Mathematics for elementary teachers 10ed [2013]

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  1. 1. BMIndex.indd 29 7/31/2013 7:29:35 AM
  2. 2. EQUITY. CURRICULUM. - TEACHING. - - LEARNING. - ASSESSMENT. TECHNOLOGY. - National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Principles and Standards for School Mathematics Principles for School Mathematics Standards for School Mathematics NUMBER AND OPERATIONS - ALGEBRA - GEOMETRY - MEASUREMENT - DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY - PROBLEM SOLVING REASONING AND PROOF COMMUNICATION FMEndpaper.indd 15 7/31/2013 10:58:25 AM
  3. 3. Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics CONNECTIONS - REPRESENTATION - - PREKINDERGARTEN Number and Operations: - Geometry: - Measurement: KINDERGARTEN Number and Operations: Geometry: Measurement: GRADE 1 Number and Operations Algebra: - - Number and Operations: Geometry: GRADE 2 Number and Operations: Number and Operations Algebra: Measurement: - GRADE 3 Number and Operations Algebra: - - Number and Operations: - Geometry: - GRADE 4 Number and Operations Algebra: Number and Operations: Measurement: - GRADE 5 Number and Operations Algebra: - Number and Operations: Geometry Measurement Algebra: GRADE 6 Number and Operations: - Number and Operations: - Algebra: - GRADE 7 Number and Operations Algebra Geometry: - Measurement Geometry Algebra: - Number and Operations Algebra: - GRADE 8 Algebra: - Geometry Measurement: Data Analysis Number and Operations Algebra: - FMEndpaper.indd 16 7/31/2013 10:58:25 AM
  4. 4. For more information, visit www.wileyplus.com WileyPLUS builds students confidence because it takes the guesswork out of studying by providing students with a clear roadmap: what to do how to do it if they did it right It offers interactive resources along with a complete digital textbook that help students learn more. With WileyPLUS, students take more initiative so youll have greater impact on their achievement in the classroom and beyond. WileyPLUS is a research-based online environment for effective teaching and learning. Now available for
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  6. 6. MathematicsFor Elementary Teachers TENTH EDITION A C O N T E M P O R A R Y A P P R O A C H Gary L. Musser Blake E. Peterson William F. Burger Oregon State University Brigham Young University FMWileyPlus.indd 3 7/31/2013 2:14:09 PM
  7. 7. To: Irene, my wonderful wife of 52 years who is the best mother our son could have; Greg, our son, for his inquiring mind; Maranda, our granddaughter, for her willingness to listen; my parents who have passed away, but always with me; and Mary Burger, my initial coauthor's daughter. G.L.M. Shauna, my beautiful eternal companion and best friend, for her continual support of all my endeavors; my four children: Quinn for his creative enthusiasm for life, Joelle for her quiet yet strong confidence, Taren for her unintimidated ap- proach to life, and Riley for his good choices and his dry wit. B.E.P. VICE PRESIDENT & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER Laurie Rosatone PROJECT EDITOR Jennifer Brady SENIOR CONTENT MANAGER Karoline Luciano SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR Kerry Weinstein MARKETING MANAGER Kimberly Kanakes SENIOR PRODUCT DESIGNER Tom Kulesa OPERATIONS MANAGER Melissa Edwards ASSISTANT CONTENT EDITOR Jacqueline Sinacori SENIOR PHOTO EDITOR Lisa Gee MEDIA SPECIALIST Laura Abrams COVER & TEXT DESIGN Madelyn Lesure This book was set by Laserwords and printed and bound by Courier Kendallville. The cover was printed by Courier Kendallville. Copyright 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, me- chanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authoriza- tion through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, website www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, (201)748-6011, fax (201)748-6008, website http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instruc- tions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel. Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Musser, Gary L. Mathematics for elementary teachers : a contemporary approach / Gary L. Musser, Oregon State University, William F. Burger, Blake E. Peterson, Brigham Young University. -- 10th edition. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978-1-118-45744-3 (hardback) 1. Mathematics. 2. MathematicsStudy and teaching (Elementary) I. Title. QA39.3.M87 2014 510.24372dc23 2013019907 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FMWileyPlus.indd 4 7/31/2013 2:14:09 PM
  8. 8. Gary L. Musser is Professor Emeritus from Oregon State University. He earned both his B.S. in Mathematics Education in 1961 and his M.S. in Mathematics in 1963 at the University of Michigan and his Ph.D. in Mathematics (Radical Theory) in 1970 at the University of Miami in Florida. He taught at the junior and senior high, junior college college, and university levels for more than 30 years. He spent his final 24 years teaching prospective teachers in the Department of Mathematics at Oregon State University. While at OSU, Dr. Musser developed the mathematics component of the elementary teacher program. Soon after Profesor William F. Burger joined the OSU Department of Mathematics in a similar capacity, the two of them began to write the first edtion of this book. Professor Burger passed away during the preparation of the second edition, and Professor Blake E. Peterson was hired at OSU as his replacement. Professor Peter- son joined Professor Musser as a coauthor beginning with the fifth edition. Professor Musser has published 40 papers in many journals, including the Pacific Journal of Mathematics, Canadian Journal of Mathematics, The Mathematics Association of America Monthly, the NCTMs The Mathematics Teacher, the NCTMs The Arithmetic Teacher, School Science and Mathematics, The OregonMathematicsTeacher,andTheComputingTeacher.Inaddition,heisacoauthorof twoothercollegemathematics books: College GeometryA Problem-Solving Approach with Applications (2008) and A Mathematical View of Our World (2007). He also coauthored the K-8 series Mathematics in Action. He has given more than 65 invited lectures/ workshops at a variety of conferences, including NCTM and MAA conferences, and was awarded 15 federal, state, and local grants to improve the teaching of mathematics. While Professor Musser was at OSU, he was awarded the universitys prestigious College of Science Carter Award for Teaching. He is currently living in sunny Las Vegas, were he continues to write, ponder the mysteries of the stock market, enjoy living with his wife and his faithful yellow lab, Zoey. Blake E. Peterson is currently a Professor in the Department of Mathematics Educa- tion at Brigham Young University. He was born and raised in Logan, Utah, where he graduated from Logan High School. Before completing his BA in secondary mathe- matics education at Utah State University, he spent two years in Japan as a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. After graduation, he took his new wife, Shauna, to southern California, where he taught and coached at Chino High School for two years. In 1988, he began graduate school at Washington State Univer- sity, where he later completed a M.S. and Ph.D. in pure mathematics. After completing his Ph.D., Dr. Peterson was hired as a mathematics educator in the Department of Mathematics at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, where he taught for three years. It was at OSU where he met Gary Musser. He has since moved his wife and four children to Provo, Utah, to assume his position at Brigham Young University where he is currently a full professor. Dr. Peterson has published papers in Rocky Mountain Mathematics Journal, The American Mathematical Monthly, The Mathematical Gazette, Mathematics Magazine, The New England Mathematics Journal, School Science and Mathematics, The Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, and The Journal for Research in Mathematics as well as chapters in several books. He has also published in NCTMs Mathematics Teacher, and Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. His research interests are teacher education in Japan and productive use of student mathematical thinking during instruction, which is the basis of an NSF grant that he and 3 of his colleagues were recently awarded. In addition to teaching, research, and writing, Dr. Peterson has done consulting for the College Board, founded the Utah Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators, and has been the chair of the editorial pa