Restoration 2013

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<ul><li> 1. Lic. Gabriela A. Llaneza The Restoration English Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul> <p> 2. The Stuart Monarchy 3. The Puritans They wanted the Anglican church to become more Presbyterian Reduce the power of the bishops. Reduce Sunday pleasures Ban Catholics from the country Reading of the bible Radical Puritans were punished and this increased the fear of Popery 4. The Beheading of Charles I, 1649 5. Oliver Cromwell [1599-1658] The Interregnum Period [1649-1660] The Commonwealth (1649-1653) The Protectorate (1654-1660) 6. The Commonwealth (1649-1653) PAX QURITUR BELLO Republican government which ruled first England and then Ireland and Scotland from 1649 to 1660. For the first two years of the Commonwealth, the Rump faced economic depression and the risk of invasion from Scotland and Ireland. 7. Paintingof CharlesI's children.The future Charles II is depicted at centre, stroking the dog 8. The Restoration England needed both King and Parliament Monarchy Puritans had proved as dangerous as Catholics Anglican Church Common people could be dangerous to order. Aristocracy 9. Declaration of Breda (1660) A general pardon would be issued Offered religious toleration Security for private property would be assured. 10. KingCharles II [r. 1660-1685] Had charm, poise, &amp; political skills. Restored the theaters and reopened the pubs and brothels closed during the Protectorate. Favored religious toleration. Had secret Catholic sympathies. Realized that he could not repeat the mistakes his father had made. Absolutist at heart 11. Intelligent, approachable and witty. Great patron of the arts and science Introduced new fashion and pleasures in his court Had no legitimate children Spent most of his money on parties and entertainment. The Merry Monarch 12. His women Queen Catherine of Braganza Nell Gwyn 13. Royalists Restore the Great Chain of Being Restore Anglican Church Eliminate Puritans from public life 1661 Cavalier Parliament [filled with Royalists] Disbanded the Puritan army. Pardoned most Puritan rebels. Restored the authority of the Church of England. 14. Limitations to Charles power King Power to make peace or war Call or prorrogue parliament Name government officials &amp; remove judges Call out the militia Dispense law when needed Finantial settlement, customs duties and restored lands Parliament Right to vote money for a standard army Parliament had to be called every three years. They could empeach government officials It was up to the gentry to gather forces They could decide when it was really necessary. Estimates failed 15. Main problems Charles II faced Financial Problems: Sovereignty: Local Control: Religion: Foreign Policy 16. Religion: Clarendon Code Though Charles had promised religious toleration Parliament was tough on dissenters. 1661 Corporation Act Pardoned most Puritan rebels. Restored the authority of the Church of England. 1662 Quaker Act 1662 Act of Uniformity All clergy &amp; church officials had to conform to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. It forbade non-conformists to worship publicly, teach their faith, or attend English universities. Licensing Act Five- mile Act Conventicler Act 17. Sovereignty English Sovereignty was shared with Parliament Absolute monarchs didnt depend on a Parliament to get money or decide religion Charles could not turn towards Absolutism without money. To the English Absolute Monarchy was the same as Roman Catholicism. Fear of Absolutism and Roman Catholicism was evident during the Exclusion Crisis 18. Great London Plague, 1665 19. The Great Fire of London 20. The Great Fire of London 21. Anglo-Dutch Wars Continuous opposition for trade. By the early 1680s Britain established supremacy: Commercial Revolution * First Anglo-Dutch War: 1660-1665 * Second Anglo-Dutch War: 1665-1667 * Third Anglo-Dutch War: 1672-1674 22. Charles IIs Foreign Policy 1665 1668: Second Anglo-Dutch War Charles tried to save money and that gave headway to the Dutch Disastrous fire to the English navy England got New York 23. Charles IIs Foreign Policy 1672 1674: Third Anglo-Dutch War To Charles II, Louis XIV is an ideal ally against the Dutch. 1670 Treaty of Dover: Charles would help Louis XIV with the navy and receive money in return. Charles could do without Parliament for a while but when the war failed. Parliament demanded the repeal of the Declaration of Indulgence. Peace with the Dutch 1674 24. King Charles II r. 1660-1685 1670 Declaration of Indulgence Charles granted religious toleration to Catholics and Protestants 1673 Test Act Parliament excluded all but Anglicans from civilian and military positions. [to the Anglican gentry, the Puritans were considered radicals and the Catholics were seen as traitors!] 25. Danbys Policy Control of expenses and increase central control to raise more money Rear Mary and Anne as Protestants The Franco-Dutch War 1672-1678 (English trade boomed) Give pensions and offices to peers who supported the king in Parliament Charles became more powerful and some dissenters grew uneasy. Country Block 26. The Popish Plot 1678 National Hysteria Innocent people attacked and imprisoned Impeachment of Danby and Queen accused of high treason Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament 1679 Habeas Corpus Act Any unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus compelling the govt. to explain why he had lost his liberty. 27. Exclusion Crisis Charles stood by the Queen Sent James Duke of York out of the country Made some consetions to pacify Anglicans Waited for a royalist reaction against 28. Listening task : First Political Parties: Whigs vs. Tories * Exclude James from the succession in favour of illegitimate Monmouth WH * Hereditary succession and passive obedience TO * Pro-Dutch policy WH * Dutch perceived as trading rivals TO * Supremacy of Anglicanism BOTH * Anti-Catholic but in favour of any type of Protestantism WH * Upheld the theory of the GREAT CHAIN OF BEING T * Embrace Lockes theory of SOCIAL CONTRACT 29. Listening task : First Political Parties: Whigs vs. Tories * Parliament should be more powerful than king WH * King more powerful that Parliament TO * Lavish funds for the court TO * Limited funds for the court WH * Claimed to represent country values WH * Claimed to stand for court and city values TO * Commissioned propaganda and used the church TO * Commissioned propaganda and pamphlets WH * Met at Coffee Houses and organized dinner parties to spread their ideas BOTH 30. Exclusion Crisis: Whigs Exclude James from the succession in favour of Monmouth Parliament should be more powerful than king Limited funds for the court Pro-Dutch policy Anti-Catholic Claimed to represent country values Commissioned propaganda and pamphlets Embrace Lockes theory of SOCIAL CONTRACT Met at Coffee Houses and organized dinner parties to spread their ideas 31. Exclusion Crisis: Tories Hereditary succession King more powerful that Parliament Lavish funds for the court Dutch perceived as trading rivals Supremacy of Anglicanism Claimed to stand for court and city values Commissioned propaganda and used the church Upheld the theory of the GREAT CHAIN OF BEING Met at Coffee Houses and organized dinner parties to spread their ideas 32. Charles policies to support Tories Corporation Act: Redraw district to favour Tories Cut expenses to avoid calling Parliament before elections Commercial Revolution (more revenue) Secret money from Louis XIV Please and promote Anglican Church Discovered Whig plans to kill him and James 33. Restoration Literature Neo-Classicism Neo-Classicism means a return to the Classic ideals of: clearness, elegance, symmetry, and repose produced by attention to traditional forms. It was sometimes synonymous with excellence or artistic quality of high distinction. Also, the term refers to the admiration and imitation of Greek and Roman literature, art, and architecture. 34. King James II [r. 1685-1688] Was a bigoted convert to Catholicism without any of Charles IIs shrewdness or ability to compromise. Alienated even the Tories. Provoked the revolution that Charles II had succeeded in avoiding! 35. Monmouth's Rebellion (1685). The Parliament granted customs revenues for life as well as emergency military aid to suppress the rebellion The Duke of Monmouth and Shaftesbury recruited tradesmen and farmers as he marched through the west country Defeated Sedgemoor. Monmouth was executed Bloody Assizes (1685): more than 600 of his supporters were either hanged or deported 36. King James II [r. 1685-1688] Introduced Catholics into the High Command of both the army and navy. Camped a standing army a few miles outside of London. Surrounded himself with Catholic advisors &amp; attacked Anglican control of the universities. Claimed the power to suspend or dispense with Acts of Parliament. 1687 Declaration of Liberty of Conscience He extended religious toleration without Parliaments approval or support. 37. James II angered his subjects and clashed with Parliament. tried Anglicans who opposed religious toleration James wife had a son, who would certainly be raised a Catholic. Parliamentary leaders invited William and Mary to become rulers of England. When William and Mary landed in England, James II fled to France. This bloodless overthrow of a king became known as the Glorious Revolution. 38. James IIs daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] &amp; her husband, William of Orange. He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV. He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause. He wanted to protect Marys claim to the English throne He needed English resources to fight Louis. 39. WilliamIII andMary II Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept the English Bill of Rights, which: ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy. gave the House of Commons power of the purse. prohibited a monarch from interfering with Parliament. barred any Roman Catholic from sitting on the throne. restated the rights of English citizens. 40. English Bill of Rights [1689] Main provisions: 1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws. 2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice. 3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliaments consent. 4. Freedom of speech in Parliament. 5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. 6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. 7. The monarch must be a Protestant. 8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. 9. Censorship of the press was dropped. 10.Religious toleration. 41. EnglishBill of Rights [1689] It settled all of the major issues between King &amp; Parliament. It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights. It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England. 42. Why GloriousRevolution? There was no bloodshed It was orderly The ruling class remained in charge There were good Protestant omens It marked a definite break with Medieval thought It clearly established the sovereignty of Parliament Britain and Netherlands were allied against France Dissenters gained more power Gentry became more directly involved in government administration. 43. James II in Ireland (1689) Campaign to regain England He promised Catholic emancipation After initial success they fail to take Londonderry William III arrived in 1690 to aid Protestants Battle of Boyne Jamesneverreturned 44. Read this poem: How does the form of the poem relate to the topic? What were the initial terms of the Treaty? What party got the worst in the bargain? TheTreatyofLimerick 45. The Seesaw of King &amp; Parliament: 1603-1689 </p>