Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classes

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  • TeachingEnglishLanguageLearnersInMainstreamClassrooms

    Focus on Writing

  • Empowerment

    Fewofuswouldques-onthatsocialandeconomicempowermentisrelatedtobeingabletousethespokenandwri:enformsoflanguageeffec-vely.Thosewhocanusethelanguageformswhichtheculturevaluesareabletoexertmorecontrolovertheirlivesthanthosewhocant.Giventhisrela-onshipbetweenlanguagecontrolandempowermentitisimportantforteacherstounderstandtheprocessesinvolvedingeCngcontrolofdifferentkindsoftextualforms.

    BrianCambourneandHazelBrownin1987citedinSAPPA

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • FocusonWri>ng2012

  • FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    Awriterissuccessfuliftheycancreateatextthatachievesitspurposebycommunica>ngtoitsaudiencethemessageitwasmeanttoconveyincontext.Atextisaseriesofseman>cchoicescreatedinasocialcontextandcanbeassessedaseffec>veintwomainareas:registerandtextstructure.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • FocusonWri>ng2012

    Contextofculture

    Contextofsituation

    TEXT (tobewritten)

    Purpose

    Audience

    Contentknowledge

    Grammaticalfeatures

    Textstructure

    Languagechoices

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?Asuccessfulwriterissomeonewith:1. anunderstandingofthecontextofsitua-onandcontextof

    culture2. aclearandauthen>cpurposeforwri>ng3. awideknowledgeofthefieldtheyarewri>ngabout4. anunderstandingofthestructureandthegrammarrequiredto

    accuratelycreatethattexttype5. anunderstandingofthedifferencebetweenthewriQenand

    spokenmodesofcommunica>on.6. theEnglishknowledgetomanipulatethelanguagetosuittheir

    purposeincontext7. aclearideawhotheiraudiencewillbe8. confidencetowrite!

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    1.ContextofcultureandContextofsitua:on:Contextisanimportantanddifficultconcepttoexplaintostudents.Wri-nginthecontextofacultureyouarenotpartofmakestheprocessverydifficult.InAustralia,studentsarerequiredtospeakandwriteinstandardAustralianEnglishusingthetexttypesdescribedaboveacrosskeylearningareas.Thedominantculturedeterminestheacceptedlanguageusebutsodoesthesitua-oninwhichthelanguageisbeingconstructed.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    1.Contextofculture:age,gender,race,socioeconomicstatus,genera>on,familyhistory,countryofbirth,familybackground,interestsandpersonalitycanpoten>allychangethelanguageusedtowriteatext.Whatisvaluedmaydifferfromculturetocultureandpersontoperson.Contextofsitua:on:thelanguagechoicesawritermustmake,includingtheaudienceandthechannelofcommunica>on.WriQentextcandifferfromemailstowri>nginanexam,anassignment,aleQertotheeditororatextmessage.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    2.Arealpurposeforwri:ng:havingarealpurposeforwri>ngenablesthewritercanmakespecificchoicesaboutthelanguagetheyuse.Ifawriterispersuading,theywillmakedifferentlanguagechoicesthaniftheyweredescribingorrecoun>ng,thoughthesubjectmaystaythesame.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    3.Knowledgeofthesubjecttheyarewri:ngabout(field)Successfulwritersdemonstrateanunderstandingofthetopic.Itisimpossibletowriteknowledgablyaboutsomethingyouhaventlearntabout.Asateacherthisiswherethebalancebetweentopicknowledgeandtextproduc>onisvital.Ifyouprovidestudentswithallthesupporttowriteaspecifictextbutlimitthetopicknowledgetheywillfailinthewri>ngtaskbecausetheylackdepthintopicknowledge.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    4.Understandingthestructureandgramma:calfeaturesofthespecifictexttype.NSWBoardofStudies,1998Alltexttypeshaveastructureandspecificgramma>calfeatures.Consider,forexample,adjec>ves,whicharecommonlyusedinnarra>vetextstodescribeacharacterorase\ng.Theyarealsousedinpersuasivetextstodescribe,yetplayacri>callydifferentrole.ManyELstudentshavedifficultyunderstandingtherolegrammarplaysindifferenttexts.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • FocusonWri>ng2012

    Literarydescrip:onTodescribe,inliteraryterms,natural,physical,culturalandindividualphenomena.Maybepartofalargertextsuchasanarra:ve.

    Observa:onTorecordeventsandrespondtotheminapersonalway.Thereisnospecificsequence.Usedasatooltodeveloprecountandnarra:ve.

    Narra:veApaTernofevents,withaproblemorunexpectedoutcomesthatentertainandinstructthereaderorlistener.ThebehaviourpaTernsareoUenhighlyvalued.Theproblemsprovidereaderswithopportuni:estospeculateonresolu:on.

    LiteraryrecountTotellasequenceofeventssothatitentertainswithexpressionsofaVtudeandfeelingtobuildarela:onshipbetweenthereaderorspeakerandwriter.

    PoetryAnaesthe:cexperiencethatworksmainlythroughouremo:ons,sensoryexperiencesandimagina:vepercep:ons.Devicessuchasrhyme,rhythm,allitera:on,assonanceandonomatopoeiaareemphasised.

    Informa:onreportTopresentinforma:onandclassifyageneralclassofthingswhetherar:ficialornatural.

    Explana:onTotellhowandwhythingsoccurinscien:ficandtechnicalfields.

    DiscussionToexploremorethanonesideofanissue.Todiscovervariousperspec:vesbeforecomingtoaninformeddecision.

    Exposi:onToargueacasefororagainstapar:cularpointofview.

    Factualdescrip:onTodescribeapar:cularliving,nonlivingornaturalphenomenon.OUenpartofalargetextsuchasaninforma:onreport.

    FactualrecountTodocumentaseriesofeventsastheyoccurredandevaluatetheirsignificanceinsomeway.

    ProcedureHowtodosomething.Thismayincludeinstruc:onsonhowtocarryoutatask,rulesofagameordirec:onsonhowtogetsomewhere.

    ReviewAsummaryoranalysisofaliterarytextwithanassessmentastoitsappeal.

    PersonalresponseTosummariseandrespondpersonallytoatext.

    ProceduralrecountArecord,insequen:alorder,thestepstakentoachieveapar:culargoaloroutcome.

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    5.UnderstandingofthedifferencebetweenthewriTenandspokenmodesofcommunica:on.Asuccessfulwriterknowsthatinorderbeeffec>vetheymustbewellorganised,succinctandappropriate.Theydonothavetheluxuryoffacetofacecontacttoensuremeaningisclear,ortorepairabreakdown.Youcanprobablythinkofmanythrowawaylinespeopleuseinconversa>onsuchaswhatImeanis...toputthatanotherway...inotherwords...youknow...itslike...youknowwhatImean?butnotinwri>ng.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    6.UnderstandingthatEnglishlanguagechoicescanbemadetosuitthepurposeandtheaudience:Awritercanandshouldmanipulatelanguageinordertosuitbothpurposeandaudience.Thisknowledgeleadsthewritertochooseatexttypesuitedtothepurposeforwhichtheyarewri>ng.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    7.Aclearideaoftheiraudience(knownastenor):Itisnotuncommonforstudentstobewri>ngatextsimplyfortheteachertomark.Yetiftheaudienceisnotcleartheywillnotbeabletomakeaccuratelanguagechoices.Knowingyouraudiencewilldictatethelanguagechoicesyoumakeindifferentways:Therela:onshipyouhavewithyouraudiencechangesthelanguagechoicesyoumake.Considerforexampletherela>onshipbetweenthewriterandthereaderinthefollowingemails.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?HiMarg,SorryIcantmakethemee:ng.Somethingcameup...Youknowwhatitslikeoutthere!Canwemakeanother:me?LetmeknowASAP.LoveJanetDearMsTurnbullIamsorrybutIwillunabletoaTendtheconsulta:onmee:ngplannedfornextTuesdayat9:00am.IhaveapreviousengagementthatIcannotavoid.Ifitisconvenienttoarrangetomeetatanother:meIwillmakeeveryefforttoaTend.Pleaseletmeknowifthisispossible.RegardsJanetFreeman

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?Thedifferenceinknowledgebetweenthewriterandtheaudience. Imagineyouareexplainingacookingprocess.Consider

    thelanguagechoicesyouwouldmakeifyouknewyouraudiencewasanexperiencedcookandhowtheywoulddifferiftheywereabeginner.

    Therela:vepowerthewriterhasovertheiraudience. Thinkhowyouwouldwriteaskingsomeonetodo

    somethingifyouwerethebosstoanemployee,awifetoahusband,ateachertohisorherclass,andconsiderhowthelanguagemightchange.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whatissuccessfulwri:ng?

    Theconfidencetowrite.Itiswiththeaboveknowledgethatweareconfidentwriters.Weneverwritewithoutandaudienceorapurposeandwhilewemaywriteonsubjectssomewhatremovedfromourexperienceweknowwheretogotocheckourfacts(orwecanconfidentlymakethemupandsoundplausible)

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Talkingtosupportwri:ng

    Wri>ngisnotthesameasspeakingorreadingbut,asBrianGray(1990:113)pointsout,

    ItisdoubOulifchildrencanproduceandunderstandwri:entextsinanydepthunlesstheycanorallyproducetextsofthattypethemselves.

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Talkingtosupportwri:ngWeneedtoharnessthecapacityofourstudentsspokenlanguageabilityinordertosupporttheirwri>nginacademicse\ngs.Imagineastudenttellingyouwhytheyhadnotcompletedanassignment.Theymightbeginwitharecountofevents.Thisleadstoanexplana-onofwhytheassignmentcouldnotbecompleted,thenthismayquitepossiblymoveintopersuasivelanguageinordertoconvinceyouthattheyshouldhaveanextensiontocompletetheassignment.Youmay,ofcourse,thinkthewholeexplana:onisanarra:ve,butwhynotharnessthisability?

    FocusonWri>ng2012

  • Whyislearningabouttalkimportant?

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    !"#$%&'()('(*+(&$,&$(-$&$./(0&10&2#0+300(2*&$%(&2#$0/+.'345'6700"8%+'!456&7,1'2&,)&5$32#(08&9::;?9@&!9:;

  • Talkingtosupportwri:ng

    FocusonWri>ng2012

    21

    Chapter two

    language opportunities for tasks also need to be considered, givingstudents scope to experiment and use exploratory language.

    Students understandings of social purpose and context willinfluence how they compose a text. Students need to be aware ofhow a text can be structured according to the demands of a taskin a particular situation and the impact of the structure on thelistener. Students need to experiment and try out differentstructures

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