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Inductive method:a psychological method of developing formulas and principles Deductive method:A speedy method of deduction and application. best method is to develop formuias and then apply in examples therefore -inducto -deductive method

- Inducto- Deductive Method = Inductive Method + Deductive Method
- What is INDUCTIVE METHOD???
- A Child Observes a rising of sun and getting of darkness after the setting of sun This He Observes everyday
- The Sun Rises Everyday And Also Sets Everyday CONCLUSION:
- A Child Eats Green Apple EVERYTIM E and Feels its sour taste.
- CONCLUSION: ALL THE GREEN APPLES ARE SOUR IN TASTE
- INDUCTIVE METHOD Principles: Maxims : proceeding from Concrete to Abstract, Particular to general, Example to formula. Direct Experiencing. Conclusions are based on repetition at many times. Child concludes after each observation. Child generalizes after many observations
- EXAMPLES:
- A child measures each and every triangle and concludes that, Sum of angles in every triangle is equal to 180 degrees CONCLUSION:
- 1)Example (a+b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (3+2)(3+2)=5x5=25 3x3+3x2+2x3+2x2=9+6+6+4=25 Similarly, For all cases with different values of a &b. It is concluded that, With every letter, (x+y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 (p+q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 (m+n)2 = m2 + 2mn + n2
- He Generalises that, (1st Term+2nd Term)2 = (1st Term)2 + 2 (1st Term)(2nd Term) + (2nd Term)2 CONCLUSION:
- 2)Example: a) Simple Interest of Rs. 300/- for 1 years at 4% p. a. 4% means 4/100 S.I=4X300/100=12 b) Simple Interest of Rs. 400/- for 3 years at 5% p. a. Simple Interest= 400x3x5= Rs. 60 100
- c) Simple Interest of Rs. 600/- for 4 years at 3% p. a. Simple Interest= 600x4x3= Rs. 72 100 WHAT WILL BE A CONCLUSION???
- generalization: Simple Interest = Principle x rate x time 100 i.e. S . I . = p x r x t 100
- MERITS: Scientific Method Content becomes crystal clear to students , as they develop on their own formula/ laws / Principle Based on Actual Observation and Experimentation .
- -------------------------------------------------------------------- Thinking is Logical Suitable for beginners Increases Pupil Teacher Relationship Home Work is reduced.
- DEMERITS: Not suitable for all topics Time Consuming Method Laborious Method Not Suitable for all types of students Un- prepared teacher can not make use of this method
- DEDUCTIVE METHOD
- A child is told The Sun Rises Everyday And Also Sets Everyday! This fact child verifies by daily observation
- ALL THE GREEN APPLES ARE SOUR IN TASTE The child may be told that he should never eat the green apple because they are sour. Afterwards he may verify this facts by tasting green apples.
- principles: Maxims : Proceeding from Abstract to Concrete, General to Particular, Formula to Examples. Students are given formula/rules/laws/princ iples directly . They solve problems using them.
- 1)EXAMPLES: Students are told that the sum of angles(3) in a triangle is 180degrees. Then the students verify the same . Students will conclude that sum of angles of triangle is equal to 180 degrees
- 2)Ask Students to solve the following problems: ( c+ d )2 ,( x+ y )2 ,( i + j )2 FORMULA was given to them. Then Students solves those Problems On The basis of following formula: (1st Term+2nd Term)2 = (1st Term)2 + 2 (1st Term)(2nd Term) + (2nd Term)2
- 3)The Teacher may announce that today he is going to learn Simple Interest. He will then give the relevant formula. i.e. S . I . = p x r x t 100 And Asks the Student to solve the Problem based on this formula
- MERITS: Time Saving Method Suitable to all topics Suitable to all Students Glorifies Memory.
- -------------------------------------------------------------- Useful at Revision Stage Enhances Speed and efficiency Mostly Used at Higher Stage level
- DEMERITS: Unpsychological Method No Originality and Creativity Blind Memorization
- ------------------------------------------------------------------ Educationally Unsound. Students are Passive Learners. Reasoning is not clear
- WHICH METHOD?WHICH METHOD? There can be no induction without deduction and no deduction without induction. Inductive approach is a method for establishing rules and generalization, and also deriving formulae. Deductive approach is a method of applying the deduced results and for improving skill and efficiency in solving problems. Hence a combination of both inductive and deductive approach is known as Inducto-deductive approach is most effective for realizing the desired goals.