Self-determined learning: Creating personal learning environments for lifelong learning

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Self-determined learning: Creating personal learning environments for lifelong learning

Self-determined learning: Creating personal learning environments for lifelong learningLisa marie blaschkeCarl von ossietzky universitt oldenburg

Good morning and welcome to the EC-TEL comference. It is a pleasure for me to be here and to meet with you during this year's conference, and I look forward to the opportunity to engage with you over the next two days. The conference theme this year is Designing for Teaching and Learning in a Networked World, and the topic I've chosen to talk to you about aligns very closely to that theme. 1

TopicsWhat is self-determined learning? A crash course in heutagogyThe practice of self-determined learningWhy should you be interested? Designing for self-determined learningBuilding personal learning environments (examples)

So what am I going to talk about? I'm going to talk to you about self-determined learning, or heutagogy, and how that theory can be applied to develop lifelong learning skills. I'll also talk about about the role of personal learning environments (PLEs) in supporting Selfc-determined learning.

Ask participants: who has heard of heutagogy or self-determined learning?

Okay, so the first part of the presentation, I'll be giving you a crash course in self-determined learning. 2

Heutagogy is the study of self-determined learning and applies a holistic approach to developing learner capabilities with the learner serving as the major agent in their own learning, which occurs, as a result of personal experience(Hase & Kenyon, 2007, p. 112)

What is self-determined learning (heutagogy)?

Time for the crash course. You will find more resources on this Bibblio site.

Heutagogy is a learning theory developed by two Australian guys, Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, back in the year 2000. Basically it is...

It is not the same as Deci's self-determination theory, which focuses primarily on motivation although understanding learner motivations and passions are part of the self-determined learning package.

Self-determined learning is...3

Learner-centered and learner-determined

CCBY US Department of Education

Learner-centered and learner-determined learning. Instructors and institutions are no longer at the center. Learners are. Instructors are no longer the sage on the stage, the learning gurus. Heutagogy is about instructors as guides and facilitators. Instructors providing guidance and resources as needed, working together with the learner to define the learning path (road map). Role of institutions in a heutagogical approach is that of providing platforms and support and helping learners find their individual learning paths and make connections with guides

Learners determine their path. And the role of human agency in learning is a fundamental principle. The learner is at the center of all heutagogic practice. The learner is self-motivated and autonomous and is primarily responsible for deciding what will be learned and how it will be learned and assessed.4

Capability development and self-efficacy


Capability is characterized by the following: being able to use ones competencies in unfamiliar as well as familiar circumstances, learner self-efficacy, communication, creativity, collaboration (teamwork), and positive values.

Competency can be understood as proven ability in acquiring knowledge and skills, while capability is characterized by learner confidence in his or her competency and, as a result, the ability to take appropriate and effective action to formulate and solve problems in both familiar and unfamiliar and changing settings (Cairns, 2000, p. 1, as cited in Gardner, Hase, Gardner, Dunn, & Carryer, 2007, p. 252).

Capable people exhibit the following traits: Self-efficacy, in knowing how to learn and continuously reflect on the learning process; Communication and teamwork skills, working well with others and being openly communicative; Creativity, particularly in applying competencies to new and unfamiliar situations and by being adaptable and flexible in approach; Positive values (Hase & Kenyon, 2000; Kenyon & Hase, 2010; Gardner et al., 2007).

Example of construction worker.


Self-reflection/meta-cognition and double-loop learning

Https:// /commons/a/a2/circle_reflect_wikipedia_sky.jpg

Within heutagogy, it is essential that reflection occurs in a holistic way. This translates to the learner reflecting not only what she or he has learned, but also the way in which it has been learned and understanding how it is learned (metacognition) -- and through double-loop learning, how it impacts the learners values. It is learning how to learn.

In double-loop learning, learners consider the problem and the resulting action and outcomes, in addition to reflecting upon the problem-solving process and how it influences the learners own beliefs and actions (see Figure 1). Double-loop learning occurs when learners question and test ones personal values and assumptions as being central to enhancing learning how to learn (Argyris & Schn, 1978, as cited in Hase, 2009, pp. 45-46).


Non-linear teaching and learning

Internet splat map (2004)

As learning is self-determined, the path to learning is defined by the learner and is not established by the teacher. As a result of learners choosing their own path, learning happens in a non-linear format. Learning can go in any direction that the learner wants.7

Builds on earlier theories and concepts 8HeutagogyAndragogyCapabilityTransformativeLearningSelf-EfficacyHumanismDouble-LoopLearningReflectivePracticeConstructivism

Heutagogy is not new. (This was pointed out to me at the RIDE conference in 2013.) On the contrary, heutagogy has its roots in earlier learning theories and concepts such as humanism (Maslow and Rogers), constructivism (Vygotsky), reflective practice (Schn), douple-loop learning (Argyris and Schn), andragogy (Knowles), transformative learning (Mezirow), capabilities (Stephenson), self-efficacy (Bandurra), all of which have contributed to the fundamental principles of heutagogy.


Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy (PAH) Continuum

Blaschke (2012)

The heutagogical approach can be viewed as a progression from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy, with learners likewise progressing in maturity and autonomy (Canning, 2010, see Figure 2). More mature learners require less instructor control and course structure and can be more self-directed in their learning, while less mature learners require more instructor guidance and course scaffolding (Canning & Callan, 2010; Kenyon & Hase, 2010). Cognitive development of learners, a requirement for critical reflection and discourse to occur, could also be integrated into this pyramid, with cognitive development progressing in parallel with learner maturity and autonomy (Mezirow, 1997). 9

A continuum of andragogyAndragogy (Self-directed)Heutagogy (Self-determined)Single-loop learningDouble-loop learningCompetency developmentCapability developmentLinear design and learning approachNon-linear design and learning approachInstructor-learner directed learningLearner-directed learningGetting students to learn (content)Getting students to understand how they learn (process)

Blaschke (2012)

It may help to understand heutagogy (self-determined) as a continuum of andragogy (self-directed), the study of teaching and learning for adults.

Single-loop learning: there is a problem, action, and outcomes, and the learner works to find a solution to a problem; in double-loop learning, the learner goes through that same process, but in addition also considers how she or he learned---and how this influences the learner beliefs and actions in a process of self-reflection. This self-reflection is fundamental to self-determined learning. Double-loop learning requires that learners are both psychologically and behaviorally engaged. They reflect on not only what they have learned, but also the way in which this new knowledge and the path to learning has influenced their values and belief system: Argyris & Schn (1978); Eberle & Childress (2005); Eberle (2013)While andragogy focuses on development of competencies, heutagogy builds on those competencies further. Competent learners can demonstrate that they have learned a skills or set of knowledge. Capable learners can apply those skills and knowledge in new and unfamiliar situations. Capability is characterized by the following: being able to use ones competencies in unfamiliar as well as familiar circumstances, learner self-efficacy, communication, creativity, collaboration (teamwork), and positive values: Cairns (1996, 2000); Stephenson (1992); Stephenson & Weil (1992): Gardner, Hase, Gardner, Dunn, & Carryer (2007), Hase & Kenyon, 2000, 2003, 2007)Andragogy is about learning in a linear away; heutagogy about non-linear learning, that is following the learner path. As learning is self-determined, the path to learning is defined by the learner and is not established by the teacher. As a result of learners choosing their own path, learning happens in a non-linear format (Peters (2002).In andragogy, learning is directed by the learner, but guided along a specific path by the instructor. In heutagogy, the path is directed entirely by the learner: from design to assessment. The role of human agency in learning is a fundamental principle. The learner is at the center of all heutagogic practice. The learner is self-motivated and autonomous and is primarily responsible for deciding what will be learned and how it will be learned and assessed: Hase & Kenyon (2000, 2007, 2013b); Hase (2009); Deci & Flaste (1995); Deci & Ryan (2002); Long, 1990); Pink (2009)With andragogy, focus is on getting students to learn content, and the primary focus is on the content. With heutagogy, the focus is placed on the process of learning itself and helping students understand how they learn. Within heutagogy, it is essential that reflection occurs in a holistic way. This translates to the learner reflecting not only what she or he has learned, but also the way in which it has been learned and understanding how it is learned (metacognition): Schn (1983, 1987); Mezirow & Associates (1990); Blaschke & Brindley (2011) 9/16/15


Why should you be interested?Addresses many of the challenges faced by education today:The workforce needs lifelong learning and lifelong learnersStudents need to learn how to learn and develop critical thinking skillsSchools cant teach everything; learners need to learn to learnMore institutions moving toward learner-centered learning and competency-based educationAligns well with affordances of todays technology

Can address many of the challenges faced by education today

Graduates need to be productive at the start of employment with little or no ramp-up time, and they must adapt quickly to new and disruptive innovations, continuously acquiring new skills:the complexities of the workforce in the 21st century require that employees have a wide range of cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, such as creativity, self-directedness, innovativeness, and knowledge of how they learn (Blaschke, in press, 2014, p. 1)

This is also one of the reasons that I was so inspired by this theory (my background).

and those challenges faced by ed tech. The 2015 Horizon report identifies the increasing importance of student-centeredness in educational approaches and a need to rethink how learning spaces should be configured (p.18). personalized learning (p. 26) teaching complex thinking (p. 28)More institutions moving toward learner-centered learning and competency-based education

Teaching/learning theory that aligns well with affordances of todays technology, in particular some of the newer technologies such as MOOCs and gaming

References:Ellerton , P. (2015). Teaching how to think is just as important as teaching anything else. [Web log.] The Conversation. Retrieved from:, K. (2015). Digital learning technology: How will technology transform digital learning in the next decades? eLearning Industry. Retrieved from:

A powerfulcombination

The combination of the social web and self-determined learning

Knowledge and information aggregationConnectivity, networking, and social rapport

Content discovery, sharing, and creation (individual and group)Reflection and creativity (individual and group)(Gerstein, 2013; Sharpe, Beetham, & DeFreitas, 2010; Conole, 2011; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007)

New technologies available on the web can further support learner-centered design and activities, as well as learner exploration, creativity, reflection, collaboration, and networking (Gerstein, 2013; Sharpe, Beetham, & DeFreitas, 2010; Conole, 2011; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007). 12

Benefits of heutagogyImproves critical thinking and reflectionIncreases learner engagement and motivationGives learners more control over learning (learner-centered)Improves ability of learners to investigate and question ideas and apply knowledge in practical situationsSupports development of independent ideas and self-confidenceMakes learners more capable and able to adapt to new environmentsBetter prepares them for the complexities of the workforceCanning & Callan (2010), Ashton & Elliott (2008), Ashton & Newman (2006), Blaschke (2014)

Based on initial research by Canning & Callan (2010), Ashton & Elliott (2008), Ashton & Newman (2006), here are some of the benefits of a heutagogical approach (see slide)

Why it should (review list of benefits):Most importantly, prepares learners for complex workforce by giving them a better understanding of how they learn

So now I've gone over the theoretical part. What does Heutagogy look like in practice?13

Key Elements of Heutagogical DesignExploreCollab-orateConnectReflectLearner


A Heutagogical learning environment has the following key elements (learner in center).Explore: Fundamental to heutagogy is the element of exploration. Learners must be given the freedom and opportunity to explore a variety of paths and sources of knowledge on their journey. They need to be able to develop and test hypotheses, and ask and answer questions all of which arise during the process of exploring. Structured curricula are out; learner-defined curricula are in.

Create: Another important design element of heutagogy is giving the learner the freedom to create. This can be achieved using a variety of learning approaches, e.g., writing, designing, and drawing. What is important is that the learner is actively involved.

Collaborate: Collaboration is another key element to heutagogy and aims to provide the kind of environment where learners can learner from each other. Working together toward a common goal, learners are able to solve problems and reinforce their knowledge by sharing information and experiences, continuously practicing, and experimenting by trial and error. They simply help each other along the way. The teacher serves as coach during the collaboration process.t

Connect: Networks and connections are a critical aspect within heutagogy, as it is through these connections that new avenues of learning can be created. Making connections is easy with todays social media, which give learners an opportunity to network with people across the worldand I will talk more about this later.

Share: : Once learners have started connecting, they can begin sharing.

Reflect: Finally, within every heutagogic learning environment, learners need to have opportunities to reflect. This is where there is potential for new learning to occur and previous learning to be consolidated. Reflection provides an opportunity to ascend to higher levels of cognitive activity such as analysis and synthesis. Repetition helps information move from short- to long-term memory. This reflective activity should include reflecting on the new knowledge that the learner has gained, as well as how she or he has learned and the ways in which this learning experience has influenced his or her value system and beliefs.



We need to inspire learners to learn again.

We start at the beginning.

Remember when learning was fun? When it was an adventure? We need to go back to learner-centeredness (if you follow George Siemens' blog, you know he highlighted this as a critical Ed tech theme recently). We need to go back to making learning fun again.

Think about your first memories of learning something. Mine was learning to swim. It wasn't in a class of pre-schoolers. It was in a backwoods Midwestern pond with my Native American Indian aunt who walked me through my breathing, my movements, holding me in the water and letting me go little by little until I could float and move on my own.

Does self-determined learning begin with adulthood? The PAH continuum seems to imply this. Stewart Hase doesnt agree with the PAH continuum. He says that young children have all of the characteristics of heutagogic learners until they enter the school system. I would tend to agree. If we start at the beginning, we will have learners who grow into self-determined, active learning. And not passive learners like many of my graduate students, who look to me for all of the answers rather than trying to discover them on their own.15

Develop learner autonomyDiscover what motivates your learnersIdentify learners level of autonomy and adjust accordingly Learner questionnaires and contractsLearner-directed questions and discussionsFocus on teaching learners how to learn

Consider learners level of autonomy and adjust accordingly: Incorporate learnerquestionnaires, learner contracts, and learner-directed questions and discussions

Motivation is key here. Learners and workers are motivated when they are given autonomy. Pink writes about this in his book Drive. Empowering people and letting them make choices. And heutagogy is all about autonomy. What we do in education? We take away that autonomy or only allow it in small doses. We teach learners to be consumers. And it is really really hard to break them out of that mindset. So many students have said to me, exasperatedly, just tell me what you want me to do! I smile and say what do you want to do?Give them the tools to make them digitally literate, Citizens of the net. Create their own worlds.


Let learners create and play and failNurture a growth mindsetProject-based learningInquiry learningProblem-based learningIncorporate activities for self-reflection, self- and information-discovery, and experimentationLearning journalsVisual story-telling

All about explorationand making mistakes along the way. A growth mindset must be nurtured: "based on the belief that your basic qualities are things you can cultivate through your efforts..everyone can change and grow through application and experience" (p.7) Characterized by: practice and discipline, character (digging deep), failure and recovery (NASA example of hiring those with significant failures and bounced back ), learning and improving, sticking to it, thriving on challenges, realize developing potential and capability take time, failure does not define you, take charge of learning and motivation, know how to fail, take charge of processes that bring success, a work in progress. "Studying to learn, not ace the test." (P.63).Carol Dweck

Fixed mindset: "believing that your qualities are carved in stone" (p. 6) Characterized by: interest only if you do well, don't make mistakes, measured by others' evaluation of you, failure defines you, belief in fixed traits and intelligence, things go wrong lose focus and ability, effort casts doubt on talent, victim perspective.

DeWitt (2015) identifies ways we can support growth mindsets in the classroom: less testing, more feedback, flexible grouping, deeper questions, less teacher talkingLearning by doing:The power of Active Learning: Many of todays learners favor active, participatory, experiential learningthe learning style they exhibit in their personal lives. But their behavior may not match their self-expressed learning preferences when sitting in a large lecture hall with chairs bolted to the floor.Over 70% of our master's students have identified "learning by doing" as their preferred way of learning -- what better way than using technology? Refer back to previous work on active learning and social media (Blaschke, Porto, Kurtz)


Encourage reflectionBuild learner skills while allowing them to determine and reflect on their learning path Scaffolding of learning activities to create frameworks for learning/discovery Learner-directed questionsAction research

Build learner skills while allowing them to determine and reflect on their learning path, scaffold learning activities to create frameworks forlearning/discovery, use learner-directed questions, action research, double-loop learning leading to transformative learning (Mezirow and Associates, 1990).

Double-loop learning --- leading to transformative learning

References:Mezirow, J., & Associates. (1990). A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Blaschke & Brindley (2010)18

Empower learners to collaborate/createBuild learning environments for creative expressionOpen learning spaces Maker spacesIncorporate group exercises and collaborative assessment Collaborative group workCommunities of practice

Empower learners to collaborate and create: Incorporate group exercises and collaborative assessment (Albon 2006).

Collaborative learning spaces:

As Brandt (2013) relates: Virtual connections, made through the internet, can provide opportunities for real-time input from experts in the field of study (p. 110). Whenever possible, learners should be encouraged to connect with others within their discipline using the media available. Examples of social networking sites include Twitter (, LinkedIn (, (, Facebook (, WhatsApp (, and Google+ (


Build skills and competenciesSupport development of personal knowledge management, digital literacy, and social collaboration skillsSkill building activitiesSocial networking and collaboration toolsGamingPromote self-efficacy (Ritchie, 2015)Articulate goalsSet parameters

Build skills and competencies: Support development of personal knowledgemanagement, digital literacy, and social collaboration skills; incorporate skillbuilding activities and social networking and collaboration tools (building competencies to lead to capabilities, in particular through the use of social media); use badges to indicate accomplished competencies and learning outcomes.

Mindful agency: learning in the complexworld of risk, uncertainty and challenge, what matters is beingable to identify, select, collect, collate, curate and collaboratively re-construct information to suit a particular purpose.Resilient Agency is our capacity to move iteratively beween purpose and performance, utilising our learning power and generating and re-structuring knowledge to serveourpurpose.

Gaming: Minecraft in schools: is like LEGOs on steroids, says Eric Sheninger, a senior fellow at the International Center for Leadership in Education. Learners of all ages work together to ultimately create a product that has value to them, he adds.His third graders had created cardboard dioramas previously; when using Minecraft, they became highly motivated to plan, organize, and create a model community of systems and a form of governance, adds Gallagher. it is the enthusiasm students have for learning to play Minecraft that is so compelling. Minecraft players share this impassioned learning with fans of other forms of popular culture.In this sense, Minecraft is not so much a game, but a social network that values and circulates expertise.

Refer to Laura Ritchies new bookReferences: Ritchie, L. (in press). Fostering self-efficacy in higher education students. United Kingdom: Palgrave.


Allow learners to define successAssess learner achievement by negotiating the assessment process and making curriculum flexibleFormative assessmentLearning contractsSelf-assessment and peer-assessment

Allow learners to define success: Assess learner achievement by negotiating theassessment process and making curriculum flexible, using formative assessment,learning contracts, learner-defined learning, self-assessment, and collaborativeassessment. The ability of learners to self-assess their success can depend onlearner maturity and autonomy and will often require guidance by the teacher.

Would be a need for learner contracts such as those at Empire State College.

Difficult to realize. Institutions and teachers have to relinquish control, which is difficult to do. And learners need to take on more responsibility (sometimes even harder to do). Example from Brandt -- not wanting the responsibility, but in the end wanting this type of learning more.

Booth, M. (2014). Assessment as an ongoing act of learning: A heutagogical approach. In L.M.Blaschke, C.Kenyon, & S.Hase, Experiences in self-determined learning. USA: Amazon.


Use open learning environmentsChoose a learning environment that supports free and open learningMOOC (xMOOCs, cMOOCs, project-based MOOCS, open boundary courses)Communities of practice (CoPs) and community networksBibblio (

Open courses (Alec Couros)

MOOCs:Hazipanagos, S. (2015). What do MOOCs contribute to the debate on learning design of online courses? eLearning Papers. ISSN: 1887-1542. Retrieved from: MOOCs: playground of learner autonomy, connections, constructivism, peer and self-assessment"Soft infrastructures" >> non-prescriptive and entrepreneurialMOOCs as portals not an end in themselves that invite faculty to discover the value and varieties of open learning. They provide an entre to new outlets for faculty to see their academic work impact broader audiences and to feel "empowered and supported in an expanded approach to teaching."5We definesoft infrastructureas "the resources, values, and affirmations that support faculty agency in experimenting with digital learning." This soft infrastructure has driven the transformative and creative repurposing of hard infrastructure and associated systems to scale up Stanford's digital learning initiatives.

Soft infrastructure is built by the activities of users and communities that then provide direction for the development of hard infrastructure, not the other way around. Relationship-intensive, soft infrastructure is, as Groom and Lamb articulated, "user-driven innovation" and ultimately about empowering people, specifically faculty, to leverage their ideas, insights, and creativity to drive the development of digital learning experiences.7At Stanford, a focus on soft infrastructure allowed us to embrace the ambiguities and unknowns of new ideas and then build relationships to bring those ideas to life:

However,learning is most meaningful when it is interest-based."Open boundary courses" intelligent discovery platform22

The first part of the heutagogic design process is defining the learning contract. During this phase, the learner and teacher work together to identify learning needs and outcomes. What does the learner want to learn/achieve? What should be the result of the learning experience (learning outcome)? In addition, specific course or program learning outcomes that may be required by the institutional environment should be taken into consideration. Next, the learner and teacher negotiate the assessment process. How will learning be assessed and who will assess it? In other words, how do we know that learning has been achieved? The curriculum should then be adapted to the learning outcomes, as well as throughout the learning process. At the end of this part of the process, a learner contract is created and agreed upon. (Do we identify resources here? The next part of the process is development of the learning activity. Once the learner and teacher have reached agreement on the design for the learning, the learner and/or teacher can then choose any media, application, or tool to support their learning activities. It is essential that learners and teachers select those that support the learning activity and the desired learning goal. During this phase of the process, teachers should support learners in defining activities for learning, providing ongoing, constructive feedback, and provide opportunities for learners to self-reflect on new knowledge gained and on the learning process.

In the last part of a heutagogic design process, learning is assessed in order to determine whether the agreed upon outcomes have been achieved. How learning is assessed is based on the learner contract defined at the start of the process. Learning outcomes are reviewed and assessed and specific competencies and skills acquired are identified. As heutagogy is learner-centered, the learner is the primary assessor of his or her learning.


Grade school application24

K-12 application:

Jon Andrews executive director of teaching and learning at St. Paul's School in Brisbane, Australia. Used Heutagogy in his approach to education at the junior school (from ages 3 to 4 up to Year 6). There are 1,450 at the school in total (including those up to the senior school)

The approach is holistic with the student as the agent of his/her learning. The school is thriving using the approach and still meeting the mandates of the government's national curriculum.

In implementing the approach, Andrews developed a FACE model:Flexible and negotiated curriculum (With inquiry bas d "hooks" to lure students to learning)Assessment: Flexible and negotiated, with instructor and learner collaborating on criteria; self-assessment and peer-assessment.Contracts: a Learner-defined pathways. Roadmap exploration. Enquiry questions that are generated by the learners.

Staff underwent training in the approach. Had the support of mentors and a curriculum design team, including a Twitter PLN.

Result: "teacher and student are almost indistinguishable as learners". Looks like chaos but learning is happening, students are having fun (and teachers too!), and mandates are being met.


University-level application

OMDE601 example


Professional development example

Jill Ridden's example of Teacher communities of practice to support professional development for teachers in special education.Thom Cochrane and Vickel Naryan's examples of COPs for lecturers and developers on using SoMe in curriculum.David Price's example of creating and participating in communities of practice that support the ongoing professional development of teachers in ways of their choosing.Denise Hexom's example with iPads: faculty staff use iPads as a means of introducing self-determined learning into the corridors of higher education.Robert Schuetz's experience of blogging can improve teacher practice by supporting self-determined learning and reflections. The example of the Heutagogy CoP: how it came to be, what media are used and how, how it is a PLE in itself.


What does this have to do with PLEs?

Have chosen PLE rather than PLN, as network infers technology, and PLEs are not only technology. They are people, places, and communities >> supported by technology.9/16/15


Primary Education (K-4) PLE

What a PLE might look like for a self-determined learner in primary education.

Begin foundations for a PLE: Inspire learners Key elements: Explore, create, *fail*

Example: English class in Germany >> explore: asking about online programs, iPad apps, places to learn

Kids like using iPad, but "if there's a way they could make learning more fun that would be nice

improv learning >> challenge in moving these into virtual environments, group work (learning together and from each other), building PLNs, Gradual introduction of tech, setting learning goals (motivation: example of Anastasia, group learning: English kids and the new books, pen pals across the world)

Introduce tools to become citizens of the net. Most elements of the PLE are social, face-to-face. Instructor provides extensive guidance.

Examples: maker-spaces, minecraft, pen pals, iPads29

Secondary Education (5-12) PLE


What a PLE might look like for a self-determined learner in secondary education.

Jon Andrews' junior school in Australia

5-12: gradual increase of tech, still personalized, still exploring, more collaboration, more specialized, setting learning goals, creating contracts (John Andrew's work); #blimage challenge (

Virtual reality: museum offers view into the Bronze Age

Groupwork, storytelling, blog, minecraft, games, WhatsApp, SnapChat30

Higher Education PLEMichele Ursino:

What a PLE might look like for a self-determined learner in higher education.

Examples: Thomas Cochrane and Vickel Narayan's use of mobile tech; OMDE601 (Google, Twitter, MindMaps, Diigo)

Twitter, Evernote, e-portfolio, library, friends (Facebook), Skype, Tinder (or other dating app); University of Salfords Match Made in Salford


Professional Development PLE



What a PLE might look like for a self-determined learner in a professional development enviroment.

Examples:Denise Hexom's faulty training with iPads; Jill Riddens community of practice; Heutagogy CoP

Twitter, LinkedIn, MOOCs, CoPs, Research Gate, Medeley,, professional networks, badges,

Workplace and Lifelong learning: NETWORKS (leadership study), connections, collaborations, communities of practice (heutagogy example, SAP example, cop example from book), digital badges

Mor & Warburton (2015), MOOCs for professional development

Littlejohn & Milligan (2015). Designing MOOCs for professional learners: Tools and patterns to encourage self-regulated learning.


Learners design and create their own PLEs.

We provide learning environments and give learners to tools to make those environments their own. Holistic.Personalized.Contextual.

Technology supports the process.Align technology with the learning activity: Certain technologies supportcertain learning activities better than others. Identify your learning outcomes,then the skills that learners should acquire during the learning process(e.g., design, collaborate, co-create), and finally choose the tool that supportsthat learning activity.

Terry Anderson said:


Join us!Heutagogy Community of Practice:Website: LinkedIn: All Things Heutagogy:




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