Persuasion & Propaganda Terms

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Terms to Know for 10B English

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<ul><li> 1. Persuasion &amp; Propaganda Terms to Know: Be able to identify both the definition and purpose of each term. In addition, be able to discuss the terms in both literature and real- life situations. </li> <li> 2. This slide show includes just a few of the countless techniques/terms used by those wishing to influence others. </li> <li> 3. Bandwagon Bandwagon is an appeal to the subject to follow the crowd, to join in (or to buy, or to believe) because others are doing so as well. </li> <li> 4. Double Speak Language that deliberately disguises, distorts, or reverses the meaning of words. Doublespeak may take the form of euphemisms (e.g., "downsizing" for layoffs), making the truth less unpleasant, without denying its nature. It may also be used to intentionally confuse or reverse meaning. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doublespeak </li> <li> 5. Either/Or Fallacy This logical fallacy involves a situation in which only two alternatives are considered, when in fact there are other options. Also called false dichotomy, false dilemma en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Either-or_fallacy </li> <li> 6. Emotional Appeal A potential fallacy which uses the manipulation of the recipient's emotions, rather than valid logic, to win an argument. Touch the audiences hearts Encompasses several logical fallacies http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_to_emotion </li> <li> 7. Euphemism See Double Speak An inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn </li> <li> 8. Evidence (Logical Appeal) Anecdotal Evidence An anecdote is a tale involving real life events, a true story. Such stories can be used by writers as evidence to back their claims. To support a contention, and to make themselves appear more credible, writers often use personal anecdotes. Source: VCAA, 2009 </li> <li> 9. Evidence Expert Opinion To make a writers position seem more credible, they may quote the opinions of experts that correspond with their own. As in a court case, experts are often called on to make one side seem stronger and more believable. Source: VCAA, 2009 </li> <li> 10. Evidence Statistical Evidence Like any form of evidence, statistics can be used to make an argument seem more conclusive, a writers opinion more valid. Often statistics are used that are out of context, or from unreliable sources. Source: VCAA, 2009 </li> <li> 11. False Cause Post hoc ergo propter hoc: (literally "after this, therefore because of this") the fallacy of arguing that one event was caused by another event merely because it occurred after that event. Non causa pro causa: (literally "no cause for a cause") the fallacy of identifying an improper or unrelated cause for an unobserved effect. http://philosophy.lander.edu/logic/cause.html </li> <li> 12. Fear Appeal A fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to increase fear and prejudice toward a competitor. The appeal to fear is common in marketing and politics. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_to_fear </li> <li> 13. Flattery Excessive and insincere praise, especially that given to further one's own interests. </li> <li> 14. Glittering Generalities Words that glitter and sparkle, while only stating generalities. That is, they give us a general, or vague sense of what they are trying to sell; they just LOOK good. Glittering generalities are used for their emotional value, not their logical value. </li> <li> 15. Hasty Generalization A conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/ </li> <li> 16. Innuendo An indirect or subtle reference, especially one made maliciously or indicating criticism or disapproval; insinuation; hint </li> <li> 17. Irony (Sarcasm) A cutting, often ironic remark intended to wound. A form of wit that is marked by the use of sarcastic language and is intended to make its victim the butt of contempt or ridicule. </li> <li> 18. Loaded Language Diction that carries with it a heavy emotional charge. Loaded language usually contains words with strong positive or negative connotations that unfairly frame words into limited or biased contexts. http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/logfal-diction-loadedlang.htm </li> <li> 19. Logical Appeal Persuasion that appeals to the audiences intellect Provide a smart argument Specific evidence, statistics and facts, expert opinions, and support for the topic are examples of logical appeals </li> <li> 20. Logical Fallacy A logical fallacy is, roughly speaking, an error in reasoning. When someone adopts a position, or tries to persuade someone else to adopt a position based on a bad piece of reasoning, they commit a fallacy. http://www.logicalfallacies.info/ </li> <li> 21. Name Calling An attempt to discredit an opponent by labeling or describing him with words that have unfavorable connotations. Making unsupported assumptions about a person is a fallacy similar to stereotyping. Name-calling directs attention to a person (specifically, his flaws), rather than a persons ideas about an issue. http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/logfal-distract-namecalling.htm </li> <li> 22. Oversimplified Generalization When you read/hear the words always, never, only,you might be dealing with an oversimplified generalization. </li> <li> 23. Objective vs. Subjective Point of View Objective: Just the facts. The purpose is to inform, not to persuade. Information should be provable. Subjective: Includes opinions, judgments, or feelings about a subject. Purpose may or may not be to persuade. </li> <li> 24. Parallel Structure Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or. Purpose: To organize, to clarify, to stress http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/623/1/ </li> <li> 25. Propaganda Biased, one-sided communication meant to influence the thoughts and actions of an audience. Methods used in propaganda are deceptive and misleading, and include lies/distortion of the truth, concealing contradictory information, and loaded language. </li> <li> 26. Props and Visual Aids WHY? To improve communication effectiveness To improve audience's perceptions of the presenter To improve speaker's confidence </li> <li> 27. Red Herring A fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to "win" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic. http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/red-herring.html </li> <li> 28. Repetition The purpose of repetition is to drive home a point (sometimes unproven) by repeating it so often that the audience will accept it </li> <li> 29. Rumor Talk or opinion widely disseminated with no discernible source A statement or report current without known authority for its truth http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rumor </li> <li> 30. Slanting Ignoring the Counterevidence One-Sided Assessment Suppressed Evidence He who knows only his own side of the case, knows little of that. http://www.fallacyfiles.org/onesided.html </li> <li> 31. Slogan A short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising A motto associated with a political party or movement or other group </li> <li> 32. Testimonial (Faulty Use of Authority): A fallacy in which support for a standpoint or product is provided by a well-known or respected figure (e.g. a star athlete or entertainer) who is not an expert and who was probably well paid for the endorsement. http://utminers.utep.edu/omwilliamson/engl1311/fallacies.htm </li> </ul>