Self-determined learning: Creating personal learning environments for lifelong learning

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<p>Self-determined learning: Creating personal learning environments for lifelong learning</p> <p>Self-determined learning: Creating personal learning environments for lifelong learningLisa marie blaschkeCarl von ossietzky universitt oldenburg</p> <p>Good morning and welcome to the EC-TEL comference. It is a pleasure for me to be here and to meet with you during this year's conference, and I look forward to the opportunity to engage with you over the next two days. The conference theme this year is Designing for Teaching and Learning in a Networked World, and the topic I've chosen to talk to you about aligns very closely to that theme. 1</p> <p>TopicsWhat is self-determined learning? A crash course in heutagogyThe practice of self-determined learningWhy should you be interested? Designing for self-determined learningBuilding personal learning environments (examples) </p> <p>So what am I going to talk about? I'm going to talk to you about self-determined learning, or heutagogy, and how that theory can be applied to develop lifelong learning skills. I'll also talk about about the role of personal learning environments (PLEs) in supporting Selfc-determined learning.</p> <p>Ask participants: who has heard of heutagogy or self-determined learning?</p> <p>Okay, so the first part of the presentation, I'll be giving you a crash course in self-determined learning. 2</p> <p>Heutagogy is the study of self-determined learning and applies a holistic approach to developing learner capabilities with the learner serving as the major agent in their own learning, which occurs, as a result of personal experience(Hase &amp; Kenyon, 2007, p. 112)</p> <p>What is self-determined learning (heutagogy)?http://bibblio.org/u/The%20Heutagogy%20Collection/content</p> <p>Time for the crash course. You will find more resources on this Bibblio site.</p> <p>Heutagogy is a learning theory developed by two Australian guys, Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, back in the year 2000. Basically it is...</p> <p>It is not the same as Deci's self-determination theory, which focuses primarily on motivation although understanding learner motivations and passions are part of the self-determined learning package.</p> <p>Self-determined learning is...3</p> <p>Learner-centered and learner-determined</p> <p>CCBY US Department of Education</p> <p>Learner-centered and learner-determined learning. Instructors and institutions are no longer at the center. Learners are. Instructors are no longer the sage on the stage, the learning gurus. Heutagogy is about instructors as guides and facilitators. Instructors providing guidance and resources as needed, working together with the learner to define the learning path (road map). Role of institutions in a heutagogical approach is that of providing platforms and support and helping learners find their individual learning paths and make connections with guides</p> <p>Learners determine their path. And the role of human agency in learning is a fundamental principle. The learner is at the center of all heutagogic practice. The learner is self-motivated and autonomous and is primarily responsible for deciding what will be learned and how it will be learned and assessed.4</p> <p>Capability development and self-efficacy</p> <p>Https://jisc.ac.uk/news/free-wifi-available-to-thousands-of-medical-students-in-hospitals-across-west-Yorkshire-06-jul</p> <p>Capability is characterized by the following: being able to use ones competencies in unfamiliar as well as familiar circumstances, learner self-efficacy, communication, creativity, collaboration (teamwork), and positive values.</p> <p>Competency can be understood as proven ability in acquiring knowledge and skills, while capability is characterized by learner confidence in his or her competency and, as a result, the ability to take appropriate and effective action to formulate and solve problems in both familiar and unfamiliar and changing settings (Cairns, 2000, p. 1, as cited in Gardner, Hase, Gardner, Dunn, &amp; Carryer, 2007, p. 252). </p> <p>Capable people exhibit the following traits: Self-efficacy, in knowing how to learn and continuously reflect on the learning process; Communication and teamwork skills, working well with others and being openly communicative; Creativity, particularly in applying competencies to new and unfamiliar situations and by being adaptable and flexible in approach; Positive values (Hase &amp; Kenyon, 2000; Kenyon &amp; Hase, 2010; Gardner et al., 2007). </p> <p>Example of construction worker.</p> <p>5</p> <p>Self-reflection/meta-cognition and double-loop learning</p> <p>Https://upload.wikimedia.org/Wikipedia /commons/a/a2/circle_reflect_wikipedia_sky.jpg</p> <p>Within heutagogy, it is essential that reflection occurs in a holistic way. This translates to the learner reflecting not only what she or he has learned, but also the way in which it has been learned and understanding how it is learned (metacognition) -- and through double-loop learning, how it impacts the learners values. It is learning how to learn.</p> <p>In double-loop learning, learners consider the problem and the resulting action and outcomes, in addition to reflecting upon the problem-solving process and how it influences the learners own beliefs and actions (see Figure 1). Double-loop learning occurs when learners question and test ones personal values and assumptions as being central to enhancing learning how to learn (Argyris &amp; Schn, 1978, as cited in Hase, 2009, pp. 45-46). </p> <p>6</p> <p>Non-linear teaching and learning</p> <p>Internet splat map (2004) https://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/916142</p> <p>As learning is self-determined, the path to learning is defined by the learner and is not established by the teacher. As a result of learners choosing their own path, learning happens in a non-linear format. Learning can go in any direction that the learner wants.7</p> <p>Builds on earlier theories and concepts 8HeutagogyAndragogyCapabilityTransformativeLearningSelf-EfficacyHumanismDouble-LoopLearningReflectivePracticeConstructivism</p> <p>Heutagogy is not new. (This was pointed out to me at the RIDE conference in 2013.) On the contrary, heutagogy has its roots in earlier learning theories and concepts such as humanism (Maslow and Rogers), constructivism (Vygotsky), reflective practice (Schn), douple-loop learning (Argyris and Schn), andragogy (Knowles), transformative learning (Mezirow), capabilities (Stephenson), self-efficacy (Bandurra), all of which have contributed to the fundamental principles of heutagogy.</p> <p>8</p> <p>Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy (PAH) Continuum</p> <p>Blaschke (2012)</p> <p>The heutagogical approach can be viewed as a progression from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy, with learners likewise progressing in maturity and autonomy (Canning, 2010, see Figure 2). More mature learners require less instructor control and course structure and can be more self-directed in their learning, while less mature learners require more instructor guidance and course scaffolding (Canning &amp; Callan, 2010; Kenyon &amp; Hase, 2010). Cognitive development of learners, a requirement for critical reflection and discourse to occur, could also be integrated into this pyramid, with cognitive development progressing in parallel with learner maturity and autonomy (Mezirow, 1997). 9</p> <p>A continuum of andragogyAndragogy (Self-directed)Heutagogy (Self-determined)Single-loop learningDouble-loop learningCompetency developmentCapability developmentLinear design and learning approachNon-linear design and learning approachInstructor-learner directed learningLearner-directed learningGetting students to learn (content)Getting students to understand how they learn (process)</p> <p>Blaschke (2012)</p> <p>It may help to understand heutagogy (self-determined) as a continuum of andragogy (self-directed), the study of teaching and learning for adults.</p> <p>Single-loop learning: there is a problem, action, and outcomes, and the learner works to find a solution to a problem; in double-loop learning, the learner goes through that same process, but in addition also considers how she or he learned---and how this influences the learner beliefs and actions in a process of self-reflection. This self-reflection is fundamental to self-determined learning. Double-loop learning requires that learners are both psychologically and behaviorally engaged. They reflect on not only what they have learned, but also the way in which this new knowledge and the path to learning has influenced their values and belief system: Argyris &amp; Schn (1978); Eberle &amp; Childress (2005); Eberle (2013)While andragogy focuses on development of competencies, heutagogy builds on those competencies further. Competent learners can demonstrate that they have learned a skills or set of knowledge. Capable learners can apply those skills and knowledge in new and unfamiliar situations. Capability is characterized by the following: being able to use ones competencies in unfamiliar as well as familiar circumstances, learner self-efficacy, communication, creativity, collaboration (teamwork), and positive values: Cairns (1996, 2000); Stephenson (1992); Stephenson &amp; Weil (1992): Gardner, Hase, Gardner, Dunn, &amp; Carryer (2007), Hase &amp; Kenyon, 2000, 2003, 2007)Andragogy is about learning in a linear away; heutagogy about non-linear learning, that is following the learner path. As learning is self-determined, the path to learning is defined by the learner and is not established by the teacher. As a result of learners choosing their own path, learning happens in a non-linear format (Peters (2002).In andragogy, learning is directed by the learner, but guided along a specific path by the instructor. In heutagogy, the path is directed entirely by the learner: from design to assessment. The role of human agency in learning is a fundamental principle. The learner is at the center of all heutagogic practice. The learner is self-motivated and autonomous and is primarily responsible for deciding what will be learned and how it will be learned and assessed: Hase &amp; Kenyon (2000, 2007, 2013b); Hase (2009); Deci &amp; Flaste (1995); Deci &amp; Ryan (2002); Long, 1990); Pink (2009)With andragogy, focus is on getting students to learn content, and the primary focus is on the content. With heutagogy, the focus is placed on the process of learning itself and helping students understand how they learn. Within heutagogy, it is essential that reflection occurs in a holistic way. This translates to the learner reflecting not only what she or he has learned, but also the way in which it has been learned and understanding how it is learned (metacognition): Schn (1983, 1987); Mezirow &amp; Associates (1990); Blaschke &amp; Brindley (2011) 9/16/15</p> <p>10</p> <p>Why should you be interested?Addresses many of the challenges faced by education today:The workforce needs lifelong learning and lifelong learnersStudents need to learn how to learn and develop critical thinking skillsSchools cant teach everything; learners need to learn to learnMore institutions moving toward learner-centered learning and competency-based educationAligns well with affordances of todays technology</p> <p>Can address many of the challenges faced by education today</p> <p>Graduates need to be productive at the start of employment with little or no ramp-up time, and they must adapt quickly to new and disruptive innovations, continuously acquiring new skills:the complexities of the workforce in the 21st century require that employees have a wide range of cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, such as creativity, self-directedness, innovativeness, and knowledge of how they learn (Blaschke, in press, 2014, p. 1)</p> <p>This is also one of the reasons that I was so inspired by this theory (my background). </p> <p>and those challenges faced by ed tech. The 2015 Horizon report identifies the increasing importance of student-centeredness in educational approaches and a need to rethink how learning spaces should be configured (p.18). personalized learning (p. 26) teaching complex thinking (p. 28)More institutions moving toward learner-centered learning and competency-based education</p> <p>Teaching/learning theory that aligns well with affordances of todays technology, in particular some of the newer technologies such as MOOCs and gaming</p> <p>References:Ellerton , P. (2015). Teaching how to think is just as important as teaching anything else. [Web log.] The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/teaching-how-to-think-is-just-as-important-as-teaching-anything-else-46073Kalamara, K. (2015). Digital learning technology: How will technology transform digital learning in the next decades? eLearning Industry. Retrieved from: http://elearningindustry.com/digital-learning-technology-will-technology-transform-digital-learning-next-decades11</p> <p>A powerfulcombination</p> <p>The combination of the social web and self-determined learning</p> <p>Knowledge and information aggregationConnectivity, networking, and social rapport</p> <p>Content discovery, sharing, and creation (individual and group)Reflection and creativity (individual and group)(Gerstein, 2013; Sharpe, Beetham, &amp; DeFreitas, 2010; Conole, 2011; McLoughlin &amp; Lee, 2007)</p> <p>New technologies available on the web can further support learner-centered design and activities, as well as learner exploration, creativity, reflection, collaboration, and networking (Gerstein, 2013; Sharpe, Beetham, &amp; DeFreitas, 2010; Conole, 2011; McLoughlin &amp; Lee, 2007). 12</p> <p>Benefits of heutagogyImproves critical thinking and reflectionIncreases learner engagement and motivationGives learners more control over learning (learner-centered)Improves ability of learners to investigate and question ideas and apply knowledge in practical situationsSupports development of independent ideas and self-confidenceMakes learners more capable and able to adapt to new environmentsBetter prepares them for the complexities of the workforceCanning &amp; Callan (2010), Ashton &amp; Elliott (2008), Ashton &amp; Newman (2006), Blaschke (2014)</p> <p>Based on initial research by Canning &amp; Callan (2010), Ashton &amp; Elliott (2008), Ashton &amp; Newman (2006), here are some of the benefits of a heutagogical approach (see slide)</p> <p>Why it should (review list of benefits):Most importantly, prepares learners for complex workforce by giving them a better understanding of how they learn</p> <p>So now I've gone over the theoretical part. What does Heutagogy look like in practice?13</p> <p>Key Elements of Heutagogical DesignExploreCollab-orateConnectReflectLearner</p> <p>ShareCreate</p> <p>A Heutagogical learning environment has the following key elements (learner in center).Explore: Fundamental to heutagogy is the element of exploration. Learners must be given the freedom and opportunity to explore a variety of paths and sources of knowledge on their journey. They need to be able to develop and test hypotheses, and ask and answer questions all of which arise during the process of exploring. Structured curricula are out; learner-defined curricula are in. </p> <p>Create: Another important design element of heutagogy is giving the learner the freedom to create. This can...</p>

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