Molecular Cytogenetics Book

  • View
    1.217

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

The present book covers wide area of molecular biology and cytogenetic biology in a form especially suitable for graduate (PG) students and undergraduate students (UG). This book will widely help to students, teachers, academicians to aid the knowledge about the course and beyond the course related to the subject matter as given in the box. In this book, we begin by describing the history of molecular biology and cytogenetic biology. Further, we turn to the nucleic acid, types and its structure, replication, transcription, translation, DNA damage and repair mechanisms. The cytogenetics describes in the chapter 6 followed by sex determination, karyotyping , chromosomal disorder, human genome project and gene library. The chapter 10 has cancer biology, in which the role of proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, its conversion, cancer treatment, drugs and therapy is discussed. Finally, the chapter 11 includes the molecular evolution. Boxed material throughout the book is provided to illustrate the topics covered in the main text, explanations of the medical relevance and in depth sections that extend the coverage beyond the content of the main text.

Transcript

  • 1. A TEXT BOOK OF MOLECULARCYTOGENETICS

2. A TEXT BOOK OFMOLECULAR CYTOGENETICS Ashok KumarAssistant ProfessorDept. of Biotecnology Himachal Institute of Life Science,Paonta Sahib 173025 (Himachal Pradesh) India AndMeena SrivastavaAssociate Professor Dept. of Zoology, Maharana Pratap Government (PG) CollegeHardoi 241001 (Uttar Pradesh) IndiaNARENDRA PUBLISHING HOUSEDELHI-110006 (INDIA) 3. Copyright 2012, Narendra Publishing House, Delhi (India)All rights reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or used inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,microfilming, recording, or information storage and retrieval system, without thewritten permission of the publisher and author.The information contained in this book has been obtained from authentic andreliable resources, but the authors/publisher cannot assume responsibility for thevalidity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors/ publisherhave attempted to trace and acknowledge the materials reproduced in thispublication and apologize if permission and acknowledgements to publish in thisform have not been given. If any material has not been acknowledged pleasewrite and let us know so we may rectify it.First Edition 2012ISBN: 978-93-80428-79-6Published by :NARENDRA PUBLISHING HOUSEPublisher and Distributor1417, Kishan Dutt Street, Maliwara,DELHI-110006 (India)Phones: 91-011-23268470, 91-011-23259412E-mail: info@nphindia.com Website: www.nphindia.comLaser Typeset by Amrit Graphics, Shahdara, Delhi 110 032Printed in India 4. This Book is Dedicated to My Divine Mother Smt. Kamla Devi(Mummi) 5. ContentsPrefacexxiAcknowledgements xxiii1. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY ........................................................................ 1Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1Molecular Biology ........................................................................................... 5Chromosomes and Inherited Traits ................................................................ 7Discovery of Structure of DNA .................................................................... 8Complementary Nucleotides ........................................................................... 8Central Dogma ............................................................................................... 8History of RNA Tertiary Structure ................................................................ 9Crystal Structure of tRNA ............................................................................. 9Hammerhead Ribozyme ............................................................................... 10Protein ............................................................................................................11Biotechnology ................................................................................................ 13Development of Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics ................................ 16Components of Molecular Biology ............................................................... 20Restriction Enzymes ..................................................................................... 21Restriction Endonucleases ..................................................................... 21Type II Restriction Endonucleases ........................................................ 22Isoschizomers ......................................................................................... 23Restriction Mapping ............................................................................... 23Host Cells ............................................................................................... 24Nucleic Acid Hybridization ........................................................................... 24Polymerase Chain Reaction ......................................................................... 25Nucleic Acid Sequencing .............................................................................. 26Nucleic Acids ................................................................................................ 27Types of Nucleic Acids ................................................................................ 28Ribonucleic Acid ........................................................................................... 28Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ..................................................................... 29Nucleic Acid Components ............................................................................ 29 6. viii Nucleobases .................................................................................................. 29 Nucleosides ................................................................................................... 29 Nucleotides and Deoxynucleotides ............................................................... 30 History of Nucleic Acid ................................................................................ 30 Experimental Proof of the Genetic Function of DNA ................................ 31 Structure of DNA ......................................................................................... 34 Properties of DNA ....................................................................................... 35 Bases ...................................................................................................... 36 Base Pairing ........................................................................................... 39 Grooves ................................................................................................... 40 Sense and Antisense .............................................................................. 41 DNA Super Coiling ................................................................................ 41 Role of Supercoiling ............................................................................... 42 Occurrence of DNA super coiling ........................................................ 43 Alternate DNA Structures ........................................................................... 46 Quadruplex Structures .................................................................................. 47 B-DNA ......................................................................................................... 48 Branched DNA ............................................................................................. 49 A-DNA ......................................................................................................... 49 Z-DNA .......................................................................................................... 50 Biological Significance of Z DNA ......................................................... 51 Chemical Modifications of DNA ................................................................. 52 Base Modifications ................................................................................. 52 Biological Functions ................................................................................ 52 Genes and Genomes ..................................................................................... 52 Interactions with Proteins ............................................................................. 53 DNA-binding Proteins .................................................................................. 53 Watson and Crick Model of DNA ............................................................... 54 Features of the Watson-Crick base pair ............................................... 55 Features of the Watson-Crick model of B-DNA ................................. 56 Real Structure of B-DNA ............................................................................ 56 History of DNA Research ........................................................................... 57 7. ixImportant Contributors to the Field of DNA ............................................... 57Ribonucleic Acid ........................................................................................... 61 Discovery of RNA ................................................................................. 63 Type of RNA ......................................................................................... 64 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ....................................................................... 64 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes ................................................................... 64 Prokaryotes ............................................................................................. 65 Eukaryotes .............................................................................................. 65 Importance of rRNA ............................................................................. 65 Messenger RNA (mRNA) .................................................................... 66 Synthesis, Processing and Function ....................................................... 66 Transcription ........................................................................................... 66 Eukaryotic pre-mRNA Processing ........................................................ 66 5 cap addition ........................................................................................ 67 Splicing .................................................................................................... 67 Editing ..................................................................................................... 67 Polyadenylation ....................................................................................... 67 Transport ................................................................................................. 68 Translation ............................................................................................... 68Structure of mRNA .....................