Imperialism in China

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<ul><li> 1. China Under Siege: China Under Siege: AA CCeennttuurryy ooff CCrriissiissPPeerriioodd VV:: 11775500--11990000</li></ul> <p> 2. I. The Middle KingdomA. Led by the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty Foreigners from Manchuria 1644-1911B. China was ____________self-sufficientagriculturala. Healthy ______________ economyb. Massive expansion (imperialism?) on northern and western borders (Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet)c. produced silks, cottons, and ______________fine porcelainEmperor lived in __________ City isolated from the rest of society and influenced byeunuchsscholars and ____________.ForbiddenChinese were Ethnocentric___________: the belief that one's own group/culture is superior 3. II. Foreign TradeA. Foreign trade was restricted to the port city of GuangzhouB. European merchants could only deal with specially licensed Chinese firms known as ____________ that were strictly regulated by the government.C.Chinese market had little demand for European products.D.British usually had to use silver to buy silk, porcelain, copper and tea.Howqua Leader of the Canton Cohong and one ofHowqua Leader of the Canton Cohong and one ofthe richest men in the world (over $8 billion)the richest men in the world (over $8 billion)cohong 4. LordMacartneyBritish wanted to expand trade with ChinaIn 1793, King George III sent Lord GeorgeMacartney on a mission to the court of theQing DynastyTried to convince the Chinese to open upmore ____________Port citiesto British merchants.Macartney arrived in a warship bringingelaborate gifts like clocks, globes and othermanufactured goods.The Chinese saw his mission as _________tributeand demanded that Lord Macartney perform_______________kow-towthe traditional honoring ofthe Emperor. 5. EmperorQianlongQing Emperor 1735-1796Our dynasty's majestic virtue haspenetrated unto every countryunder Heaven, and Kings of allnations have offered their costlytribute by land and sea. As yourAmbassador can see for himself,we possess all things. I set novalue on objects strange oringenious, and have no use foryour country's manufactures.- 1793, Qianlong to King George III 6. III. Clash with the West(External)A. Unfavorable balance of trade for British merchantsBritish imported millions of pounds of _______ teaeach year from ChinaBritish exported goods worth much less paid in silver bullionopiumB. British begin smuggling ___________ into China!Trade increased from 1,000 chests in 1773 to 23,000 in 1832 and 40,000 by 1839! 7. Opium DensC. Impact: Loss of Chinese Revenue Illegal drug had to be smuggled and therefore was nottaxedregulated or ________ by government. Led to widespread corruption and loss of silver!Millions of addicts men, women, court officials, students, soldiers, laborers 8. I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that isbecause the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed Opium on to the harm Densto do harmof othercountries -- how much less to China!... certainly you will not let your subjects dare again toviolate the law. it is clear that the true culprits of a Chineses death as a result of an opium conviction are theopium traders from foreign countries. Being the cause of other peoples death, why shouldthey themselves be spared from capital punishment? A murderer of one person is subject tothe death sentence; just imagine how many people opium has killed! Now consider this: if thebarbarians do not bring opium, then how can the Chinese people resell it, and how can theysmoke it? Therefore in the new regulations, the penalty is fixed at decapitation orstrangulation. This is what is called getting rid a harmful thing on behalf of mankind.If the merchants in your honorable country wish to enjoy trade with us on a permanent basis,they must fearfully observe our law by cutting off, once and for all, the supply of opium.The Chinese Emperor assigned government official Lin Zexu toserve as a drug czar to destroy the illegal opium trade.D. Lin Zexu wrote a letter to Great Britains Queen Victoria seekingher support to halt the opium trade.When diplomacy failed, he seized and destroyed over __________3 millionpounds of opium from Western traders and expelled them fromChina. 9. Opium War (1839)A. Opium War took place mostly at seaB. Chinas outdated ships versus Britains steam-powered ________________ navyC. Britain captured many coastal forts and towns and then forced the Chinese to surrender when theBritish armada took control of the Grand Canal and advanced up the Yangzi River.A. Opium War took place mostly at seaB. Chinas outdated ships versus Britains steam-powered ________________ IndustrializednavyC. Britain captured many coastal forts and towns and then forced the Chinese to surrender when theBritish armada took control of the Grand Canal and advanced up the Yangzi River. 10. Unequal TreatiesHow was the Opium War a turningpoint in Chinese history?D. ________________:Treaty of NanjingD. ________________:1. _____________________________________2. Opened five ports to the British for commerce and residence3. ________________ given to British subjects (meaning foreign residents are1. _____________________________________2. Opened five ports to the British for commerce and residence3. ________________ given to British subjects (meaning foreign residents areexcused from the laws of China)excused from the laws of China)Ceded the island of Hong Kong to the BritishExtraterritorial rights4. Legalized Opium trade5. More Unequal treaties with the U.S., France, Japan, Spain, Belgium, Denmark,and Germany followed opening China into Spheres of influence.4. Legalized Opium trade5. More Unequal treaties with the U.S., France, Japan, Spain, Belgium, Denmark,and Germany followed opening China into Spheres of influence. 11. Spheres of Influence1. According to the Political Cartoon, How is China depicted and1. According to the Political Cartoon, How is China depicted andwhat do the surrounding countries plan on doing with China?what do the surrounding countries plan on doing with China?2. How does this compare to the Ottoman Empire at this time?2. How does this compare to the Ottoman Empire at this time? 12. IV. Internal ProblemsThe population had grown to 430 million by1850 a 30% gain in only 60 years.A. Population in China was rising faster than ___________________ - Led tounemployment, impoverishment, misery and starvation for peasants.B. Chinese government was corruptC. Most Chinese businessmen served foreign firms which limited the development ofan independent __________ class and a Chinese Industrial Revolution.D. Opium addiction was rising steadilyagricultural productioncapitalist 13. The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)(Taiping means great peace)A. Led by ______________________Hong XiuquanB. Influenced by__________________Christian missionariesC. Wanted: abolition of private property redistribution of land equality of all men and women end of ____________ and prostitution end of opium smoking end to poverty, corruption and foreignManchu rule. Industrial nation, public educationD. Organized an army of peasants fromsouthern China (1 million strong by1853)E. 1853 - captured the city of ________Nanjingand declared it his capitalClaimed to be the brother of Jesus sentby god to cleanse the world of demons!footbinding 14. The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)Results:1. Hong Xiuquan dies in1864 (Illness? Suicide?)2. With the help of thelandowner gentry classand European aid andweapons, the Qing tookNanjing and ended therebellion in 18643. ________ million liveswere lost!4. ____________ destroyed- led to severe famine5. Qing realized theyneeded to modernizetheir society6. New sense of___________ developedthroughout ChinaResults:1. Hong Xiuquan dies in1864 (Illness? Suicide?)2. With the help of thelandowner gentry classand European aid andweapons, the Qing tookNanjing and ended therebellion in 18643. ________ 20 to 30million liveswere lost!4. ____________ farmlanddestroyed- led to severe famine5. Qing realized theyneeded to modernizetheir society6. nationalismNew sense of___________ developedthroughout ChinaRise of Rise of CChhiinneessee NNaattiioonnaalliissmm 15. Compare Hong Xiuquan to Muhammad Ali!Write a Comparative Introduction and thesis statement about theWrite a Comparative Introduction and thesis statement about thepolitical, economic and/or social impact each man had on hispolitical, economic and/or social impact each man had on hisrespective civilization.respective civilization. 16. V. Defensive ModernizationChinese l Chinese leeaarrnniningg a att t thhee b baassee, ,W Weesstteerrnn l eleaarrnniningg f foorr u ussee..A. Self-strengthening Campaign 1860-1895A. Self-strengthening Campaign 1860-1895A. New examination system sought good menB. Support for landlords, repair dikes, irrigation systems, roadsC. Some industrial factories for textiles, steel and weapons; coal mines expanded, telegraph systemD. Attempt to modernize the military and shipping and railroadsA. New examination system sought good menB. Support for landlords, repair dikes, irrigation systems, roadsC. Some industrial factories for textiles, steel and weapons; coal mines expanded, telegraph systemD. Attempt to modernize the military and shipping and railroadsB. ProblemsB. ProblemsA. Conservative leaders feared changes would erode power and privileges of the landlordA. Conservative leaders feared changes would erode power and privileges of the landlordclassclassB. New Industry depended on foreigners for machinery, materials and expertiseC. Strengthen local authorities rather than the central Chinese state.B. New Industry depended on foreigners for machinery, materials and expertiseC. Strengthen local authorities rather than the central Chinese state. 17. Empress Dowager CixiThe Boat of Purity and Ease The Boat of Purity and EaseA. Rules China from 1861-1908B. Committed to traditional Chinese values diverted funds intended for the navy tobuild a marble boat to grace a lake in her imperial garden.A. Rules China from 1861-1908B. Committed to traditional Chinese values diverted funds intended for the navy tobuild a marble boat to grace a lake in her imperial garden. 18. Other Nations Step In To ChinaA. China had weak military technologyand both economic and politicalproblemsB. Many European powers and Japangain _________________ spheres of influencein China(A region in which the foreignnation controlled trade andinvestment)C. In 1899 the United States declaresthe__________________Open Door Policy(Policy proposed that Chinas doorbe open to merchants of all nations) 19. Boxer Rebellion (1900)Society of Harmonious FistsA. Secret society formed called the ________________________A. Secret society formed called the ________________________- resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese Christians- resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese ChristiansDeath to the foreign devilsB. Surrounded European section of Beijing shouting ____________________C. Defeated by soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and U.S.B. Surrounded European section of Beijing shouting ____________________C. Defeated by soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and U.S.Results:1. Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901 (China to pay reparations)2. Nationalism increased in China3. Realization that reforms were needed in order to surviveResults:1. Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901 (China to pay reparations)2. Nationalism increased in China3. Realization that reforms were needed in order to surviveFFilimlm c clilpip 20. Rise of ChineseNationalismDr. Sun YixianDr. Sun YixianFather of Modern ChinaFather of Modern China1. What was the greatest reform ofthe Qing Dynasty during this timeperiod? Why?2. Do you think the Self-strengtheningreforms wouldpermanently strengthen China orwas it too little, too late? Why? </p>