Publishing scientific research - Natalie Pafitis

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  • 1. Publishing ScientificResearchNatalie Pafitis, Senior Executive EditorBioMed Central

2. OutlineAbout usOpen AccessPublishing scientific articlesDefining impact in scientific publishing 3. About us 4. Hello!Natalie PafitisNatalie.Pafitis@biomedcentral.comExecutive Editor, BMC Public HealthJoined BioMed Central in October 2007Responsible for the performance and success of BMC Public Health 5. BioMed Central and Springer open access publishersBioMed CentralLed the way in open access publishingLaunched its first open access journal in2000STM publisher of 258 peer-reviewedopen access journals: BMC series (65 titles) Independent journals some society-affiliated 7 journals with some subscriptioncontentOwned by Springer Science+BusinessMedia since October 2008Open Access journals have a rigorouspeer review system, just like subscriptionjournalsSpringerOpenLaunched in June 2010160+ peer-reviewed open access journalsLaunched open access books in August2012How our journals workAll research articles may be shared andused freely under a Creative Commonslicence You are free to share, remix and makecommercial use of the work You must attribute the work in themanner specified by theauthor/licensorCosts covered by article processingcharge (APC) 6. Open Access 7. 2000 2013And many more 8. Differences between subscription and open access modelsSubscription journals Library sales and society membershipsubscriptions bring in most of therevenue Most born print, so often pagebudget restrictions, issue planning Access (to recent articles) limited tothose who pay for it Library budgets can be an issue Copyright and licensingarrangements govern access.Copyright remains with the publisher.Open access journals Most revenue comes from articleprocessing/publishing charges (APCs) Many born online, so oftencontinuous publication, no issueplanning, no page budget restrictions No access limits Author access to funds can be anissue Creative commons licensing meansthat author keeps copyright andanyone can use. 9. Similarities between subscription and open access modelsSubscription journal Editors in chief and editorial boards Peer review Importance of indexing Publishing standards High- and low-threshold journals There are costs: e.g. editorial,technical, production, customerservices, marketing, sales PR Registration, certification,dissemination, and archiving ofresearchOpen access journal Editors in chief and editorial boards Peer review Importance of indexing Publishing standards High- and low-threshold journals There are costs: e.g. editorial,technical, production, customerservices, marketing, sales PR Registration, certification,dissemination, and archiving ofresearch 10. The benefits of open accessFree to readFree to re-useAll stakeholders benefit- Easier to finduse relevantliterature- Increases the visibility, readershipand impact of authors works- Creates new ways of use- Enhances interdisciplinary research- Accelerates the pace of research,discovery and innovationhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2012/jul/17/open-access-scientific-research 11. How are open access publication fees paid?Authors pay out of grant fundsSome funders provide dedicated fundsInstitutions may cover costs centrally (eg: through open access funds ormembership arrangements with open access publishers)Some societies cover the costs for their journals 12. How does institutional membership work?Many publishers offer open access memberships to institutions. BioMedCentral offers these options:Prepay MembershipThe institution covers the whole cost of publishing with no additional feespaid by their authors. The institution benefits from discounts.Shared-support MembershipThe cost of publishing is split between the institution and author. Discountsapply.Supporter MembershipInstitutions pay a flat-rate annual membership fee based on the number ofresearchers and graduate students at their institution. Authors then receivea 15% discount.Foundation MembershipA free service enabling institutions from developing countries todemonstrate their support for open access publishing. There is no cost butinstitutions must fulfil certain criteria. The APC is covered by the BioMedCentral waiver fund. 13. What if an author has no access to publication funds?At BioMed Central APC waivers are availablefor authors from low-income or lower-middle-incomecountriesOur waivers team assesses all requests forwaivers or discounts 14. Publishing scientific articles 15. Why you should publish Publish or Perish:Your research is NOT complete until it has been published Present new and original results or methods Exchange ideas, communicate with peers - Advance (not repeat)scientific knowledge and enhance scientific progress Credibility of results Grant writing, research funding Recognition and career advancement Personal prestige and satisfactionFundingBodiesGrant writing ResearchersScientificPublication 16. Why you should publish in English It is currently the international languageof science (it has been e.g. French andGerman in the past) Foster (international) collaborations Scientists will want to hear from otherscientists around the world Develop an international status /reputation Your number of publications in journalswith an Impact Factor (i.e. Englishlanguage journals) is linked to careeradvancement and funding 17. Before you begin To Write = To Read Know the status quo of your field of research Make sure you have access to the most up-to-date scientificliterature, scientific communication is about advancing - notrepeating - scientific knowledge (remember your library providesaccess to most of the scientific publications, e.g. onhttp://link.springer.com) Work on your writing style, develop concise writing skills as well asspecialized vocabulary Refine your skills by reviewing papers of colleagues. This will helpyou form a strong framework for your own research writing Determine a feel of the (kind of) journal you wish to publish in 18. Before you begin (cont.) Make sure you do good quality science: Have a hypothesis or research question Make sure that the science that supports your research is valid andsupports your conclusions Use appropriate methods and controls Ensure sample sizes are large enough Use appropriate statistical tests Remove investigator/researcher/patient bias Comply with ethical requirements Citation of most appropriate research 19. What journal editors wantGood quality science! (use previous slide as your checklist!)Work which will stand up to peer review (quality / language)Novel to the scientific community, original researchResearch that is interesting to the journals readership (so also makesure to choose the right journal!)Active research areas (many citations)Clear concise writingThank you for your article submission, theresults are new and interesting.Unfortunately the new results are notinteresting, and the interesting results arenot new. 20. How to choose the right journal Choose the journal after completion of the research, but beforewriting the article so you can write it according to the journal specificguidelines Consider your audience (aims and scope of the journal, regional /global visibility) Consider how often the journal is published Consider the costs (publishing in traditional - subscription based -journals is in most cases free to the author, however, in Open Accesspublishing there is an Article Processing Fee) Read the journal, the product page and the submission guidelines Talk to colleagues about their experiences with the journal Make use of the expertise of your library staff 21. How to choose the right journal (cont.) Check where collaborating / competing research groups andresearchers publish their work Is an Impact Factor important to you? Or are you more concernedabout usage / visibility? Follow the references in your own paper. Where were the originalpapers published and read? Check publisher sites, you can often find useful information in thefor authors section Use tools such as the Edanz Journal Selector athttp://www.edanzediting.com/journal_selector Avoid journals with no clear submission and reviewing process 22. Types of journals Letters journal - Rapid communication ofinterim work, peer-reviewed, a good way to gettime sensitive, preliminary or ongoing researchinitially published and get feedback Traditional academic research journal - Themain venue for primary research, rigorouslypeer-reviewed Review journal - Publishes overviews ofresearch, perspective on the state of a fieldand/or where it is heading, usually peer-reviewed,may contain commissioned material Professional journal - Mainly review and how-toarticles, heavily edited, not necessarily peer-reviewed,but the audience may be who youwant to reach with your research outcome:practitioners 23. How to choose the right journal biomedcentral.com journal pages 24. How to choose the right journal BioMed Centrals journal selector 25. How to structure your article Follow the author instructions of the journal you chose to submit to Tell a story that is easy to understand: Beginning (introduction) Middle (main body: results) End (conclusion) The order in which you actually write your paper should be: Methods and Results Introduction Discussion and Conclusion Abstract and Title 26. How to structure your article (cont.)Title Read first and most. Keep it short and to the point. Must reflect thecontent of the paper.Authors Correct spelling, consistency in affiliation.Abstract 100-300 word summary of objective and results. Includes keymessage of paper.Keywords Synonyms relevant as search terms e.g. in Google. Ideally not wordsfrom the title because title words are automatically keywords.Introduction Explain i) why the work was conducted ii) what methodology wasemployed iii) why you chose this particular methodology iv) Howthe methodology accomplished the hypothesis set out in yourabstract.Methodology Written clearly and concisely so that some