9. 2.2Description of 3-Dimensional Space Coronal: section from ear to ear, like a loaf of bread most commonly used for animal research Sagital: section from front to back mid-sagital shows brain with left and right cortex separated Axial: section that parallels horizon Common for showing humans
10. Different Planes
11. Anatomical Terminology
12. Functions of Different Cortical Areas Frontal: cognition, executive function Temporal: hearing Occipital: vision Parietal: integration of sensory informationDorsalPosterior AnteriorVentral
13. Corpus Callosum Fibers that connect left and right cortex Fornix
14. Cingulate Gyrus Tissue surrounding corpus collosum Anterior Posterior
15. Cerebellum (a mid-saggital) Located below theCCoccipital cortex Important for motorfunction BS Site of action of alcohol
16. Cerebellum Located below the occipital cortexCC Important for motor functionBS Site of action of alcohol
17. Thalamus Located in the center ofthe brain Major relaycenter, informationfrom spinal cord goes tothalamus, thalamus hasmany connections tothe cortex
18. Hippocampus Bilateral structure Hippocampus is greekfor seahorse Essential for memory,especially spatialmemory Effected by long termalcohol exposurehttp://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Synaptic/info/pathway/hippocampal.htm
19. 1.2Hippocampus: CoronalccBox a contains hippocampus: CA = cornu ammonis DG = dentate gyrus CC = corupus collosum
20. Amygdala The Amygdala consists oftwo lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to theemotions of fear and anger.
21. Brain Areas Important forHormone ControlRene Descartes Pineal Gland Very small subcortical structure Releases the hormone melatonin Hypothalmus Hypo = below therefore located under thalamus Regulates activity of Pituitary Pituitary communicates with other endocrine glands (e.g. testes) Important for steroids
25. Neuroanatomy Video (1.5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg1Lk
26. Animal Research=?Very helpful, but .
27. Hippocampus Comparison
28. More brains rat & dog
30. CABDELK H FGJ I
31. and sheep brain
32. Cranial Nerves I. Olfactory: smell (S) II. Optic: vision (S) III. Oculomotor: pupil construction (M) IV. Trochlear: eye movement (M) V. Trigeminal: face & teeth (S), jaw (M) X. Vagus: heart (SM), autonomic nervous system
33. Brain Imaging Can provide information about anatomy (structure) orphysiology (function) Imaging procedures differ in their: Spatial resolution: the ability to differentiate nearby brainregions Temporal resolution: the ability to differentiate brainactivity at different timesFor more about brain imaging and drug abuse goto:http://www.nida.nih.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol11N5/Basics.html
34. Electroencephalography (EEG) 1873-1941 Developed by HansBerger in 1929 Electrodes are placedon the surface of theskull Electrical activity fromthe cortex is recordedTime
35. 1.7Computed Tomagraphy (EMI scan, axial) Gr: tomos (slice) & graphein (to write). Developed in the 1970s X-ray beams are passedthrough the head A 2 or even 3-dimensional structuralmap is createdFor more information about CT, goto:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computed_axial_tomography
36. Positron Emission Tomography (PET, another axial) Radioactive material is 1.7 injected into the blood Scanner records the radioactivity (positron) in different parts of the brain Provides information about function Very useful for researchFor more detailed information about PET, goto:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positron_emission_tomography
37. Figure 2. Brain Glucose Metabolic Images Showing Axial Planes at the Level of theOrbitofrontal CortexVolkow, N. D. et al. JAMA 2011;305:808-813Copyright restrictions may apply.
38. Functional Magnetic Resonance2.2 Imaging (fMRI) A cylindrical magnetcreates a magnetic field A sensor records bloodflow and brainactivation Can also be used forjust structure White matter Gray matter Ventricle
39. Comparison of Imaging Techniques4.7MeasuresProcedure Brain:AdvantageDisadvantageFunctionExcellent temporal Measures only from brainEEG resolution (msec)surfaceCTStructure Found in manySome radiation exposurehospitalsFunctionWide variety ofPoor temporal resolution (min),PETPoor spatial resolution (cm)uses RadiationfMRIFunctionGood temporalPatient cannot haveresolution (sec),metal implantsGood spatialresolution (0.5cm)
40. The Brain Techniques to Study the BrainA brain lesion experimentallydestroys brain tissue tostudy animal behaviors after such destruction. Hubel (1990)
41. What plane? Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
42. Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
43. What is the impact of ?
44. Example Brain Research Brain Development: Healthy, Hyperactive & ChildhoodSchizophrenia http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?15762 Juddith Rappaport, M.D. 2:40 up 37:50 Jargon Myelination: formation of white matter (myelin) Intramural: part of the National Institutes of Health in DC Prospectively: to follow forward in time Apolipoprotein E: gene that is associated with Alzheimers Disease Heritability: extent that a trait is due to genetic factors in a sample