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  1. 1. BEA JOY LORRAINE ARCENIO III-9BSE HISTORY Philippine Normal University
  2. 2. Article 1: Philosophy, Goals and Objectives Section 1: The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education regardless of sex, age, breed, socio-economic status, physical and mental condition, social or ethnic origin, political and other affiliation. The State shall therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the enjoyment of the benefits of education by all its citizen. (BP Blg. 232)mental condition, social or ethic origin, political )
  3. 3. Section 2: Every child with special needs has a right to an educational program that is suitable to his needs. Special education shares with regular education basic responsibilities of the educational system to fulfill the right of the child to develop to his full potential.
  4. 4. Section 3: Special education shall aim to develop the maximum potential of the child with special needs to enable him to become self-reliant and shall be geared towards providing him with the opportunities for a full and happy life.
  5. 5. Section 4: The specific objectives of special education shall be the development and maximization of learning competencies, as well as the inculcation of values to make the learners with special needs a useful and effective member of society.
  6. 6. Section 5: The ultimate goal of special education shall be the integration or maintenance of learners with special needs into the regular school system and eventually in the community.
  7. 7. Article 2: Definition and Scope Section 1: Special education refers to the education of persons who are gifted or talented and those who have physical, mental, social or sensory impairment and cultural differences so as to require modifications of the school curricula, programs and special services and physical facilities to develop them to their maximum capacity. These persons may be gifted/talented, fast learner, mentally retarded, visually impaired, hearing impaired, with behavior problems, orthopedically handicapped, with special health problems, learning disabled, speech impaired or multiply handicapped.
  8. 8. Section 2: These policies and guidelines shall apply to all schools, centers and classes (national or local, public or private, formal or nonformal) established under the educational system of the Philippines for the education of children with special needs.
  9. 9. Article 3: Identification, Screening, Assessment and Evaluation of Children Section 1: Identification, screening, assessment and evaluation of children with special needs shall be conducted by the school and the community utilizing appropriate assessment instruments. 1.1 Identification and assessment of every child shall be conducted as early as possible.
  10. 10. 1.2 The team approach shall be used in the identification and assessment procedures. The team shall be composed of persons with working knowledge and understanding of children with special needs, such as the following: 1.2.1 parents/guardians/extended families, neighbors and friends 1.2.2 regular teachers
  11. 11. 1.2.3 special education teachers 1.2.4 guidance counselors 1.2.5 school administrators 1.2.6 health workers 1.2.7 social workers 1.2.8 psychologists 1.2.9 speech and physical therapists 1.2.10 law enforcement officers 1.2.11 probation officers
  12. 12. 1.3 Aspects to be covered in the identification, screening, assessment and education of children with special needs shall cover the following aspects: 1.3.1 Physical: height and weight physical deformities gross and fine motor coordination hearing a.3.1.5 visual function oral hygiene and dental development
  13. 13. 1.3.2 Psycho-social family history personality behavior 1.3.3 Educational learning disabilities language and speech 1.3.4 Medical
  14. 14. 1.4 Appropriate assessment instruments shall be developed or adopted in order to identify handicapping conditions as early as possible. 1.5 Identification and assessment of children with special needs shall be a continuing process 1.6 The synthesis of identification and diagnostic information shall be the basis for the appropriate educational placement of the child with special needs.
  15. 15. Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes Section 1:Children with special needs shall enjoy equality of access to formal and nonformal education. 1.1 Educational help for the handicapped child shall be made available as early as possible. 1.2 Every school division shall organize special classes and provide special services for children with special needs. (PD 603)
  16. 16. 1.3 All schools at the preschool, elementary, secondary and tertiary levels shall admit children and youth with special needs. 1.4 Preschool education and post secondary education for technical and vocational courses shall be salient features of the formal education of children with special needs.
  17. 17. 1.5 The school entrance age of a child with special needs to formal academic instruction shall follow the current regulation of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. He may be admitted any time during the year, if circumstances warrant such admission. No age requirement nor time limitation shall be imposed for attendance to nonformal education programs. 1.6 Only persons with special needs shall be eligible for enrolment in special schools.
  18. 18. 1.7 Special educational provisions shall be made in hospital schools during treatment periods of handicapped children. 1.8 An assessment test to determine proper grade placement shall be administered to special students who cannot present school credentials. Their admission shall be subject to the approval of the regional director.
  19. 19. 1.9 Over-aged students assessed by the Philippine Educational Placement Test but found deficient in communication and other skills, shall be admitted provided that they shall undergo remedial instruction in the areas of deficiency. 1.10 Admission requirements for regular students taking degree courses at the tertiary level shall apply to students with special needs.
  20. 20. 1.11 Adaptation in the administration of college entrance tests and other examinations given by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and other agencies shall be provided to meet the needs of special students.
  21. 21. Section 2: For maximum efficiency, class size at any given time shall be as follows: Exceptionality...One-Grade Level...Multi-Grade or Multi-Level Gifted/Fast Learner...30-35...15-20 Mentally retarded...8-15...8-10 Blind 7-10 5-6
  22. 22. Deaf 7-15 6-8 Behavior Problems 15-20 7-12 Orthopedically Handicapped 10-15 10- 15 Multiply Handicapped 5-8 3-6 Speech Defective 10-15 10-15 Learning Disabled 7-10 5-6
  23. 23. 2.1 Placement in a special class shall be temporary and not terminal, thus a continuous assessment process is essential. 2.2 A maximum of only 2 children with the same or different type of handicapping condition shall be integrated in a regular class at any given time. 2.3 An itinerant teacher shall have a case load of not more than five children with special needs.
  24. 24. 3.2 The following modifications shall be made for special learners. 3.2.1 Promotion Scheme for Gifted/Talented/Fast Learners Yearly progression Acceleration Finishing the last three grades in the elementary grades in 2 years Advanced placement
  25. 25. 3.2.2 The levels of instruction for the mentally retarded shall be as follows: Preschool Lower Primary Upper Primary Intermediate Advanced Post-Secondary 3.2.3 For the multiply handicapped, individualized promotion shall be adopted on a case to case basis.
  26. 26. Article 5: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials Section 1: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials 1.1 The following schemes or options may be adopted for Special Education Programs 1.1.1 Regular curriculum - the curriculum prescribed for regular children. 1.1.2 Modified curriculum - the curriculum prescribed for regular children with certain adaptations to meet the needs of special children.
  27. 27. 1.1.3 Special curriculum - the curriculum for children with special needs aimed primarily at developing special adoptive skills to maximize their potentials. 1.2 Curriculum plans shall be research- based, tested successfully on a pilot basis before their implementation on a bigger scale, and evaluated periodically. These plans shall be accompanied by a variety of instructional materials.
  28. 28. 1.3 The modified curriculum for the visually impaired shall include sensory training, special instruction in Braille reading and writing, mathematics, orientation and mobility, Braille music, and typing.
  29. 29. 1.4 The modified curriculum for the hearing impaired shall emphasize communication and language development based on the philosophy of Total Communication which is tailored to meet the individual child's communication, and educational needs. The curriculum, in addition, shall include special instruction in speech and speech reading, auditory training and rhythm. The multi-sensory approach shall be maximized and speech/speech reading and sign language shall be encouraged starting in Grade I.
  30. 30. 1.4.1 Pilipino Sign Language shall be used in the education of the hearing impaired. 1.5 The modified curriculum for children with behavior problems shall include special activities and instructional techniques for the normalization of behavior with emphasis on moral, civic and spiritual values as well as training in livelihood, and technical and academic skills to prepare them for the world of work. 1.6 The curriculum for the physically handicapped child shall include functional exercises.
  31. 31. 1.7 The special curriculum for the mentally retarded shall emphasize training in self-care, socialization, motor and pre-vocational and vocational skills. For the more severely ratarded child, emphasis shall be on development of self- care skills. 1.8 Teaching strategies shall be creative and multi-dimensional. They shall make maximum use of all remaining sense modalities and provide for active participation in the learning process.
  32. 32. 1.9 All special schools shall strengthen their vocational and technical training programs. Arrangements shall be made to enable the child with special needs to attend special courses offered in the regular vocational schools whenever practical. 1.10 A community-based, home-based or any useful alternative special education delivery system shall be established to reach those who cannot avail of regular institution-based programs.
  33. 33. 1.11 Effective guidance and counselling programs shall be developed and maintained. Section 2: Instructional Materials 2.1 Low cost and indigenous materials shall be developed for the use of children with special needs.
  34. 34. Article 6: Organization Patterns Section 1: Children with special needs shall be provided with a variety of educational patterns and services. 1.1 The assessed needs of each child shall be the primary consideration in determining his particular program and services. 1.2 Programs may be organized in a variety of settings, namely:
  35. 35. 1.2.1 Integration/Mainstreaming. This refers to the enrolment of a child with special needs in a regular school with additional teaching/care resources. There are degrees of integration. In partial integration, a child enrolled in a special class in a regular school is integrated with regular children in non-academic activities like work education, physical education, arts, school programs, etc. Later on, qualified children may be integrated gradually in one or more academic subjects. In full integration (sometimes called "zero reject model"), the handicapped child sits in the regular classes in all subjects, academic or non- academic.
  36. 36. 1.2.2 Resource Room Plan. Under this scheme, the child with special needs is enrolled in the regular school program but goes to a resource room to use the specialized equipment either in a tutorial situation or in a small group. The resource room teacher functions both as an instructor and as a consultant. The usual procedure is for the resource room teacher to serve the area of exceptionality in which she has had training. However, occasionally in small communities, necessity may dictate that she serves children with a variety of learning disabilities. Such a resource room service that does not constitute a complete program of special education should not turn out to be a segregated plan.
  37. 37. 1.2.3 Itinerant Teacher Plan. Under this plan, an itinerant or traveling teacher serves one or more regular schools depending on how many pupils need special help. She gives direct and consultative services to children. In addition, these specialists observe, diagnose, make referrals, requisition textbooks and equipment, prepare instructional materials and evaluates performance.
  38. 38. 1.2.4 Cooperative Class Plan (Part-Time Special Class Plan). In this plan, the child with special needs is enrolled in a special class but receives some of his academic instruction in the regular grades. In this way, the child is, to a varying extent, integrated into regular education.
  39. 39. 1.2.5 Special Class Plan (Self- Contained/Segregated Plan). Under this plan, usually, pupils with only one type of exceptionality label are enrolled in the special class. This plan is needed for those with more sever problems which makes it impossible for them to learn in a regular classroom setting. At times, they may be with their normal peers, but not usually in an academic situation.
  40. 40. 1.2.6 Special Education Center. A growing alternative service delivery system is the Special Education Center which holds classes for children with special needs within the regular school. Itinerant, resource room services, special and cooperative classes are held in the special education center. Classes range from three to more than twenty, depending upon the population and affluence of the community. The school-within-a-school concept receives much support from parents of the children themselves and from civic and social community organizations. The Center is administered by a principal and operated according to the rules and regulations that govern a regular school.
  41. 41. 1.2.7 Special Day School. This type of school serves specific types of children with moderate to severe disabilities. It offers a range of trained special educators and a comprehensive array of medical, psychological and social services. 1.2.8 Residential School. The reason for placing a child in a residential school is based on the premise that he can make greater progress in such setting than in any other. Residential schools provide special education services that are qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those available in local communities. They also offer comprehensive diagnostic and counselling services, and vocational and recreational services.
  42. 42. 1.2.9 Hospital Instruction. Provision of children confined to hospitals, sanatoria, and convalescent homes is a service of special education. The types of children in need of hospital instruction are the severely emotionally disturbed, the profoundly retarded who are bedbound, the crippled, those with chronic and/or serious health disabilities, and recovering patients. Both bedside tutoring and group instruction are made available to the above.
  43. 43. 1.2.10 Homebound Instruction. This plan is provided by the local school system to serve the chronically ill, usually the bedridden, the convalescents from operation, accident or temporary illness, the disturbed, and the retarded pupils. Services are provided by either a full time itinerant teacher who instructs each pupil in his own home about three times a week, or the regular class teacher who instructs her temporarily homebound pupils.
  44. 44. 1.2.11 Community-based Delivery System. This is a plan for children with special needs who reside in distant communities and cannot avail of existing special education programs. They are reached by teachers, para-teachers or volunteers trained to teach the basic 3 R's and self-help activities to prepare them for useful and independent living.
  45. 45. 1.3 A combination of plans may be considered where special children are not concentrated in a particular geographic area; where there are not enough children to justify employing more than one teacher or where the spread is great; and/or where a variety of services is not feasible. 1.4 Appropriate referral system shall be established if the result of an assessment merits residential school placement, e.g., for the child who lives too far from existing special education services. Otherwise, homebound instruction shall be provided. 1.5 Special supportive services like readers, interpreters, notetakers, and others shall be provided when necessary.
  46. 46. 1.6 Special programs for the gifted, talented and creative shall be developed and maintained. 1.6.1 Special provisions for the gifted, talented and creative may take the following prototypes, singly or in combination: Grouping - clustering of small groups from different sections to be placed with a teacher who can modify the curriculum to suit the gifted as in seminars, mini courses, a library period a week, etc. Vertical Acceleration - early school admission, double grade promotion, advanced placement, tutoring; correspondence courses; independent study, acceleration by grade skipping or time compression.
  47. 47. Horizontal Acceleration - mentorship wherein gifted students are paired with adults who serve as their mentors in a subject of mutual interest; individual or group research projects; honors classes; a core or block program for the integration of ideas from two or more subjects. Guidance - individual conferences; community-sponsored programs; scholarship societies; career and vocational counseling; peer facilitator.
  48. 48. Section 2: The goal of special education shall be integration or mainstreaming of children with special needs. 2.1 Integration or mainstreaming of children with special needs shall be viewed as a developmental process. 2.2 Special supportive services like readers, interpreters, note takers, and other auxiliary services shall be provided when necessary. 2.3 The school division shall extend such services as orientation and training of administrators, teachers, other school personnel and regular pupils on special education.
  49. 49. Article 7: School Plant Facilities Section 1: Adequate physical facilities and equipment shall be provided to assure quality education for all children with special needs. 1.1 The school system shall assign buildings and resource rooms and adapt physical facilities to suit children with special needs. 1.2 The school system shall provide appropriate specialized equipment, instructional materials and supplies.
  50. 50. 1.3 Requirement for school site, school plants, physical facilities and classroom size shall be for the purpose of securing permit for operation of special schools modified in accordance with the type of exceptionality and enrolment size. 1.4 The minimum requirement for basic classroom equipment for children with special needs prepared by the Ministry of Education, culture and Sports including medical and dental facilities shall be complied with.
  51. 51. Section 2: Buildings and facilities shall be made accessible to persons with special needs. 2.1 Steps shall be taken to remove architectural barriers to and within buildings (walkways, corridors, doors, washrooms and toilets) to enhance mobility of disabled persons.
  52. 52. Article 8: Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development Section 1: For the effective implementation of the special education program, the education, welfare and training of personnel shall be given high priority. 1.1 All personnel involved in the education of children with special needs shall have adequate and appropriate educational background and training and personnel qualities specified as follows:
  53. 53. 1.1.1 Education and Work Experience For a special education teacher Bachelor of Elementary Education specializing in special education Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education or Secondary Education, major in Special Education Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education or Secondary Education plus 18 units in special education in the graduate level