Pests of sorghum finger millet and pearl millet

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  1. 1. Pests of Sorghum Finger millet and Pearl millet A.Murugan Bsc.,Agriculture
  2. 2. Pests of sorghum - Borers Shoot fly Atherigona varia soccata Muscidae Diptera Stem borer Chilo partellus Crambidae Lepidoptera Pink stem borer Sesamia inferens Noctuidae Lepidoptera
  3. 3. Defoliators Slug caterpillar Thosea apierens Cochlididae Lepidoptera Leaf roller Marasmia trapezalis Pyralidae Lepidoptera Flea beetle Monolepta signata Galuricidae Coleoptera Red hairy caterpillar Amsacta albistriga A. moorei Arctiidae Lepidoptera Weevils Myllocerus maculosus Curculionidae Coleoptera Leaf beetle Cryptocephalus schestedti Cryptocephalidae Coleoptera Wingless grasshopper Colomania sphenaroides Acrididae Orthoptera
  4. 4. Sucking pests Shoot bug Peregrinus maidis Delphacidae Hemiptera Plant lice Rhopalosiphum maidis Aphididae Hemiptera
  5. 5. Earhead Feeders Earhead bug Calocoris angustatus Miridae Hemiptera Mirid bug Creontiades pallidifer Miridae Hemiptera Sorghum midge Contarinia sorghicola Cecidomyiidae Diptera Gram caterpillar Helocoverpa armigera Noctuidae Lepidoptera Semilooper Eublemma silicula Noctuidae Lepidoptera Plant bug Dolycoris indicus Pentatomidae Hemiptera Stink bug Nezara viridicula Pentatomidae Hemiptera Earhead web worm Cryptoblabes gnidiella Pyraustidae Lepidoptera
  6. 6. Sorghum shoot fly- Antherigona soccata Dead heart symptom Infested plants produces side tillers Seedlings upto 4 weeks are attacked Severe during summer in Coimbatore. ETL 10% dead hearts Management : Use higher seed rate 12kg/ha Spray methyl demeton@250ml/ha Seed treatment with imdaclorpid @10g/kg of seeds
  7. 7. Sorghum stem borer Chilo partellus Dead heart symptom Affects the crop usually one month after sowing Larva feeds on tender folded leaves causes short hole symptom Infestation is noticed till harvest ETL 10% dead hearts Management : Carbofuran @25kg/ha Spray carbaryl @1.25 kg/ha Raise cowpea as a mixed crop to reduce infestation
  8. 8. Earhead bug Calocoris angustatus First noticed in south Arcot district of Tamilnadu Potential pest of sorghum in south India Nymphs and adults suck the sap from the grains and turns into chaffiness. ETL 10 bugs/head Management : Two applications of carbaryl 10 % at 10 day interval With the milky stage.
  9. 9. Sorghum midge Stenadiplosis sorghicola ETL 5/head Maggots feed on the developing grains Sowing of early maturing high yielding varieties on different dates with late manuring provides ideal condition for multiplication of this insect. Management : Apply carbaryl 225kh/ha on 3rd and 18th day after panicle emergence. Light traps
  10. 10. Earhead caterpillars Web worm Semiloopers ETL 2/head Gram caterpillars Management : Light traps Sex pheromone trap @12/ha Malathion 25 kg/ha on 3rd and 18th day after panicle emergence.
  11. 11. Pests of pearl millet - Borers Shoot fly Atherigonia approximata Muscidae Coleoptera Stem borer Chilo partellus Crambidae Lepidoptera Pink stem borer Sesamia inferens Noctuidae Lepidoptera
  12. 12. Defoliators Leaf beetle Lema downsei Galerucidae Coleoptera Black hairy caterpillar Estigmene lactinea Arctiidae Lepidoptera Wingless grasshopper Neorthacris simulans Acrididae Orthoptera
  13. 13. Earhead feeders Grain midge Geromyia penniseti Cecidomyiidae Diptera Semilooper Antoba silicula Noctuidae Lepidoptera Stink bug Nezara viridula Pentatomidae Hemiptera
  14. 14. Shoot fly Antherigona approximata Dead heart symptom in young plants Occur during cold weather season Chaffy grains Grain loss from 23.3 to 47.4% Management : Seed treatment with imidacloprid 10g/kg of seeds Spray methyl demeton @12ml/ 3 cents in 6 litres of water Set up fish meal trap @12/ha
  15. 15. Grain midge Geromyia penniseti Maggots feed on developing grains causing grainless glumes with white pupal case attached to the tip of the spikelet. Management : Carbaryl 10 D @ 25kg/ha at 50% flowering
  16. 16. Stink bug Nezara viridula Grains became chaffy or spotted black or shriveled Bug emanates a stinking smell Management : Apply carbaryl 50wp @ 750g/ha
  17. 17. Grasshoppers, leaf beetles, caterpillars and weevils Defoliation Scrap the chlorophyll and results in drying of the leaves Management : Collect the various stages of the insects and destroy it.
  18. 18. Pests of Finger millet Pink stem borer Sesamia inferens Nhoctuidae Lepidoptera White borer Saluria inficita Phycitidae Lepidoptera
  19. 19. Defoliators Cut worm Spodoptera exigua Noctuidae Lepidoptera Flea beetle Chaetocnema pusaensis Alticidae Coleoptera
  20. 20. Root feeders Root aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis Aphididae Hemiptera Root grub Holotrichia consanguinea Melolonthidae Coleoptera
  21. 21. Pink stem borer Sesamia inferns Important pest of finger millet in India. The larvae enters the leaf sheath and bore into the stem and starts feeding . Management : Carbaryl 50 WP @1000g/ha
  22. 22. White borer Saluria inficita Specific pest of finger millet in south India Larvae is cream white with yellow head found at basal portion of tillers close to soil level. Management : Carbaryl 50WP @1000g/ha
  23. 23. Cut worm Spodoptera exigua Defoliates the plants especially in nursery. Also affects onion,sunflower, chillies etc., The larvae hide in the soil during day time and feed on leaves during night time. Management : Spraying chlorpyrifos 0.02%
  24. 24. Black hairy caterpillar Amsacta lactinea The larvae with black head and hairs all over its body feeds on leaves Other hosts like sorghum, pulses etc., Management : Spraying methyl parathion @0.05%
  25. 25. Flea beetle Chaetocnema pusaensis The flea beetle is dark blue with the enlarged hind femur The adults bite holes in the leaves of young plants and affect their vigour both in the nursery and in the young transplanted crop. Management : Dusting carbaryl @ 10%
  26. 26. Earhead caterpillars- Sitotroga cerealella Larvae feed on the developing grains Management : Carbaryl 50 WP @1500g/ha at milky stage
  27. 27. Root aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis Pink colored small aphids sucks the sap from the roots causing gradual wilting and drying of plants in patches. The black ants can be seen attending aphids for their honey dew secretion. Management : Mixing crude oil in irrigation water is effective Diomethoate @ 0.03 % emulsion may be drenched into the soil .
  28. 28. White grub Holotrichia consanguinea In few places in Tamilnadu during July- September the roots of the finger millets are severely damaged by the grubs of the beetle resulting in the death of large number of plants and ultimate loss in grain yield. Management: Regular field checking is the control measure.
  29. 29. REFERENCE ELEMENTS OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 8TH EDITION B.Vasantharaj David & V.V.Ramamurthy. (P.NO 108 114 ). A GUIDE ON CROP PESTS A.Ragupathy & R.Ayyasamy ( P.NO 220 224 ). crop index.