Genetic Basis of Inheritance

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KISHOR SAWAIKARM.SC., M.PHIL., PH. D.

The concept "Like begets like".i. Living organisms produce young ones similar to them. ii. A dog gives puppies and a mango tree gives mango seeds. iii. This basic principle of life giving rise to life of its own kind is called "Like begets like". iv. This kind of making one's copies, a fundamental characteristics of life, becomes possible due to replication of DNA (genetic material) and its transmission to next generation.

i. Heredity: Transmission of characters from one generation to the next generation is called heredity.

ii. Variation: The differences between parents and offsprings or among the offsprings of the same parents and among individuals of same species is called variation.

iii. Genetics: It is the branch of biology which deals with the study of heredity and variation. The term genetics was coined by William Bateson in 1906.

Father of GeneticsGregor Johann Mendel.

Kingdom:Plantae(unranked):Angiosperms(unranked):Eudicots(unranked):RosidsOrder:FabalesFamily:FabaceaeGenus:PisumSpecies:P. sativumBinomial namePisum sativumL.Nutritional value per 100g (3.5oz)Energy339kJ (81kcal)Carbohydrates14.45 gSugars5.67 gDietary fiber5.1 gFat0.4 gProtein5.42 g

VitaminsVitamin A equiv.beta-caroteneluteinzeaxanthin(5%)38 g(4%)449 g2477 gThiamine(B1)(23%)0.266 mgRiboflavin(B2)(11%)0.132 mgNiacin(B3)(14%)2.09 mgVitamin B6(13%)0.169 mgFolate(B9)(16%)65 gVitamin C(48%) 40 mgVitamin E(1%)0.13 mgVitamin K(24%)24.8 g

Calcium(3%) 25 mgIron(11%) 1.47 mgMagnesium(9%) 33 mgManganese(20%) 0.41 mgPhosphorus(15%) 108 mgPotassium(5%) 244 mgSodium(0%) 5 mgZinc(13%) 1.24 mg

Mendelian inheritancei. Clone: Organisms produced by asexual reproduction or plants produced by vegetative propagation are identical to their parents are called clones.

ii. Factor: Particle present in the organism which is responsible for the inheritance and expression of the character.

iii. Gene: (coined by Johannsen) Specific segment of DNA which determines a particular character of an organism. ORIt is a particular segment of DNA which is responsible for the inheritance and expression of that character.

iv. Alleles or Allelomorphs: (coined by Bateson) Two or more alternative forms of a gene present at the same loci of homologous chromosomes and controlling the same character are called as alleles or allelomorphs

Homorygous: An individual having identical alleles for a particular character is homozygous for that character. It is ' pure or true breeding e.g. TT, tt.

Heterorygous: An individual having dissimilar alleles for a particular character is heterozygous for that character. It is a hybrid. e.g. Tt

Genotype: It is the genetic constitution of an organism. e.g. TT, Tt, tt.

Phenotype: The external appearance of an organism. e.g. tallness, dwarfness.

Monohybrid cross: A cross between two pure parents differing in single pair of contrasting character is called monohybrid cross. The ratio for this cross is 3 : 1.

Dihybrid cross: A cross between two pure parents differing in two pairs of contrasting characters is called dihybrid cross. The ratio for such cross is 9 : 3 : 3 : l.

Monohybrid: It is heterozygous for one trait and produced by crossing two pure parents differing in a single pair of contrasting characters.

Dihybrid: It is heterozygous for two traits and produced in a cross between two parents differing in two pairs of contrasting characters F1 generation:The hybrid individuals obtained by a cross between two pure parents with contrasting characters iscalled F1 generation or first filial generation.F2 generation:The generation of offsprings obtained by selfing of F1 individuals is called F2 generation or second filial generation.Dominant: The character expressed in F1 generation is called dominant character. ORIt is an allele that expresses even in presence of an alternative allele.Recessive: The character which is not expressed in F1 generation is called recessive character. or It an allele which do not expressed in presence of an alternative allele.Offsprings: The individuals produced by the sexual reproduction are called offsprings.Progeny: All offsprings produced by the parents are called progeny.Hybrid: Heterozygous individual produced by parents having contrasting characters. e.g. Tt.

Character: A visible feature is a character e.g. height, seed colour.

Trait: one form of the visible feature e.g. tallness or dwarfness, yellow or green.Homologous chromosomes or Homologues:Morphologically, physiologically and genetically similar chromosomes present in diploid cells are called homologues or homologous chromosomes. In each pair of homologous chromosome is maternal and the other is paternal.Emasculation: Removal of stamens well before anthesis is called emasculation. It is don in bud condition.Genome: Entire genetic constitution of an organism is called genome.

Pure line: An individual or a group of individuals (population) that is homozygous or true breeding for one or more traits.Punnett square/Checker Board?

Punnett square is a graphical representation to calculate the probability of all possible genotypes and phenotypes of offsprings in a genetic cross. It was developed by Reginald C. PunnettHomozygous and Heterozygous

Dominant and Recessive character

Phenotype and Genotype

Seven contrasting charecters

Mendel conducted experiment in following three steps

Monohybrid cross: A cross between two pure parents differing in single pair of contrasting character is called monohybrid cross. The ratio for this cross is 3 : 1.

Law of dominance states that "in a cross between two homozygous organisms differing in a single pair of contrasting character, the character which is expressed in the F1 generation is called dominant character and the character which is not expressed is the recessive character,,.e.g. Tallness in pea plant is a dominant character while dwarfness is a recessive character.

In a cross between pure tall and pure dwarf pea plant, only tall character is expressed in all the individuals of F1 generation.Hence it can be inferred that in pea plants, tallness is the dominant character while dwarfness is a recessive character.Tallness in F1 hybrid is determined by genotype Tt in which the dominant allele 'T, suppresses the recessive allele 't' thereby suppressing its expression in the phenotype.Law of segregation is also called law of purity of gametes.

i. The character present in F1 hybrid has alleles for both dominant and recessive traits. ii. In a heterozygous individual, both of these forms may be present in a diploid cell lying in close proximity.iii. But they do not affect each other and when formation of gametes takes place, the two alleles e.g. T and t would separate. Thus each gamete is pure for the character.Law of segregation states that "when the two alleles for contrasting character are brought together in a hybrid union, they do not mix or contaminate but segregate or separate out from each other during gamete formation".i. Each organism contains two factors for each trait in its diploid cells and the factors segregate during the formation of gametes.ii.. Each gamete then contains only one factor from each pair of factors. iii. When fertilization occurs, the new organism has two factors for each trait, one from each parent.When Mendel crossed a homozygous tall plant with a homozygous dwarf plant, the offspring resulted from this cross was found to be a hybrid tall (F1 generation).

The hybrid tall thus produced has two alleles viz. 'T' (tallness) and 't' (dwarfness). When this hybrid tall forms the gametes, the two alleles viz. 'T and 't' segregate as shown below:

The two alleles (contrasting characters) do not mix, alter or dilute each other and the gametes that formed are 'pure' for the characters which they carry. Hence, this law is also called the law of purity of gametes.

Results

Dihybrid: It is heterozygous for two traits and produced in a cross between two parents differing in two pairs of contrasting characters

State Mendel's third law of inheritance or law of independent assortment and explain it withdihybrid crossThe law of independent assortment states that "when two parents differing from each other in two or more pairs of contrasting characters are crossed, then the inheritance of one pair-of character is independent of theother pair of character."For example, we cross a pure tall, red flowered pea plant with a pure dwarf white flowered pea plant, we get 9 tall red, 3 tall white, 3 dwarf red and 1 dwarf white plants in the F2 generation. A cross between two homozygous individuals differing in two characters is called dihybrid cross

When the two homozygous parents differing in two pairs of contrasting traits are crossed, the inheritance of one pair is independent of the other. In other words when a Dihybrid forms gametes, assortment (distribution) of alleles of different traits is independent of their original combinations in the parents.

Many genes are located on one chromosome i.e. they are linked. therefore, they pass through gametes in the form of a linkage group. However recombination are due to the crossing over that takes place during meiosis.Therefore, the law of independent assortment is applicable only for the traits which are located on different chromosomes. Thus law of independent assortment is not universally applicable.

Distinguish between monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross.

What is a back cross?The cross between F1 hybrid and any one of the parents is called back crossWhat is a test cross?The cross between F1 hybrid and the recessive parent is called test cross.When is back cross not a test cross?A back cross with dominant parent is not a test cross.

Deviations from Mendelian ratio

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