Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classes ...

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  • TeachingEnglishLanguageLearnersInMainstreamClassrooms

    Focus on Writing

  • Empowerment

    Fewofuswouldques-onthatsocialandeconomicempowermentisrelatedtobeingabletousethespokenandwri:enformsoflanguageeffec-vely.Thosewhocanusethelanguageformswhichtheculturevaluesareabletoexertmorecontrolovertheirlivesthanthosewhocant.Giventhisrela-onshipbetweenlanguagecontrolandempowermentitisimportantforteacherstounderstandtheprocessesinvolvedingeCngcontrolofdifferentkindsoftextualforms.

    BrianCambourneandHazelBrownin1987citedinSAPPA

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • FocusonWri>ng2012

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    Awriterissuccessfuliftheycancreateatextthatachievesitspurposebycommunica>ngtoitsaudiencethemessageitwasmeanttoconveyincontext.Atextisaseriesofseman>cchoicescreatedinasocialcontextandcanbeassessedaseffec>veintwomainareas:registerandtextstructure.

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  • FocusonWri>ng2012

    Contextofculture

    Contextofsituation

    TEXT (tobewritten)

    Purpose

    Audience

    Contentknowledge

    Grammaticalfeatures

    Textstructure

    Languagechoices

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?Asuccessfulwriterissomeonewith:1. anunderstandingofthecontextofsitua-onandcontextof

    culture2. aclearandauthen>cpurposeforwri>ng3. awideknowledgeofthefieldtheyarewri>ngabout4. anunderstandingofthestructureandthegrammarrequiredto

    accuratelycreatethattexttype5. anunderstandingofthedifferencebetweenthewriQenand

    spokenmodesofcommunica>on.6. theEnglishknowledgetomanipulatethelanguagetosuittheir

    purposeincontext7. aclearideawhotheiraudiencewillbe8. confidencetowrite!

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    1.ContextofcultureandContextofsitua:on:Contextisanimportantanddifficultconcepttoexplaintostudents.Wri-nginthecontextofacultureyouarenotpartofmakestheprocessverydifficult.InAustralia,studentsarerequiredtospeakandwriteinstandardAustralianEnglishusingthetexttypesdescribedaboveacrosskeylearningareas.Thedominantculturedeterminestheacceptedlanguageusebutsodoesthesitua-oninwhichthelanguageisbeingconstructed.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    1.Contextofculture:age,gender,race,socioeconomicstatus,genera>on,familyhistory,countryofbirth,familybackground,interestsandpersonalitycanpoten>allychangethelanguageusedtowriteatext.Whatisvaluedmaydifferfromculturetocultureandpersontoperson.Contextofsitua:on:thelanguagechoicesawritermustmake,includingtheaudienceandthechannelofcommunica>on.WriQentextcandifferfromemailstowri>nginanexam,anassignment,aleQertotheeditororatextmessage.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    2.Arealpurposeforwri:ng:havingarealpurposeforwri>ngenablesthewritercanmakespecificchoicesaboutthelanguagetheyuse.Ifawriterispersuading,theywillmakedifferentlanguagechoicesthaniftheyweredescribingorrecoun>ng,thoughthesubjectmaystaythesame.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    3.Knowledgeofthesubjecttheyarewri:ngabout(field)Successfulwritersdemonstrateanunderstandingofthetopic.Itisimpossibletowriteknowledgablyaboutsomethingyouhaventlearntabout.Asateacherthisiswherethebalancebetweentopicknowledgeandtextproduc>onisvital.Ifyouprovidestudentswithallthesupporttowriteaspecifictextbutlimitthetopicknowledgetheywillfailinthewri>ngtaskbecausetheylackdepthintopicknowledge.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    4.Understandingthestructureandgramma:calfeaturesofthespecifictexttype.NSWBoardofStudies,1998Alltexttypeshaveastructureandspecificgramma>calfeatures.Consider,forexample,adjec>ves,whicharecommonlyusedinnarra>vetextstodescribeacharacterorase\ng.Theyarealsousedinpersuasivetextstodescribe,yetplayacri>callydifferentrole.ManyELstudentshavedifficultyunderstandingtherolegrammarplaysindifferenttexts.

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    Literarydescrip:onTodescribe,inliteraryterms,natural,physical,culturalandindividualphenomena.Maybepartofalargertextsuchasanarra:ve.

    Observa:onTorecordeventsandrespondtotheminapersonalway.Thereisnospecificsequence.Usedasatooltodeveloprecountandnarra:ve.

    Narra:veApaTernofevents,withaproblemorunexpectedoutcomesthatentertainandinstructthereaderorlistener.ThebehaviourpaTernsareoUenhighlyvalued.Theproblemsprovidereaderswithopportuni:estospeculateonresolu:on.

    LiteraryrecountTotellasequenceofeventssothatitentertainswithexpressionsofaVtudeandfeelingtobuildarela:onshipbetweenthereaderorspeakerandwriter.

    PoetryAnaesthe:cexperiencethatworksmainlythroughouremo:ons,sensoryexperiencesandimagina:vepercep:ons.Devicessuchasrhyme,rhythm,allitera:on,assonanceandonomatopoeiaareemphasised.

    Informa:onreportTopresentinforma:onandclassifyageneralclassofthingswhetherar:ficialornatural.

    Explana:onTotellhowandwhythingsoccurinscien:ficandtechnicalfields.

    DiscussionToexploremorethanonesideofanissue.Todiscovervariousperspec:vesbeforecomingtoaninformeddecision.

    Exposi:onToargueacasefororagainstapar:cularpointofview.

    Factualdescrip:onTodescribeapar:cularliving,nonlivingornaturalphenomenon.OUenpartofalargetextsuchasaninforma:onreport.

    FactualrecountTodocumentaseriesofeventsastheyoccurredandevaluatetheirsignificanceinsomeway.

    ProcedureHowtodosomething.Thismayincludeinstruc:onsonhowtocarryoutatask,rulesofagameordirec:onsonhowtogetsomewhere.

    ReviewAsummaryoranalysisofaliterarytextwithanassessmentastoitsappeal.

    PersonalresponseTosummariseandrespondpersonallytoatext.

    ProceduralrecountArecord,insequen:alorder,thestepstakentoachieveapar:culargoaloroutcome.

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    5.UnderstandingofthedifferencebetweenthewriTenandspokenmodesofcommunica:on.Asuccessfulwriterknowsthatinorderbeeffec>vetheymustbewellorganised,succinctandappropriate.Theydonothavetheluxuryoffacetofacecontacttoensuremeaningisclear,ortorepairabreakdown.Youcanprobablythinkofmanythrowawaylinespeopleuseinconversa>onsuchaswhatImeanis...toputthatanotherway...inotherwords...youknow...itslike...youknowwhatImean?butnotinwri>ng.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    6.UnderstandingthatEnglishlanguagechoicescanbemadetosuitthepurposeandtheaudience:Awritercanandshouldmanipulatelanguageinordertosuitbothpurposeandaudience.Thisknowledgeleadsthewritertochooseatexttypesuitedtothepurposeforwhichtheyarewri>ng.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    7.Aclearideaoftheiraudience(knownastenor):Itisnotuncommonforstudentstobewri>ngatextsimplyfortheteachertomark.Yetiftheaudienceisnotcleartheywillnotbeabletomakeaccuratelanguagechoices.Knowingyouraudiencewilldictatethelanguagechoicesyoumakeindifferentways:Therela:onshipyouhavewithyouraudiencechangesthelanguagechoicesyoumake.Considerforexampletherela>onshipbetweenthewriterandthereaderinthefollowingemails.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?HiMarg,SorryIcantmakethemee:ng.Somethingcameup...Youknowwhatitslikeoutthere!Canwemakeanother:me?LetmeknowASAP.LoveJanetDearMsTurnbullIamsorrybutIwillunabletoaTendtheconsulta:onmee:ngplannedfornextTuesdayat9:00am.IhaveapreviousengagementthatIcannotavoid.Ifitisconvenienttoarrangetomeetatanother:meIwillmakeeveryefforttoaTend.Pleaseletmeknowifthisispossible.RegardsJanetFreeman

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?Thedifferenceinknowledgebetweenthewriterandtheaudience. Imagineyouareexplainingacookingprocess.Consider

    thelanguagechoicesyouwouldmakeifyouknewyouraudiencewasanexperiencedcookandhowtheywoulddifferiftheywereabeginner.

    Therela:vepowerthewriterhasovertheiraudience. Thinkhowyouwouldwriteaskingsomeonetodo

    somethingifyouwerethebosstoanemployee,awifetoahusband,ateachertohisorherclass,andconsiderhowthelanguagemightchange.

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  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    Theconfidencetowrite.Itiswiththeaboveknowledgethatweareconfidentwriters.Weneverwritewithoutandaudienceorapurposeandwhilewemaywriteonsubjectssomewhatremovedfromourexperienceweknowwheretogotocheckourfacts(orwecanconfidentlymakethemupandsoundplausible)

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  • Talkingtosupportwri:ng

    Wri>ngisnotthesameasspeakingorreadingbut,asBrianGray(1990:113)pointsout,

    ItisdoubOulifchildrencanproduceandunderstandwri:entextsinanydepthunlesstheycanorallyproducetextsofthattypethemselves.

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  • Talkingtosupportwri:ngWeneedtoharnessthecapacityofourstudentsspokenlanguageabilityinordertosupporttheirwri>nginacademicse\ngs.Imagineastudenttellingyouwhytheyhadnotcompletedanassignment.Theymightbeginwitharecountofevents.Thisleadstoanexplana-onofwhytheassignmentcouldnotbecompleted,thenthismayquitepossiblymoveintopersuasivelanguageinordertoconvinceyouthattheyshouldhaveanextensiontocompletetheassignment.Youmay,ofcourse,thinkthewholeexplana:onisanarra:ve,butwhynotharnessthisability?

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  • Whyislearningabouttalkimportant?

  • !"#$%"$&'()*%+'"*,)++'-.&'*%,,/*%0%1'

    !"#$%&'()('(*+(&$,&$(-$&$./(0&10&2#0+300(2*&$%(&2#$0/+.'345'6700"8%+'!456&7,1'2&,)&5$32#(08&9::;?9@&!9:;

  • Talkingtosupportwri:ng

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    21

    Chapter two

    language opportunities for tasks also need to be considered, givingstudents scope to experiment and use exploratory language.

    Students understandings of social purpose and context willinfluence how they compose a text. Students need to be aware ofhow a text can be structured according to the demands of a taskin a particular situation and the impact of the structure on thelistener. Students need to experiment and try out differentstructures, experimenting with and challenging structures at othertimes.

    Mode continuumThere are clear differences between spoken and written languageuse. Writing is usually highly organised, linear, economical andexplicit. Speaking on the other hand, often appears disorganised,circular and implicit (Halliday, 1985). Like written language,spoken language has different purposes and hence significantlydifferent grammatical features. The skills, strategies and specificlanguage needed to participate in a group activity that involvesproblem-solving orally, differs from those used in delivering anoral report.

    The mode continuum below plots spoken texts on a continuumfrom texts which are informal and closest to spontaneous oralinteraction (language accompanying an activity) through tolanguage that is crafted, edited and organised more written like(spoken presentations). However, the representation below is onlyone aspect of using language, and needs to be considered alongsideaspects such as the relationship between speaker and audience(who has status in that particular situation, how often they speakto that person, how they regard that person and how they feelthat person regards them). These factors affect the role of languagein each interaction.

    Informal small group reporting newstime spoken readingface-to-face problem- back on a information aloudchat solving tasks task reports

    most spoken-like most written-like

    Language class show and tell language asaccompanying discussions reflectionaction

    The mode continuum (reflecting the use of spoken language)Pauline Jones (Ed) (1996) Talking to Learn, PETA, Sydney

  • Talkingtosupportwri:ng(Me)Tellmehowtogetupthetree(C)Putyoulegoverhere(Me)Likethis?(C)Yeahthatsgood.Nowletgoofthisone.

    (Me)Letitgonow?(C)Nowyesandgotothisonehere

    (Me)ohuhoh(C)Lookhereat...Yesthatsgood(Me)Itstoohighupmaybe?(C)Noitsokitissafe.

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  • Talkingtosupportwri:ngMeTellmehowtoclimbthetreeJPreferablyyouneedtobeginwithyourleSfoothereattheforkinthebranches.Thenselectthebestbranchtoholdonto.Onceyouhavedonethatyoupullyourselfup.(Itdoesrequireabitofupperbodystrength)Thenyoucon-nueclimbingonupchoosingthebestbranchun-ltherearenomorethatwilltakeyourweight.Thatdoestakeabitofjudgmentofcoursebutyoullfigurethatout!

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  • Planningforwri:ng Inorderforstudentstodevelopacademiclanguagetheyneedto

    firstbeaskedtono>cethetargetlanguage.Studentsneedsubstan>alexposuretothetargetlanguageincontext.

    Studentsthenneedtorecyclethetargetlanguagethrougharangeofgroupandpairac>vi>estothatinvolvetalkingaboutthetopic.Thisway,theyhearitandsayitincontext.

    Oncestudentshaveseen,heard,said,readandwriQenthetargetlanguageinthecontextofthetopic,througharangeofsuitableac>vi>es,theymayfeelreadytorecastthetargetlanguageinalesscontextualisedse\ngsuchasindependentwri>ng.

    Oncestudentshavecompletedanindependentpieceofwri>ng,theyneedopportuni>estoontheirwri>ngwithpeersandtheteacherinordertoconsolidatethisunderstanding.

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  • Planningforwri:ng

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    3.

    Guidedactivitiestodevelopvocabularyandtextknowledge

    4.Creatingatextindependently

    5.

    Reflectingonlanguagechoices

    1.

    Buildingtopicknowledge

    2.

    Buildingtextknowledge

    Ongoing

    Assessmentofandbystudents

  • Planningforwri:ng

    FocusonWri>ng2012

    Buildingtopicknowledge

  • Planningforwri:ng

    Beginningatthesentencelevelsupportsthestudentsunderstandingofthetopicthroughdescrip>onandvocabularybuildingbeforedevelopingthemorecomplexstructuresofawholetext.CreatethissentenceasIhavedonebelow:Iboughtaburger.Thenaskkeyques-onsWhatsortofburgerisit?WhatdiditcomewithWheredidyougetit?Whyandwhen?IboughtareallydeliciousgourmetbeefburgerwithsaladonitfromthefancyplacenearthebeachforlunchonSaturday.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Planningforwri:ng

    BuildingknowledgeaboutthetextTopicandpurposeWhattexttype?WhyshouldmincedbeefpaCesalwaysbecookedallthewaythrough?

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Planningforwri:ngOnceupona-meabunchofingredientsgottogethertomakebeefburgersforachildrensparty.Themincedbeef,herbsandspicesshapedthemselvesintopaCesandhoppedontothebarbecuetocookwhilethebunslightlytoastedthemselvesunderthegrill.

    SuddenlyoneofthepaCesleSthegrillundercooked.Thiswasadisaster!IfahumaneatsuncookedbeefmincetheyriskfoodpoisoningfromE.colibacteria.WhatweretheotherpaCestodo?Theirreputa-onsaspartyfoodwereatstake!

    Throughruthlessanddeviousmeans,theremainingpaCescontrivedtoforcethemiscreantoffthesideofthebarbecueandintothemud,renderingitinedible.Luckilyitwasthrownintothegarbagebyahelpfulhuman.Thebeefburgersreputa-onsurvivedandnohumanswereinfected.

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  • Planningforwri:ngGroundbeefsafetystandardsarestrictbecausegroundmeatshavemoreexposedsurfacearea,whichgivesbacteriamoreopportuni-estocontaminatethemeat.Hamburgersshouldbecookedtoaminimuminternaltemperatureof71CallthewaythroughtokillthebacteriaE.coli.E.coliisatypeofbacteriathatcancausefoodpoisoninginhumans.Some-mesreferredtoashamburgerdiseasebecauseitcanbetransmi:edthroughundercookedgroundbeef.

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  • Planningforwri:ngGuidedprac:ceoflanguageandtextBarrierac>vity/sClines Hot:burning,scorching,blistering,sizzling,searing,broiling,warm,cool,tepid,

    cold,scalding,heated. Thoroughly:carefully,systema>cally,methodically,precisely,me>culously,

    painstakingly,conscien>ously,assiduously.TextstripsAdverbialsortClozepassageTherearemanykindsofclozeac>vi>esyoucanuse:reversecloze,notneededclozeandreadaroundclozeforexample(seeDufficy(2010)formoreinforma>on).Flowcharts

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  • Planningforwri:ng

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    Barrierac:vity/s

  • Planningforwri:ngClinesadjec>valandadverbial Hot:burning,scorching,blistering,sizzling,searing,broiling,warm,cool,tepid,cold,scalding,heated.

    Thoroughly:carefully,systema>cally,methodically,precisely,me>culously,painstakingly,conscien>ously,assiduously.

    Andmanyothers

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  • Planningforwri:ng

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    Place(where) Time(forhowlongorwhen)

    Manner(inwhatway) Cause(why)

    intoalargebowl foratleast30minutes. Evenlywithyourhands inorderto

    oneachside forabout4minutesor into6equalpor:ons

    inthefridge un:lbrownedandcookedthrough

    carefullywithyourhandsintoapaTyabout:10cmindiameterand1.5cmthick

    underthepreheatedgrill onhighfor1minuteor securelywithplas:cwrap

    inalarge,nons:ckfryingpanovermediumlowheat

    un:lgolden withtheremainingoilandpaVes

    ontoatraylinedwithgreaseproofpaper

    withtheslicedtomato,tomatosauceandshreddedleTuce

    ontheboTomhalvesofthetoastedhamburgerbuns

    lightlywithsaltandpeppertotaste.

    onaplate withthehamburgerbuntops Adverbialsort

  • Planningforwri:ng

    FocusonWri>ng2012

    Flowchartforcookingahamburger

  • Planningforwri:ngGuidedprac>ceoflanguageandtextClozepassageTherearemanykindsofclozeac>vi>esyoucanuse:reversecloze,notneededclozeandreadaroundclozeforexample(seeDufficy(2010)formoreinforma>on).Flowcharts

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  • Independentprac:ceoftext

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    Writearecipeforyourpeerstomakeahamburger.

    Includealltheingredientsthatwouldmakeahealthyhamburger.

    Uselanguagethatyourpeerswillunderstand.Useaprocedureformatasusedinclass.Considertheuseofverbsandadverbsatthebeginningofeachstepandmakecertaintoincludeallthenecessaryinforma:onneededtodescribewhere,howandforhowlong.

    Beclearandconcise.

    Provideaveryexplicitrubricforyourstudentssotheyknowwhatyouwantthemtowriteandhowwellyouwantthemtowriteit,asintheexamplebelow.

  • Independentprac:ceoftext

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    Reflec>onandselfassessment

    Wri:ngrubric StudentcommentsWritearecipeforyourpeerstomakeahamburger(HaveIachievedmypurpose?)

    Yes,Ihavewri=entoinstructsomeoneinmyclassonhowtomakeahamburger.

    Includealltheingredientsthatwouldmakeahealthyhamburger(HaveIcoveredthetopic?)

    Yes,Iwasgivingaprocedureoncookingahealthyhamburger.

    Uselanguagethatyourpeerswillunderstand(HaveIaimedmywriAngattherightaudienceandmadegoodlanguagechoicesformyaudience?)

    Yes,theywillunderstandmylanguage.Imadeitsimpleenoughforthemtofollow.Theaudiencewasmyfriends.

    Useaprocedureformatasusedinclass(HaveIusedthecorrecttextstructure?)

    Yes,Iwroteinshortsentencesprovidingasentenceforeachstepoftherecipe.

    Considertheuseofverbsandadverbsatthebeginningofeachstepandmadecertaintoincludeallthenecessaryinforma:onneededtodescribewhere,howandforhowlong(HaveIusedthecorrectgrammarstructures?)

    Yes,Iusedarangeofverbs,atthebeginningofthesentenceandIwasclearinmyuseofpreposiAonsandincludedtheimportantinformaAonsuchascookingAme.

    Beclearandconcise(HaveImadesenseofthewriAng?)

    Yes.

  • Inconclusion

    Allstudentsarelearningtowriteinanacademicwayandwillcon>nuetobuildonwhatyouteachthemthroughouttheirlivesastheyencountersitua>onswheretheyareexpectedtowritewithincreasingsophis>ca>onacrossarangeoftopicsinmanydifferentgenres.Youareteachingyourstudentstheskillsforsuccessfulwri>ng.

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  • GetResources!!!

    PleasegotomyWIKItogetanyoftheresourcesyouhaveseenheretoday.

    h=p://primaryeslteachersnetwork.wikispaces.com/

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