Information Seeking Information Literacy

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


  • 1.Information Seeking Information Literacy: WHATISALL THIS? Finding a way through the word maze LIB 640 Information Sources and Services Summer 2009


  • What Is Information Seeking?
    • In the simplest terms, information seeking involves the search, retrieval, recognition, and application of meaningful content. This search may be explicit or implicit, the retrieval may be the result of specific strategies or serendipity, the resulting information may be embraced or rejected, the entire experience may be carried through to a logical conclusion or aborted in midstream, and there may be a million other potential results.
      • Kelly Patricia Kingrey ,Concepts of Information Seeking and Their Presence in the Practical Library Literature .Library Philosophy and Practice Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring 2002)

What is information seeking? 3. Why Seek? Theory 1

  • ASK Hypothesis
    • . . .Anomalous States-of-Knowledge(abbreviated to ASK). . . .Situationsin which the patrons knowledge areincomplete or limited in some way, andthey need further information to get on,the patrons are seen to be in an anomalous state of knowledge.
      • Steen Ammentorp andMarianne Hummelshj , Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development . Paper presented at 11th NI&D Conference. Spring for information. Reykjavik, 30 May1 June 2001.Retrieved22. September, 2004.

Nicholas Belkin 4. Why Seek? Theory 2

  • The Uncertainty Principle
    • Uncertainty initiates theprocess of informationseeking
      • Kuhlthau, Carol C.ISP PresentationRetrieved June 14, 2007.

Carol Kuhlthau 5. Why Seek?Theory 3

  • The Gap that does not make sense
    • . . .Dervin presents to us a pictureof a man walking along a road,when he comes upon an impassablehole in the ground. In this situation,he is obviously facing a gap. Whatis he to do now?
      • Jarkko Kari, MAKING SENSE OF SENSE-MAKING: From metatheory to substantive theory in the context of paranormal information seeking . Paper presented at Nordis-Net workshop(Meta)theoretical stands in studying library and information institutions: individual, organizational and societal aspects , November 1215 1998, Oslo, Norway.Retrieved September 22, 2004.

Brenda Dervin 6. Who Seeks? Theory 1

  • Anomalous State of Knowledge(ASK) hypothesis:
    • . . .patrons in problematic situations.
      • Steen Ammentorp andMarianne Hummelshj , Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .

Marianne Hummelshj Holm Steen Ammentorp 7. Who Seeks? Theory 2

  • Kulthaus Information Search Process:
    • People experience the ISP [Information Search Process] holistically with an interplay of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
      • Kuhlthau, Carol C. An Overview of the Information Search Proces s .Retrieved June 14, 2007.

Carol Kuhlthau 8. Who Seeks? Theory 3

  • Sense-Making Hypothesis:
    • . . .[a] patron [who] is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge.
      • Steen Ammentorp andMarianne Hummelshj , Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .

Brenda Dervin 9. How Do They Seek? Theory 1

  • ASK:
    • . . . users performing some activity feel that they have a knowledge gap that cannot be filled directly, and consequentlythey engage into an information seeking process. . .
      • Brajnik, Giorgio Information Seeking as Explorative Learning . Retrieved Sept. 7 th , 2003.

Giorgio Brajnik Assistant Professor in Computer Science,University of Udine , Italy 10. How Do They Seek? Theory 2

  • Kuhlthaus ISP:
    • The critical component of theISP is the person's ownformulation of a focus thatinvolves gaining a personalperspective of the topic or subjectwhile using a variety of sources of information. In other words, users are constructing their own understandings through inquiry.
      • Carol Kuhlthau, Research Interests . Last Updated March 2007.Retrieved June 14, 2007.

11. How Do They Seek? Theory 3

  • Dervins Sense-Making:
    • . . .the patron is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge. However the patron tries to bridge this gap by asking questions and using the answers to closing the gap, making new sense. As Belkin, Dervin sees the nature of the information need as something situational changing as the patrons tries to bridge the gap.
      • Ammentorp and Hummelshj, Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .

12. Who, How, Why?

  • person-in-context
  • active searchfor information
  • stress/copingmodel
    • Wilson, Tom and Christina Walsh. A revised general model of information behaviour ch. 7 of Information Behaviour: An Inter-Disciplinary Perspective . British Library Research and Innovation Report 10.A report to the British Library Research & Innovation Centre on a review of the literature. Retrieved Sept. 8 th , 2003.

Professor Tom Wilson Biography Research Cats 13. Another Why to Consider

  • Self-Generated or Imposed?
    • internally motivated by personal context
    • OR
    • thought up by one person then given to someone else to resolve
      • Gross, Melissa. Imposed information seeking in public libraries and school library media centers: a common behaviour? Information Research6.2 (January 2001).Retrieved Sept. 8 th , 20003.

14. Process of Searching

  • Kulthaus ISP:
    • Carol C. Kuhlthau ,Jannica HeinstrmandRoss J. Todd ,The information search process revisited: is the model still useful? Information ResearchVOL. 13 NO. 4, DECEMBER, 2008.

15. Information Literacy

  • information literacy(IL)
    • Skill in finding theinformationone needs, including an understanding of howlibrariesare organized, familiarity with the resources they provide (including informationformat s andautomated searchtools), andknowledgeof commonly usedresearchtechniques.
      • ODLIS

16. WhatisInformation Literacy?

  • And why should I care?
    • Information literacy skills are skills you will need through your life. We are always seeking information.. . . Information helps us reach conclusions, make our choices, and communicate more effectively. But the good stuff is often buried in heaps of junk. We need to continue to improve our searching, evaluating and communication skills in a changing information environment.
    • Remember computer literacy is not information literacy. For a comparison, read thisarticle .


  • Why teach information literacy?
    • The information explosion has providedcountless opportunities for students andhas dramatically altered the knowledge and abilities they will need to live productively in the twenty-first century.Students must become skillful consumers and producers of information in a range of sources and formats to thrive personally and economically in the communication age.
      • American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology.Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning .Chicago: American Library Association, 1998.

18. What is information literacy?

  • If you are information literate, you are able to
    • know when you have aneed for information
    • find the information you need
    • evaluate the information you find and use it effectively to meet yourneeds

19. Another concept

  • What is Information Competence?
    • information competence, at heart, is the ability to find, evaluate, use, and communicate information in all of its various formats.
    • the fusing or the integration of library literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, technological literacy, ethics, critical thinking, and communication skills.
      • /

20. Literacy, Competence or Competency?

  • Information literacy
    • also known asinformation competenceorinformation competencyis a set of skills that helps students sift through the mass of information now available to them in order to locate and retrieve what is relevant and reliable for their research needs.
    • Simply put, an information literate student understands how tofind ,retrieve ,analyze , anduseinformation effectively. [1]
      • Teaching Information Literacy at Pasadena City College

21. Adding to the confusion of terms!

  • Several other terms and combinations of terms have been also used by different authors:
    • infoliteracy, informacy, information empowerment, information competence, information competency, information competencies, information literacy skills, information literacy and skills, skills of information literacy, information literacy competence, information literacy competencies, information competence skills, information handling skills, information problem solving, information problem solving skills, information fluency, information mediacy and even information mastery
      • Sirje Virkus: Informationliteracyin Europe: a literature review Information Research , Vol. 8 No. 4, July 2003

Sirje Virkus 22. Now also as Information Literac ies

  • Why the plural?
    • The use of the terminformation literaciesemphasizes the complexity and multiplicity of skills and strategies involved in finding and using information.
      • Dianne Oberg : Promoting Information Literacies: A Focus on Inquiry . 70th IFLA General Conference and Council, 22-27 August 2004, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Dr. Dianne Oberg 23. A related term often used outside library media circles

  • What is inquiry-based learning?
    • An old adage states: Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand. . . . Inquiry implies involvement that leads to understanding. Furthermore, involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit you to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge.

Inquiry-based learning 24. Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning

  • Explore the Approaches
    • Project-based learning, problem-based learning, and inquiry-based learning all three closely relate to the information processing approach. They all fit well with technology-rich learning environments where the focus is not on the hardware and software, but on the learning experience.
      • Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning

25. Another Related Term

  • Resource-Based Learning
    • Resource-based learning actively involves students, teachers and teacher-librarians in the effective use of a wide range of print, non print and human resources . . . Students who use a wide range of resources in various mediums for learning have the opportunity to approach a theme, issue or topic of study in ways which allow for a range of learning styles and access to the theme or topic via cognitive or affective appeals.More
      • Resource-Based Learning: Approaches

26. Yet another related term

  • Lifelong learning
    • Lifelong learning is the process of acquiring and expanding knowledge, skills, and dispositions throughout your life to foster well-being. It isn't about taking an adult pottery class or reading a nonfiction book occasionally. It's about the decisions you make and the problems you solve in everyday life. From enrolling in an structured, formal education program to considering whether to believe an infomercial's gimmick, lifelong learning takes many forms.

27. And another!

  • 21 stCentury Skills

28. AKA

  • 21st Century Literacies
    • 21st Century Literacies refer to the skills needed to flourish in today's society and in the future. Today discrete disciplines have emerged aroundinformation ,media ,multicultural , andvisualliteracies. It is the combination of literacies that can better help K-12 students and adult learners address and solve the issues that confront them.

29. How do we put it all together?

  • Use the school library media center!

30. After all, why are we doing this?

  • Dr. Ross Todd, Rutgers University:
    • The destination is not an information literature student, but rather, the development of a knowledgeable and knowing person, one who is able to engage effectively with a rich and complex information world, and who is able to develop new understandings, insights and ideas.
      • School Libraries as Knowledge Spaces: Connections and Actions; Outcomes and Evidence Powerpoint presentation for SLAV conference, Victoria, Australia

The School Library Association of Victoria 31. Shifting the focus of School Libraries

  • From: collections, position and advocacy
  • Through: connections, actions and evidence-based practice centering on a shared philosophy and process of inquiry learning
  • To:making a real difference to student learning outcomes

Developing knowledge and understanding A thinking community From Ross Todds PPTSchool Libraries as Knowledge Spaces: Connections and Actions; Outcomes and Evidence 32.

  • The Library as aKnowledge Space , not an Information Place
  • Ross Todd

33. Evidence for the benefits

  • Student Learning through Ohio School Libraries (2004)
    • Students appear to indicate that the school library not as a passive supply agency, but as an instructional agency helps them substantially in their learning.
    • What is clearly perceived to be of help is thelibrary s part in engaging students in an active process of building their own understanding and knowledgethe library as an agency for active learning.
      • Review of the Findings Powerpointpresentation.
      • Researchers:Dr. Ross ToddandDr. Carol Kuhlthau , Rutgers

34. Keith Curry Lance

  • What Research Tells Us About the Importance of School Libraries
    • At this point . . . there is a clear consensus in the results now [2002] available for eight states*: School libraries are a powerful force in the lives of America's children. The school library is one of the few factors whose contribution to academic achievement has been documented empirically, and it is a contribution that cannot be explained away by other powerful influences on student performance.
      • White House Conference on School Libraries
      • *Now 19 states and 1 Canadian provincesee

35. A European view

  • School Library and School Librarianship
    • The stream of information from TV channels, Internet, CD-ROMs, computer programmes etc. is unending. If the students, when they become adult citizens, are not to feel lost and helpless in the face of such rich sources of information, they must learn [to] devise personal strategies for information retrieval while they are still at school. Information Literacy and strategies for independent learning skill development ar...