How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning

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    17-May-2015

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How Homo fabers (those who love to create) and Homo ludens (those who love to play) learn. This presentation made in Oct 2012 at Vasant Valley school in New Delhi, to educators from the Learn Today group, describes how elements can be borrowed from games and how games can be used in the classroom to enrich the learning experience.

Transcript

1. H ow HOMO FABERS and Homo ludens LEARN 2. Homo sapiens i n s sapiensw those who know Homo sapoe that they knon w kthose whoHom o economicus n the rational maHomo economicus mathe mature rationaturus l man 3. Homo sapiens i n s sapiensw those who know Homo sapoe that they knon w kthose who Hom o economicus n the rational maHomo economicus mathe mature rationaturus l man fabers CREATE Homo love to those who Homo ludens those who love to PLAY 4. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens 5. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamificationusing game-elements in learning 6. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamificationusing game-elements in learning - Novel Challenges - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Contextual - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Scaolding, Feedback - Conversa4on - Collabora4on - ACen4on 7. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamification Game-based Learningusing game-elements in learning using games in the classroom - Novel Challenges - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Contextual - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Scaolding, Feedback - Conversa4on - Collabora4on - ACen4on 8. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamification Game-based Learningusing game-elements in learning using games in the classroom - Novel Challenges - Listen to a Story - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Make a Story - Contextual - Play a Game - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Build a Game - Scaolding, Feedback - Collabora4ve Game-Play - Conversa4on - Collabora4on Learning Eec4veness: Memorize, Know, Understand, - ACen4on Synthesize, Create 9. Lets start with a story 10. A woman had just a few hours before she would die from a strange disease. There was just one drug that might save her. 11. PHARMACY Only one pharmacist in the village had that drug and he was charging ten 4mes the normal price. The sick womans husband, Heinz, could arrange just half the amount. 12. PHARMACY He pleaded and argued with the pharmacist that his wife was dying and so could he please lower the price or allow Heinz to pay later. But the pharmacist refused. 13. PHARMACY Heinz got desperate and that evening he stole the drug. 14. Should Heinz have stolen the drug? Should he be punished? 15. Harvard psychologist, Lawrence Kohlberg, who proposed a stage theory of moral thinking, used stories like this one, to test moral reasoning. 16. 1. Obedience and punishment orienta4on (how can I avoid punishment?) 2. Self-interest orienta4on (whats in it for me?) 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (social norms) 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orienta4on (law and order morality) 5. Social contract orienta4on (empathy) 6. Universal ethical principles (own moral code of conduct) 17. Kohlberg in the Classroom hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77uRQeu_pUQ 18. How to teach the concept of Justice?Curatorial Learning, of course! 19. Prof Michael Sandel www.Jus4ceHarvard.org 20. What Makes a Great Learning Experience- for Homo fabers and Homo ludens 21. What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g E e c 4 v e n e s s E n g a g e m e n t 22. What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g E e c 4 v e n e s s Tradi4onally: Stories Playing Tinkering Experimen4ng E n g a g e m e n t 23. Impar4ng learning as disciplined, formal educa4on is a fairly modern inven4on, only a few centuries old 24. While it may be ecient, it is ohen: q Boring q Stressful q Irrelevant All of the above 25. Most formal educa4on has degenerated into, Passive acquisi4on of knowledge Later regurgita4on in tests of recall 26. While research shows that deep learning happens when a learner is, Self-mo4vated to learn Constructs own understanding/meaning 27. When we play a game we are, Intrinsically mo4vated Have a high cogni4ve commitment Deeply engaged Overcome dicult challenges of our own voli4on 28. Games can cultivate: ACen4on Trust Eort Empathy Persistence Respect Rule following Fairness 29. But talk about games, and Parents complain games are addic4ve and colossal 4me wasters Educa4onists lament games foster adverse social behaviour 30. What Makes a Great Learning Experience? L e a r n i n g E e c 4 v e n e s s Use Games but with minimum adverse consequences? E n g a g e m e n t 31. What Makes a Great Learning Experience? L e a r n i n g E e c 4 v e n e s s Use Games but with minimum adverse consequences? GAMIFICATION may hold the answer E n g a g e m e n t 32. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamification Game-based Learningusing game-elements in learning using games in the classroom - Novel Challenges - Listen to a Story - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Make a Story - Contextual - Play a Game - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Build a Game - Scaolding, Feedback - Collabora4ve Game-Play - Conversa4on - Collabora4on Learning Eec4veness: Memorize, Know, Understand, - ACen4on Synthesize, Create 33. GAMIFICATIONis use of game-elements in non-gaming contexts 34. Some examples of Gamification Nike online tness community Ci4zen Science projects like GalaxyZoo.org Volkswagens www.funtheory.com in rewarding drivers who drive within speed limit 35. What Gamification is NOT:Simply adding Points, Badges and Leader Boards as a layer on top of a learning ac4vity 36. What Gamification IS:Deconstruc4ng good games to nd elements that enrich a learning experience, e.g. Connec4ng with players passions and goals Perhaps, allow personaliza4on of goals With games, learning is the drug (Raph Koster, game designer, author - Theory of Fun) 37. Why Learning becomes Taxing in a School Environment?Perhaps Unlike a game, the challenges provided are not novel or interes4ng Challenges are not contextual not related with learners aspira4ons or life situa4on Based on a talk by Sebas/an Deterding, designer hCp://bit.ly/PC8rjn 38. Why Learning becomes Taxing in a School Environment?Perhaps No varying of pace in learning No scaolding that allows gradual learning No excessive posi4ve feedback (informa4onal and not judgmental feedback) Based on a talk by Sebas/an Deterding, designer 39. hCp://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxBozeman-Paul-Andersen-Class 40. Lee Sheldons book The Mul4player Classroom Designing Coursework as a Game 41. Good game designers understand thatone size does not fit allIn a game, A newbie needs to be onboarded A regular needs fresh challenges new learned behaviours become a habit An enthusiast plays the game for mastery Based on a talk by Amy Jo Kim, game designer hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4YP-hGZTuA 42. What Motivates/Engages PeopleAmy Jo Kim 4 reasons for Social Engagement Express Explore Compete Cooperate Based on a talk by Amy Jo Kim 43. Engagement Loop in a GameCall to Action Express/Explore/Compete/Coop Player (re)Engagement Task/Mission/Quiz Positive Emotions Fun/Delight/Trust/Pride/Curious Visible Progress Statistics/Analytics/Feedback Based on a talk by Amy Jo Kim 44. According to Joseph Campbell, the journey of the archetypal hero in mythologies consists of " Call to Adventure " Refusal of the Call " Divine intervention or Epiphany " Journey of Trials & Tribulations " Return and Master of both worlds The learners journey could be, knowledge acquisition, mastery,innovation or transformation of self 45. Game = PERMAAmy Jo Kim good games embody the same 5 elements that are impera4ve for well-being and happiness (Mar4n Seligmans book, Flourish) P = Posi4ve Emo4ons E = Engagement R = Rela4onships M = Meaning A = Accomplishment Based on a talk by Amy Jo Kim 46. Impact of emotions onlearning and performance... 47. A Class Divided hCp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/ 48. In his book Social Intelligence, author Daniel Goleman explains the impact of emo4ons on learning and performance... 49. Hans Selye divided Stress into two categories - Distress (persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adapta4on) and Eustress (or euphoric stress that enhances physical and mental func4on) - high performance requires op4mal stress 50. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi on FLOW High Challenge Low Skill Cogni4ve Overload Lack of Prior Knowledge (pre-requisites) Wrong Mental Model Leads to Anxiety - Provide Scaolding (e.g. step-wise hints) High Skill Low Challenge Quickly move to the next level (Mastery Learning Khan Academy) 51. Personaliza4on of Learning Role of ICT Harvard Professor, Clayton Christensens book Disrup4ng Class 52. Good Game Designers Understandthe Psychology of Motivation! 53. Self-Determination Theory!THE MOTIVATIONAL SPECTRUM External Regula/on > Introjec/on > Iden/ca/on > Integra/on > Intrinsic Amo$va$on Extrinsic Mo$va$on Intrinsic Mo$va$on Indierent to External Regula$on: you dont want to do Doing something for a task something but do it because someone wants the love of it you to do to it Not for the reward Introjec$on: do it because it enhances your status I will do it because others will value E.g. spending 4me me with family, listening Iden$ca$on: I dont really enjoy doing it but to music I will do it because I see value in doing it. E.g. study math Integra$on: I will do it because it align with my goals (even though I might not enjoy doing it). E.g. exercise 54. !Effectance Motivation!Organisms have a tendency to explore and inuence the environment and the master reinforcer for humans is personal competence (competence is the ability to interacteffectively with the environment) - Psychologist Robert White 55. Factors thatIn his book Drive - The SurprisingTruth about What Motivates Usinuence Intrinsicauthor Daniel Pink suggests thatMotivation!the new operating system for the21st century, or Motivation 3.0,has three components: Autonomy: the urge to direct ourown lives Mastery: the desire to get betterand better on something thatmatters Purpose: a yearning to do somethinglarger than our self-interest 56. hCp://www.ted.com/talks/brenda_brathwaite_gaming_for_understanding.html 57. Good Game Designers Understand Currency of Attention! 58. How do we stay focused? To understand this lets look at play, because while playing we are usually naturally aCen4ve This happens because our mind is wired such that it seeks variety and in play the s4mulus is constantly changing Every moment of a tennis match is dierent, and if runs are not being scored or wickets are not falling then even cricket becomes boring - we stop paying aCen4on! 59. Ellen Langer, Harvard Professor of Psychology, conducted a study where she asked par4cipants, who did not par4cularly like classical music, to listen to classical music One set of par4cipants was asked to no4ce three to six novel aspects about the ac4vity, like no4ce the musical instruments they could iden4fy Another set was not given any instruc4ons to no4ce dierences The Study revealed that more the dis4nc4ons drawn by careful no4cing, the more the subjects liked the ac4vity Thus, the more we deliberately engage with a task the more interested we become and more we learn 60. Langer calls this a mindful autude to learning - the opposite autude is a mindless rote or autopilotlearning Connect what you are learning with your life and make it more meaningful Self-reference Eect - informa4on that is related to us is easier to learn While studying we should mentally ask ques4ons about the topic, look at the informa4on from various perspec4ves and relate it to our personal life or of someone we know By making informa4on meaningful we remember it longer 61. Good learners know how to make learning interes4ng by deliberately bringing in variety in what they are studying For example, while reading a book, they mentally ask ques4ons and try to answer them, look at the book from various perspec4ves or think about dierent endings to a story 62. In Summary Game Elements that can be used toEnrich the Learning Experience are 63. Meaning: contextual goals, shrink the goal personaliza4on Intrinsic Mo4va4on: mastery, autonomy (play = voluntary, what the body in not obliged to do Mark Twain) Varied Challenges: non-repe44ve, novel challenges; experience failure, value the win Environment - Safe but not sterile environment, where consequences are not dire - Frustra4on is taken in stride - Failure is less shameful 64. Scaolding: challenge and skill balance Flow Changing S4mulus: for intense engagement Feedback: instant, juicy, informa4ve, non-judgmental feedback that helps improve performance Collabora4on: communi4es of common interest Mutual respect Benevolence Trust Empathy 65. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamification Game-based Learningusing game-elements in learning using games in the classroom - Novel Challenges - Listen to a Story - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Make a Story - Contextual - Play a Game - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Build a Game - Scaolding, Feedback - Collabora4ve Game-Play - Conversa4on - Collabora4on Learning Eec4veness: Memorize, Know, Understand, - ACen4on Synthesize, Create 66. The Engagement Spectrum 67. The Engagement Spectrum 68. The Engagement Spectrum 69. The Engagement Spectrum 70. Story Creators and Animation Tools for iPad 71. The Engagement Spectrum 72. Learning Teaching Scotland - Game-based Learning hCp://www.heppell.net/bva/bva5/elrick.htm 73. The Engagement Spectrum 74. The Engagement Spectrum 75. Solo Games: typically provide a deeper learning experience Collabora4ve Games: typically provide higher learner mo4va4on Gaming Communi4es: several learning theories at work, e.g. Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development, More Knowledgeable Other and Lave & Wengers Legi4mate Peripheral Par4cipa4on and Situated Learning 76. Gaming Communi4es: very good for cul4va4ng skills essen4al for success in the 21st century - Collabora4ve problem solving - Co-construc4ng meaning - Consensual decision making - Responsibility and self-directed learning 77. hCp://youtu.be/yDPssJedOJ4 78. Learning Cycle in a Gaming Community 79. Also available as eBook John Seely Browns website hCp://www.johnseelybrown.com 80. ARG!Alternate Reality Games 81. Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a beJer world TED Talk hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE1DuBesGYM 82. Games are engaging, no doubt.But, what aboutLEARNING EFFECTIVENES 83. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamification Game-based Learningusing game-elements in learning using games in the classroom - Novel Challenges - Listen to a Story - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Make a Story - Contextual - Play a Game - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Build a Game - Scaolding, Feedback - Collabora4ve Game-Play - Conversa4on - Collabora4on Learning Eec4veness: Memorize, Know, Understand, - ACen4on Synthesize, Create 84. Blooms Taxonomy of Sorts! Crea4vity Synthesis Understanding Knowing Memorisa4on 85. Challenge (beCer 4me or Add Context beCer score) (vocabulary Novelty of Blooms Taxonomy of Sorts! Crea4vity around a theme, Radio Show type Form Factor game) Synthesis Understanding Knowing - Recall of facts Memorisa4on - Tradi4onally learned by rote 86. Add Context Engagement (problems that (mul4media learner can relate storytelling) with) Blooms Taxonomy of Sorts! Crea4vity Synthesis Understanding Knowing Knowledge of a domain Memorisa4on 87. Detectives at th e British MuseumThousands of yearsago I used to be a king but you can still meet me at th e British Museum.Although I am alittle tied-up today !Who am I? Clue: Go to room (9 X 7) = ?Simple Games I have made for my son (this one, when he was 9) 88. Simple Games I have made for my son (this one, when he was 10) 89. It is old wine in new boCles a simple quiz converted into QR code cool form factor! 90. - Ac4ve Explora4on - Discovery Learning - Feedback (Hints = Scaolding) Blooms Taxonomy of Sorts! Crea4vity Synthesis Understanding - Making connec4ons with prior knowledge - Applying knowledge in novel contexts Knowing Memorisa4on 91. ICT Curriculum Beyond Word and Excel Learning by Tinkering 92. Arduino Is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. Its an open-source physical compu4ng plazorm based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for wri4ng sohware for the board. 93. Crea4vity Blooms Taxonomy of Sorts! Seeing paCerns and rela4onships between Synthesis discrete knowledge nuggets, across domains Understanding Knowing Memorisa4on - Require cross-domain knowledge - Decision Making skills - Problem Solving skills 94. Crea4vity Blooms Taxonomy of Sorts! New connec4ons, innova4ve solu4ons Synthesis Understanding Knowing Memorisa4on Using underlying Physics engine, create own games, own stories 95. Curating Good Games 96. You can search for educa4onal games on Android Market 97. You can search App Store for educa4onal games 98. Search Google for Serious Games on your topic of study... you may nd a good game 99. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experiencefor Homo fabers and Homo ludens Gamification Game-based Learningusing game-elements in learning using games in the classroom - Novel Challenges - Listen to a Story - Intrinsic Mo4va4on - Make a Story - Contextual - Play a Game - Emo4ons/Experien4al - Build a Game - Scaolding, Feedback - Collabora4ve Game-Play - Conversa4on Learning Eec4veness: - Collabora4on Memorize, Know, Understand, - ACen4on Synthesize, Create 100. Let the Learning Games Begin... 101. For more learning modules on skills relevant for ourishing in the 21st century visit - www.TimelessLifeskills.co.uk Or join the Learning Conversa4ons on Facebook - www.facebook.com/lifeskills 102. Thank youIf you have ques4ons or comments please feel free to email me at: Atul.Pant@gmail.com