Information Seeking Information Literacy

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  • 1.Information Seeking Information Literacy: WHATISALL THIS? Finding a way through the word maze LIB 640 Information Sources and Services Summer 2009


  • What Is Information Seeking?
    • In the simplest terms, information seeking involves the search, retrieval, recognition, and application of meaningful content. This search may be explicit or implicit, the retrieval may be the result of specific strategies or serendipity, the resulting information may be embraced or rejected, the entire experience may be carried through to a logical conclusion or aborted in midstream, and there may be a million other potential results.
      • Kelly Patricia Kingrey ,Concepts of Information Seeking and Their Presence in the Practical Library Literature .Library Philosophy and Practice Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring 2002)

What is information seeking? 3. Why Seek? Theory 1

  • ASK Hypothesis
    • . . .Anomalous States-of-Knowledge(abbreviated to ASK). . . .Situationsin which the patrons knowledge areincomplete or limited in some way, andthey need further information to get on,the patrons are seen to be in an anomalous state of knowledge.
      • Steen Ammentorp andMarianne Hummelshj , Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development . Paper presented at 11th NI&D Conference. Spring for information. Reykjavik, 30 May1 June 2001.Retrieved22. September, 2004.

Nicholas Belkin 4. Why Seek? Theory 2

  • The Uncertainty Principle
    • Uncertainty initiates theprocess of informationseeking
      • Kuhlthau, Carol C.ISP PresentationRetrieved June 14, 2007.

Carol Kuhlthau 5. Why Seek?Theory 3

  • The Gap that does not make sense
    • . . .Dervin presents to us a pictureof a man walking along a road,when he comes upon an impassablehole in the ground. In this situation,he is obviously facing a gap. Whatis he to do now?
      • Jarkko Kari, MAKING SENSE OF SENSE-MAKING: From metatheory to substantive theory in the context of paranormal information seeking . Paper presented at Nordis-Net workshop(Meta)theoretical stands in studying library and information institutions: individual, organizational and societal aspects , November 1215 1998, Oslo, Norway.Retrieved September 22, 2004.

Brenda Dervin 6. Who Seeks? Theory 1

  • Anomalous State of Knowledge(ASK) hypothesis:
    • . . .patrons in problematic situations.
      • Steen Ammentorp andMarianne Hummelshj , Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .

Marianne Hummelshj Holm Steen Ammentorp 7. Who Seeks? Theory 2

  • Kulthaus Information Search Process:
    • People experience the ISP [Information Search Process] holistically with an interplay of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
      • Kuhlthau, Carol C. An Overview of the Information Search Proces s .Retrieved June 14, 2007.

Carol Kuhlthau 8. Who Seeks? Theory 3

  • Sense-Making Hypothesis:
    • . . .[a] patron [who] is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge.
      • Steen Ammentorp andMarianne Hummelshj , Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .

Brenda Dervin 9. How Do They Seek? Theory 1

  • ASK:
    • . . . users performing some activity feel that they have a knowledge gap that cannot be filled directly, and consequentlythey engage into an information seeking process. . .
      • Brajnik, Giorgio Information Seeking as Explorative Learning . Retrieved Sept. 7 th , 2003.

Giorgio Brajnik Assistant Professor in Computer Science,University of Udine , Italy 10. How Do They Seek? Theory 2

  • Kuhlthaus ISP:
    • The critical component of theISP is the person's ownformulation of a focus thatinvolves gaining a personalperspective of the topic or subjectwhile using a variety of sources of information. In other words, users are constructing their own understandings through inquiry.
      • Carol Kuhlthau, Research Interests . Last Updated March 2007.Retrieved June 14, 2007.

11. How Do They Seek? Theory 3

  • Dervins Sense-Making:
    • . . .the patron is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge. However the patron tries to bridge this gap by asking questions and using the answers to closing the gap, making new sense. As Belkin, Dervin sees the nature of the information need as something situational changing as the patrons tries to bridge the gap.
      • Ammentorp and Hummelshj, Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .

12. Who, How, Why?

  • person-in-context
  • active searchfor information
  • stress/copingmodel
    • Wilson, Tom and Christina Walsh. A revised general model of information behaviour ch. 7 of Information Behaviour: An Inter-Disciplinary Perspective . British Library Research and Innovation Report 10.A report to the British Library Research & Innovation Centre on a review of the literature. Retrieved Sept. 8 th , 2003.

Professor Tom Wilson Biography Research Cats 13. Another Why to Consider

  • Self-Generated or Imposed?
    • internally motivated by personal context
    • OR
    • thought up by one person then given to someone else to resolve
      • Gross, Melissa. Imposed information seeking in public libraries and school library media centers: a common behaviour? Information Research6.2 (January 2001).Retrieved Sept. 8 th , 20003.

14. Process of Searching

  • Kulthaus ISP:
    • Carol C. Kuhlthau ,Jannica HeinstrmandRoss J. Todd ,The information search process revisited: is the model still useful? Information ResearchVOL. 13 NO. 4, DECEMBER, 2008.

15. Information Literacy

  • information literacy(IL)
    • Skill in finding theinformationone needs, including an understanding of howlibrariesare organized, familiarity with the resources they provide (including informationformat s andautomated searchtools), andknowledgeof commonly usedresearchtechniques.
      • ODLIS

16. WhatisInformation Literacy?

  • And why should I care?
    • Information literacy skills are skills you will need through your life. We are always seeking information.. . . Information helps us reach conclusions, make our choices, and communicate more effectively. But the good stuff is often buried in heaps of junk. We need to continue to improve our searching, evaluating and communication skills in a changing information environment.
    • Remember computer literacy is not information literacy. For a comparison, read thisarticle .


  • Why teach information literacy?
    • The information explosion has providedcountless opportunities for students andhas dramatically altered the knowledge and abilities they will need to live productively in the twenty-first century.Students must become skillful consumers and producers of information in a range of sources and formats to thrive personally and economically in the communication age.
      • American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology.Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning .Chicago: American Library Association, 1998.

18. What is information literacy?

  • If you are information literate, you are able to
    • know when you have aneed for information
    • find the information you need
    • evaluate the information you find and use it effectively to meet yourneeds

19. Another concept

  • What is