growing segment of the student population, with the highest growth rates occurring in grades 7-12 (Kindler 2002 as referenced by the Alliance for Excellence Education 2007)
13. More Information:
42% of the teachers surveyed by the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that they had ELLs in their classroom, but only 12.5% of these teacher received more than eight hours of professional development specifically related to ELLs (NCES, 2002).
In a study of content-area teachers held by Short (2002), one social studies teacher stated, I believed that was someone elses job.
The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) holds that in order for ELL students to receive an appropriate, effective, and meaningful education, all school personnel should understand the basic issues of second-language acquisition, bilingualism, the difference between social and academic language proficiency, and the roles that language and culture play in learning (McGraner 6)
14. Legislation: NCLB, Title III
The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (known as the No Child Left Behind Act) prompted an unprecedented focus on the academic achievement of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students (National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality)
Schools and districts nationwide are now accountable for helping limited English proficient children meet the same challenging state academic and content and student academic achievement standards as all students are expected to meet (NCLB, Part A, Subpart 1).
Only 11 states met their accountability goals for English-language learners under the No Child Left Behind Act in the 2007-08 school year, concludes a study commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education.
Do educators in your school assume shared responsibility for the achievement of English Language Learners, or do they leave up to the ELL/Bilingual teachers and tutors (if there are any)?
15. School and the English Language Learners
School is often ELL students first point of contact with U.S. culture, and educators must be well poised to ensure this contact results in strong family, community, and academic engagement (MacGraner 5).
16. First (L1) and Second (L2)Language Acquisition
A students proficiency in their first language is likely to be more predictive of how easily they will acquire English literacy (Thompson 4).
CREDE (Center for Research on Education) researchers concluded that the longer ELLs received instruction in a mix of their first language and English, the better their achievement in English (Goldenberg 12).
In other words, students who acquire literacy skills in their first language are able to transfer those skills to their second language provided that they have received adequate education to exposure to literacy in their first language (Pappamihiel et al 2008).
Unfortunately, student who dont receive the chance to continue to grow in both their languages are often without fluency in either (Hubbard & Shorey 53).
17. Conversational vs. Academic English
What is conversational English?
ELLsdevelop conversational English much more quickly than academic English . Although students typically learn social language through interaction with their peers, academic language must be taught explicitly and takes much longer (Connecting Research to English Language Learners to Practice 2009).
What is academic English?
Academic English the type that is essential for school success is particularly difficult to master because it is generally not used outside of the classroom and it draws on new vocabulary, more complex sentence structures, and rhetorical forms not typically encountered in nonacademic settings (Goldenberg 13).
Moreover, teachers must understand that students may demonstrate a solid command of conversational or social English and may be successful in nonacademic environments without possessing the knowledge and skills required to successfully access and master academic core content in academic environments (National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (2009).
18. Mainstream Teachers
Before mainstream teachers can effectively teach ELL students academic content, they must have a solid knowledge of teaching their subject matter (Graner & Saenz 7).
Reading and writing are mutually reinforcing skills for ELLs just as they are for native English speaker (Echevarra, Short & Powers 2006 as referenced by Alliance for Excellence Education)
The disconnect between the two cultures makes the students feel lost when they return to their mainstream classroom community after being away for one or two periods... To deal with this dilemma and provide effective instruction for ELLs, collaboration models or team teaching between ESL teachers and mainstream classroom teachers are highly recommended by researchers (Fu 326).
Students learn English when they are immersed in reading and writing (Custodio & Sutton 1998)
Educators must have a repertoire of strategies so that they can vary their interactions and curriculum as needed (MacGillivray & Rueda )
20. Cognitive Strategies
Curriculum that balances basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction for certain tasks (particularly in acquiring learning strategies), instructional approaches to enhance comprehension, and articulation and coordination of programs and practices within and between schools (Olson & Land 2007).
How can we break this quote down instructionally?
Directives vs. high-level cognitive and open-ended questions study (Verpleatse 1998)
21. Background Knowledge
Learning builds on previous experience (National Research Council 2000).
The languages used by the students and their family members, the students cross-cultural experiences, and their [first language] and [second language] literacy history are integral parts of ELLs knowledge, skills, and iden