Neuropharmacology: Neuroanatomy

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  1. 1. Brain I: Neuroanatomy Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Goals Major Brain Areas Neuroimaging
  3. 3. Spinal Cord Divided into regions: Cervical Lumbar Function Motor Sensation
  4. 4. BrainstemThe Medulla is the base of the brainstem thatcontrols heartbeat and breathing.Example: SIDS
  5. 5. Beneath Skull Dura: thick/tough layer Arachnoid: contains blood vessels Pia: thin layer
  6. 6. ______ lobe
  7. 7. Match Color
  8. 8. Sensory Areas
  9. 9. 2.2Description of 3-Dimensional Space Coronal: section from ear to ear, like a loaf of bread most commonly used for animal research Sagital: section from front to back mid-sagital shows brain with left and right cortex separated Axial: section that parallels horizon Common for showing humans
  10. 10. Different Planes
  11. 11. Anatomical Terminology
  12. 12. Functions of Different Cortical Areas Frontal: cognition, executive function Temporal: hearing Occipital: vision Parietal: integration of sensory informationDorsalPosterior AnteriorVentral
  13. 13. Corpus Callosum Fibers that connect left and right cortex Fornix
  14. 14. Cingulate Gyrus Tissue surrounding corpus collosum Anterior Posterior
  15. 15. Cerebellum (a mid-saggital) Located below theCCoccipital cortex Important for motorfunction BS Site of action of alcohol
  16. 16. Cerebellum Located below the occipital cortexCC Important for motor functionBS Site of action of alcohol
  17. 17. Thalamus Located in the center ofthe brain Major relaycenter, informationfrom spinal cord goes tothalamus, thalamus hasmany connections tothe cortex
  18. 18. Hippocampus Bilateral structure Hippocampus is greekfor seahorse Essential for memory,especially spatialmemory Effected by long termalcohol exposurehttp://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Synaptic/info/pathway/hippocampal.htm
  19. 19. 1.2Hippocampus: CoronalccBox a contains hippocampus: CA = cornu ammonis DG = dentate gyrus CC = corupus collosum
  20. 20. Amygdala The Amygdala consists oftwo lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to theemotions of fear and anger.
  21. 21. Brain Areas Important forHormone ControlRene Descartes Pineal Gland Very small subcortical structure Releases the hormone melatonin Hypothalmus Hypo = below therefore located under thalamus Regulates activity of Pituitary Pituitary communicates with other endocrine glands (e.g. testes) Important for steroids
  22. 22. Ventricles: Contain CSF Abnormal Ventricles
  23. 23. http://www.omsi.edu/visit/life/aging/brainText.cfm
  24. 24. Hypothalamus Paraventriclar Nucleus: stress response Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN): circadianrhythms Mammillary body: #5
  25. 25. Neuroanatomy Video (1.5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg1Lk
  26. 26. Animal Research=?Very helpful, but .
  27. 27. Hippocampus Comparison
  28. 28. More brains rat & dog
  29. 29. (Thalamus
  30. 30. CABDELK H FGJ I
  31. 31. and sheep brain
  32. 32. Cranial Nerves I. Olfactory: smell (S) II. Optic: vision (S) III. Oculomotor: pupil construction (M) IV. Trochlear: eye movement (M) V. Trigeminal: face & teeth (S), jaw (M) X. Vagus: heart (SM), autonomic nervous system
  33. 33. Brain Imaging Can provide information about anatomy (structure) orphysiology (function) Imaging procedures differ in their: Spatial resolution: the ability to differentiate nearby brainregions Temporal resolution: the ability to differentiate brainactivity at different timesFor more about brain imaging and drug abuse goto:http://www.nida.nih.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol11N5/Basics.html
  34. 34. Electroencephalography (EEG) 1873-1941 Developed by HansBerger in 1929 Electrodes are placedon the surface of theskull Electrical activity fromthe cortex is recordedTime
  35. 35. 1.7Computed Tomagraphy (EMI scan, axial) Gr: tomos (slice) & graphein (to write). Developed in the 1970s X-ray beams are passedthrough the head A 2 or even 3-dimensional structuralmap is createdFor more information about CT, goto:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computed_axial_tomography
  36. 36. Positron Emission Tomography (PET, another axial) Radioactive material is 1.7 injected into the blood Scanner records the radioactivity (positron) in different parts of the brain Provides information about function Very useful for researchFor more detailed information about PET, goto:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positron_emission_tomography
  37. 37. Figure 2. Brain Glucose Metabolic Images Showing Axial Planes at the Level of theOrbitofrontal CortexVolkow, N. D. et al. JAMA 2011;305:808-813Copyright restrictions may apply.
  38. 38. Functional Magnetic Resonance2.2 Imaging (fMRI) A cylindrical magnetcreates a magnetic field A sensor records bloodflow and brainactivation Can also be used forjust structure White matter Gray matter Ventricle
  39. 39. Comparison of Imaging Techniques4.7MeasuresProcedure Brain:AdvantageDisadvantageFunctionExcellent temporal Measures only from brainEEG resolution (msec)surfaceCTStructure Found in manySome radiation exposurehospitalsFunctionWide variety ofPoor temporal resolution (min),PETPoor spatial resolution (cm)uses RadiationfMRIFunctionGood temporalPatient cannot haveresolution (sec),metal implantsGood spatialresolution (0.5cm)
  40. 40. The Brain Techniques to Study the BrainA brain lesion experimentallydestroys brain tissue tostudy animal behaviors after such destruction. Hubel (1990)
  41. 41. What plane? Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
  42. 42. Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
  43. 43. What is the impact of ?
  44. 44. Example Brain Research Brain Development: Healthy, Hyperactive & ChildhoodSchizophrenia http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?15762 Juddith Rappaport, M.D. 2:40 up 37:50 Jargon Myelination: formation of white matter (myelin) Intramural: part of the National Institutes of Health in DC Prospectively: to follow forward in time Apolipoprotein E: gene that is associated with Alzheimers Disease Heritability: extent that a trait is due to genetic factors in a sample