Propaganda / PersuasionThrough the Ages
Egypt, China, Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, India, Greece, Rome
Homers Iliad and Odyssey (around 7th Century B.C.E)Arete: excellence / reaching the highest human potential
Hubris: overconfident pride and arrogance; a lack ofhumility.
Sophists: Athens and other Greek cities 5th century B.C.E.Professional teachers and intellectual who offered young wealthy Greek men an education in aret (virtue, excellence, persuasion). In democratic Athens aret was increasingly understood in terms of the ability to influence ones fellow citizens in political gatherings through rhetorical persuasion. The most famous: Protagoras and Gorgias
Plato against SophistsSophists made genuine and original contributions to Western thought, butDue in large part to the influence of Plato and Aristotle, the term sophistry has come to signify the deliberate use of fallacious reasoning, intellectual charlatanism and moral unscrupulousness.Plato: Truth / Reason versus Persuasion
AristotleThe means of persuasion:
Propaganda / PersuasionThrough the AgesAthens and Sparta: The Struggle with Persia
First Persian Invasion under Darius:Battle of Marathon 490 BCE
490 BCE: Persian invasion force is defeated at the Battle of Marathon .
The Second Persian Campaign: 480 BCE480 BCE: Xerxes, king of Persia, invades the Greek mainland Greek resistance to Persia exemplified in the Battle of Thermopylae. Persian force is defeated at the Battle Salamis479 BCE: Xerxes withdraws his forces.
The Battle of ThermopylaeThe foundation myth of western civilization.
The symbol of ThermopylaeThe foundation myth of western civilizationSelf-sacrificeFighting for freedomRationalisms
The Spartans sacrificed themselves for the freedom of Greece. The Greeks were a special nation that possessed qualities (like rationality and a passion for liberty) that the nations of the ancient East were lacking. The Greco-Persian war marked the birth of western civilization, defined by rationalism, freedom, and democracy.
Stereotyping the enemythe Persians are shown as effeminate and religious devotees. The Spartans are physically perfect. It is man versus woman, mysticism versus rationalism, healthy versus sick.
Consider reading:The Histories by HerodotusThermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World by Paul Cartledge
Alexander the Great (356323 BCE)ConquestTreatment of enemiesIncorporation of cultures/people
Cult of personality
By Callisthenes (a professional flatterer, propagandist? PR?): Deeds of Alexander many allusions to Homer's Iliad, a calculation of the date of the fall of Troy exactly thousand years before Alexander's visit to the sacred cityreferences to towns mentioned by Homer and visited by Alexander. Alexander's manly behavior and the effeminate weakness of the Persiansthe sea showing obedience to the new AchillesAlexander is the son of Zeus.
The Hellenistic civilizationFrom the death of Alexander 323 BCE to 31 BCE when Rome defeated Greece.The spread of Greek power and cultural influence throughout the former Empire of Alexander
The Hellenistic civilizationPartially deliberate policyPartially a natural diffusion of Greek culture, arts, architecture, mathematics, philosophy and science. Transformation of Greek society from the localized and introverted city-states to an open, cosmopolitan, and exuberant culture that permeated the entire eastern Mediterranean, and Southwest Asia. Greek thinking, mores, and way of life dominated the public affairs of the time. The Greek language became the official language of the Hellenistic world.
Imperial RomeThe LawThe MilitaryThe Technology / Engineering
Julius Caesar: Cult of PersonalityDecisivenes: Crossing Rubicon andAlea iacta est (The die is cast). Military prowess and skill: Veni, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered).Supernaturaldescended from the goddess Venus
Judaism and the Rise of ChristianityMyth of CreationThe Mosaic Law (The Old Testament)Paul of Tarsus and the New TestamentEarly Christianity (preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325).Establishment of the ChurchThe Reformation / Counter-ReformationMartin Luther / Ignatius Loyola
The Foundations of Western CivilizationThe confluence of the ideas from:The Greeks / The RomansThe Hebrew / ChristianityThe Enlightenment philosophy
ReligionCharismatic figuresHeavy symbolismA simple moral philosophy Fulfilling peoples needsEnforcement through fear
The Reformation / Counter-ReformationPropaganda warsMartin Luther: Ninety Five Theses 1517The Beginning of Reformation
The Response: Ignatius Loyola and JesuitsFoundations of seminariesThe InquisitionA mission to reach parts of the world that had been colonized as predominantly Catholic
Gutenberg and printing press (1450s)PRINT: The new dimension of propagandaHe created a whole new democratic world: he had invented the art of printing. (Thomas Carlyle,1833)by 1500 there were in Europe at least nine million books, of thirty thousand titles, and over a thousand printers.
Religion as reinforcement of the dominant ideologyThe Japanese military use of ShintoStalins use of Orthodox ChurchThe Catholicism of the Irish Republican ArmyMartin Luther (16th cent): condemnation of peasant revoltIslam and terrorism Religions support for slavery (U.S.) and segregation (apartheid in South Africa).
Slavery "[Slavery] was established by decree of Almighty God...it is sanctioned in the Bible, in both Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation..." Jefferson Davis (president of the Confederation)"The right of holding slaves is clearly established in the Holy Scriptures, both by precept and example." Rev. R. Furman, D.D., a Baptist pastorFor many years the Quakers were the only anti-slavery denomination
Christianity and the WestTraditionally Christianity was seen as a Western or European religion.Now Christianity is becoming a post-Western religion dominated by the peoples, cultures, and countries of the global South.Religion will shape the dynamics of existing, new, and emerging great powers.It will influence U.S. attempts to promote freedom, civil society, democracy, and economic development
Christian resurgenceThe most dramatic religious explosion in the world today is the spread of Pentecostalism and evangelical ProtestantismPentecostalism is a movement within Christianity that places emphasis on a direct personal experience of God. Pentecostalism includes a wide range of different theologies and cultures. There is no single central organization or church that directs the movement. Many Pentecostal groups are affiliated with the Pentecostal World Conference.
Evangelical ProtestantismEvangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement. Its key commitments are:The need for personal conversion (or being "born again")Actively expressing and sharing the gospelA high regard for biblical authority, especially biblical inerrancyAn emphasis on teachings that proclaim the death and resurrection of Jesus
Political activitiesTraditionally Pentecostalism and evangelical Protestantism were thought to be private and highly personal religions with little interest in politicsRecently they became very active in politics, especially in Latin AmericaGenerally they support freedom and democracy, but because of their biblical literalism they promote intolerance
Religious renewal in AsiaChina is experiencing a tremendous expansion of Pentecostalism and evangelical Christianity.It is projected that by 2050 there will be about 200 million Christians in China (15% of the population)In South Korea Christianity reached over 25% of the populationMeanwhile, northwestern China is home to over 20 million Muslims and is now in the grip of an Islamic reawakening.
Indias problemAlthough 80% of Indians are Hindus, there are serious variations within the country.For example, Muslims comprise 67% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir.Christians dominate small eastern states of Nagaland (90%), Mizoram (87%), and Meghalaya (70%).Sikhs make up 60% of Punjab
Common Sense (1776)Thomas Paine
The American RevolutionBoston Massacre (1770)Political cartoons: Join, or DieJohn Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques RousseauDeclaration of IndependenceThe Constitution
The Constitution and the DeclarationPromotion of the political ideas of Enlightenment: to create a system of checks and balances that held rulers to higher laws/standards.
Democratic government / separation of powers / secularism / rationality
The rationalism and secularismThomas Jefferson: Shake off all the fears of servile prejudices, under which weak minds are crouched. Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call her tribunal for every fact, every opinion. Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason than that of blindfolded fear
**Professional teachers and intellectuals in Athens and other Greek cities in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E.In return for a fee, they offered young wealthy Greek men an education in aret (virtue, excellence, persuasion), thereby attaining wealth and fame while also arousing significant antipathy. Prior to the fifth century B.C.E., aret was predominately associated with aristocratic warrior virtues such as courage and physical strength. In democratic Athens of the latter fifth century B.C.E., however