According to Eric Berne, a game is a series of ulterior transactions with a gimmick , leading to a usually well concealed but well defined payoff.
2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kerala, India. Phone 9744551114 Mail firstname.lastname@example.org Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations. 3. Contents Part I Definition of games. Typical features of games. Different degree of games. Why people play games? Advantages of playing games. Positive payoff of playing games. 4. Contents Part II Life Games. Marital Games. Party Games. Sexual Games. Underworld Games. Consulting Room Games. Good Games. 5. Definition of game In simple language, A game is a process of doing something with an ulterior motive that: Is outside adult awareness. Does not become explicit until the participants switch the way they are behaving and Results in everyone feeling confused, misunderstood and wanting to blame the other person. 6. Formula G Berne discovered that every game goes through a sequence of six stages. Con + Gimmick = Response Switch Cross up Payoff He called this sequence Formula G or Game formula. 7. Formula G Con it is delivered non-verbally. Gimmick It is a scripty weak spot that leads someone to buy into someone elses con. Response This stage of a game consists of a series of transactions. At social level, these transactions seem like straight forward exchange of information. But at psychological level, they repeat the Con-Gimmick exchange that opened the game. 8. Formula G Switch It happens when one player changes his role. Cross up The confusion happening during the change of role is cross up. Payoff Both players collect their payoff of racket feeling. 9. Definition of game According to Ian Stewart and Vann Jones, A game includes those sequences that follow all stages of Formula G, including the switch of roles and moment of confusion represented by switch and cross up. 10. Definition of game Berne defined games differently at different stages of his thinking. What ever fits the Formula G is a game and whatever does not fit is not a game. - What do you say after you say hello. A game is a series of ulterior transactions with a gimmick , leading to a usually well concealed but well defined payoff. Principles of group treatment. 11. Typical features of games Games are repetitive. Games are played without adult awareness. Games always end up with the players experience racket feeling. Games entail an exchange of ulterior transactions between the players. Games always include moment of surprise and confusion. 12. Different degrees of games Games can be played at different degrees of intensity. First level game it has an outcome which the player is willing to share with her social circle. These make a big proportion of the time structuring at parties and social gatherings. 13. Different degrees of games Second degree game bring heavier outcomes, of a kind which the player would rather not make public in her social circle. Third degree game, in Bernes words is one which is played for keeps and which ends in surgery, the courtroom or the morgue. 14. Why people play games? In playing games, we are following outdated strategies. Game playing was one of the devices we adopted as young children to get what we wanted from the world. But in adult life, we have other, more effective options. 15. Why people play games? People play games to further their life script. Berne suggested the sequence by which we achieve this. At the payoff of every game, the player experiences a racket feeling. Each time he does this, he can store the feeling away as a stamp. 16. Why people play games? When the game player has built up a big enough collection of stamps, he feels justified in cashing it in for whatever negative script payoff he decided upon as a child. Thus each person chooses her games to yield the kind of stamps that will advance her towards the script ending she has decided upon. As usual with scripts, the script story may be played through in miniature many times during the players life. People chose the degree of their games to suit the degree of their script payoff. 17. Advantages of Game playing In Games people play, Eric Berne listed six advantages of game playing. Internal psychological advantage maintain stability of my set of script beliefs. External psychological advantage Avoid situations that would challenge my frame of reference. Internal social advantage Games offer a framework for pseudo intimate socializing indoors or in privacy. 18. Advantages of Game playing External social advantage Gaming gives us a theme for gossiping in our wider social circle. Biological advantage It satisfy structure and stroke hunger. Existential advantage This is the function of the game in confirming life position. 19. Positive payoff of games John James has developed the idea that games have real advantages as well as scripty ones. He points out that every game brings a positive payoff as well as a negative payoff. A game represents the childs best strategy to getting something from the world. When we play games in adulthood, we are attempting to meet a genuine child need. It is just that the means of satisfying that need are outdated and manipulative. 20. Life Games All games have an important and probably decisive influence on the destinies of the players under ordinary social conditions. But some offer more opportunities than others for life long careers and are more likely to involve relatively innocent bystanders. This group may be conveniently called Life Games. 21. Alcoholic This is usually a three handed game. The central role is that of the Alcoholic the one who is it. The chief supporting role is that of Persecutor, typically played by a member of opposite sex, usually the spouse. The third role is that of Rescuer, usually played by someone of the same sex. 22. Debtor Debtor is more than a game. It is a script, a plan for a whole lifetime. Try and Collect (TAC) is a mild money game commonly played by married couples. The obvious antithesis of TAC is to request immediate payment in cash. 23. Kick Me This is played by men whose social manner is equivalent to wearing a sign that reads Please dont kick me. The temptation is almost irresistible and when the natural result follows, he cries piteously, But the sign says dont kick me. Then he adds incredulously Why does this always happens to me? 24. Now I Have Got You ,You Son Of A Bitch NIGYSOB is a two handed game in which the aim is justification. The best antithesis is correct behavior. In everyday life, business dealings with NIGYSOB players are always calculated risks. 25. See What You Made Me Do In Its classical form, this is a marital game and in fact is a three star marriage buster but it may also be played between parents and children and in working life. The antithesis for SWYMD is to leave the player alone or to throw the decision back to him. 26. Marital Games Almost any game can form the scaffolding for married life and family living. Some of these games are tolerated longer, under the legal force of contractual intimacy. Marital games can only be arbitrarily separated from sexual games . 27. Corner Corner illustrates more clearly than most games their manipulative aspect and their function as barriers to intimacy. Paradoxically, it consists of a disingenuous refusal to play the game of another. 28. Courtroom Courtroom is essentially three handed, with a plaintiff, a defendant and a Judge, represented by a husband, a wife and the therapist. In everyday form, courtroom is easily observed in children as a three handed game between two siblings and a parent. 29. Frigid Woman In this game, the husband makes advances to his wife and is repulsed. After repeated attempts, he is told that all men are beasts, he doesnt really love her and all he is interested is in sex. When he resigns, wife tempts him and the game continues. 30. Harried This is played by a housewife who is proficient in ten or twelve different occupations. The thesis of this game is that she takes on everything that comes and even asks for more. This ultimately results in her burn out and being ready for hospitalized. 31. If It Werent For You Briefly, a woman marries a domineering man so that he will restrict her activities and thus keep her from getting into a situation which frighten her. She takes advantage of the situation to complain about the restrictions , which makes her spouse feel uneasy and gives her all sorts of advantages. 32. Look How Hard I Have Tried This is a three handed game played by a married couple with a psychiatrist. Husband is bucking for a divorce and he comes to the therapist to demonstrate that he is cooperating. He ends up by saying Look how hard I have tried and ask for divorce. 33. Sweet Heart Husband exposes the deficiencies of the wife and save her from embarrassment of having to expose them herself. He ends the comment by saying Isnt that right, sweetheart?. 34. Party Games Parties are for pastimes but as acquaintance ripens, games begin to emerge. Four typical games which are played in social situations are given. 35. Aint It Awful Nowadays is a punitive parental pastime (Ex : Juvenile delinquency). Broken Skin is an adult variation with the slogan what a pity. Water cooler is the child pastime with the slogan Look what they are doing to us now. 36. Blemish It is played from the depressive Child position I am no good which is protectively transformed into the Parental position They are no good. Blemish provides negative reassurance to the players. 37. Schlemiel The Schlemiel makes the first move to embarrass the other person. If he shows his anger, schlemiel can feel justified in returning the resentment. If he restrains himself,