Safety Alert: Pilots... Manage Risks to Ensure Safety

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  • 1. Safety Alert:Pilots: Manage Risks toEnsure Safety1

2. 1,500aviation accidents per year2 3. Top Occurrence Categories3Fatal accidents in GA personal flying sector, 2000-2011 4. Safety Alerts General Aviation on NTSB MostWanted List Need to reduce GA accident rate Education, training, and riskmanagement skills4 5. Safety Alerts Define a GA safety problem Provide statistics on the problem Provide examples of accidents Provide ways to prevent accidents5 6. Safety Alert Topics Aerodynamic stalls at low altitude Reduced-visual references Aircraft mechanical problems Pilots risk management Mechanics risk management6 7. Discussion of Accident Cases Completed cases: commoncauses, factors, and scenarios Used as educational tools Not intended to admonish accidentpilots Intended to help other pilots learn7 8. AeronauticalDecision Making8WPR11FA032Lander, Wyoming 9. Accident Synopsis Mooney M-20 (non-turbocharged,single engine) Attempting to return home IFR flight plan, winter weather,icing, mountainous terrain 4 POB (father and 3 sons, all fatal)9 10. Pilot About 940 total flight hours Instrument rated About 23 hours actual instrument Experience in Minnesota IFR current per FARs - checkout: 6 hours in accident airplane In the week prior to accident10 11. Sequence of Events Sunday (day before accident)cancelled flight due to weather Purchased commercial airlinetickets for Monday morning Airline flight cancelled (mechanical) Then decided to conduct flight11 12. Sequence of Events Multiple weather briefings andflight routes/plans (dynamicweather situation) Accepted invalid IFR route Accepted altitude near airplaneperformance limit12 13. Sequence of Events Difficulty reaching assignedaltitude (14,500 feet versus16,000 feet) Icing encountered Uncontrolled descent, groundimpact13 14. 14DNWBOYRIWKICNEJACMEA = 14,000OROCA = 16,100 15. 15 16. Missed Opportunities Adhere to risk managementstrategy Prevent external pressures fromadversely influencing conduct Time pressure Decision to fly16 17. Missed Opportunities Postpone or cancel flight Question ATC assignments Flight route Flight altitude Turn back or divert Request ATC assistance17 18. ASI Perspectives Legal may not equate to safe Accurately assess skill level andequipment capability Align options and actions withskills and equipment18 19. ASI Perspectives Too many repeat, avoidableaccidents Decision-making: What werethey thinking? Reduce accidents by riskmanagement19 20. AeronauticalDecision Making20CEN10FA071Alva, Oklahoma 21. Accident Flight Cessna 310,night IMC IFR flight plan tohome airport(open, flat terrain) Returning homefrom work trip21 22. Pilot Commercial certificate, single- andmulti-engine airplanes 4,300 flight hours Toxicology: 10 medications (4 ofwhich were disqualifying) History of severe migraines notreported to FAA Class 2 medical22 23. Weather Received weather briefings fromFSS, concerned with fog Reporting station at destinationairfield was out of service(closest was 45 miles away)23 24. Airport approach First instrument approachunsuccessful Radar data showed descent to1,700 feet Pilot told ATC he would try asecond approach24 25. Accident Flight25 26. Missed Opportunities Resist external pressures tocomplete flight Adhere to weather informationwith regard to minimums Report medical conditions,assess potential for impairment26 27. ASI Perspectives Acronym IM SAFE for pilots Illness (any illnesses) Medication (prescription or over-the-counter) Stress (job, health, finances, family) Alcohol (consumption within the last 8hours and 24 hours) Fatigue (not well-rested) Emotion (emotionally upset)27 28. Spatial Disorientation:VFR into IMCCEN12FA083Crystal Lake, Illinois28 29. Accident Flight Cirrus SR-20 Part 91, no flight plan Pilot and 3 passengers were killed Daylight, VMC into IMC Deteriorating weather, intendeddestination airport was IFR Pilot concerned about gettingtrapped by weather29 30. Pilot Private pilot, no instrument rating 207 total flight hours 114 hours in accident airplane Pilot reportedly receiving instrumenttraining Discrepancies with logbookendorsements30 31. Weather No record of a weather briefing Departure airport and initial portionof flight conducted under VFR Destination airport under IFR Overcast clouds at 900 feet agl Visibility 3 miles in light rain/mist Airports east and south remainedunder VFR31 32. Accident Flight32Midway AirportDuPage Airport 33. Accident Flight33 34. Accident Flight34 35. Accident Site35 36. Accident Site36 37. Missed Opportunities Obtain an official weather briefing Resist pressures to completeflight as planned Deviate to alternate airport Be familiar with regulations37 38. ASI PerspectiveMarginal weather conditions requiredetailed preflight planning, including: Obtain an official weather briefing Identify flight itinerary alternatives Identify alternate personal plans Primary concern is safety of flight38 39. SummarySafety Alert Pilots: ManageRisks to Ensure Safety Accident summaries Links to educational resources What can pilots do?39 40. What can pilots do? Understand that effective riskmanagement takes practice Systematically identify hazards,assess degree of risk, anddetermine best course of action Eliminate fatigue contributors40 41. What can pilots do? Be honest with yourself and FAAabout medical fitness for flight Develop good decision-making Identify hazardous attitudes Apply behavior modification Recognize cope with stress41 42. What can pilots do? Be honest about skill level andproficiency Resist external pressures Plan ahead with alternatives,brief passengers aboutalternatives42