Elt different methods & approaches

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  • 1. Dang Van Hung, Ph.D.SEAMEO RETRAC

2. An overview Language learning principles Common Language TeachingApproaches/Methods Other Teaching Methods 3. Methodology Approach Method Curriculum/Syllabus Technique 4. Methodology The study of pedagogical practices in general (includingtheoretical underpinnings and related research). Whateverconsiderations are involved in "how to teach" aremethodological. Approach Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature oflanguage, the nature of language learning, and theapplicability of both to pedagogical settings 5. Method A generalized set of classroom specifications foraccomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to beprimarily concerned with teacher and student roles andbehaviors and secondarily with such features as linguistic andsubject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. Theyare almost always thought of as being broadly applicable to avariety of audiences in a variety of contexts. 6. Curriculum/Syllabus Designs for carrying out a particular languageprogram. Features include a primary concern with thespecification of linguistic and subject-matterobjectives, sequencing, and materials to meet the needs of adesignated group of learners in a defined context. Technique Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices usedin the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives. 7. Cognitive Principles Affective Principles Linguistic Principles 8. Cognitive Principles Automaticity Meaningful Learning Anticipation of Rewards Intrinsic Motivation Strategic Investment 9. Cognitive Principles Automaticity Sub-conscious processing of language with peripheral attention tolanguage forms Meaningful Learning This can be contrasted to Rote Learning, and is thought to lead to betterlong term retention Anticipation of Rewards Learners are driven to act by the anticipation of rewards, tangible orintangible Intrinsic Motivation The most potent learning "rewards" are intrinsically motivated within thelearner Strategic Investment The time and learning strategies learners invest into the languagelearning process. 10. Affective Principles Language Ego Self-Confidence Risk-Taking Language-Culture Connection 11. Affective Principles Language Ego Learning a new language involves developing a newmode of thinking - a new language "ego" Self-Confidence Success in learning something can be equated to thebelief in learners that they can learn it Risk-Taking Taking risks and experimenting "beyond" what is certaincreates better long-term retention Language-Culture Connection 12. Linguistic Principles Native Language Effect Interlanguage Communicative Competence 13. Linguistic Principles Native Language Effect A learners native language creates both facilitating andinterfering effects on learning; Interlanguage At least some of the learners development in a new languagecan be seen as systematic; Communicative Competence Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage- instruction needs to be aimed at organizational, pragmaticand strategic competence as well as psychomotor skills. 14. Grammar Translation Method Direct Method The Audio-lingual Method The Communicative Language TeachingApproach 15. Objectives to give learners access to English literature, To develop their minds "mentally" through foreignlanguage learning 16. Key Features (1) Classes are taught in the mother tongue, withlittle active use of the target language. (2) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of listsof isolated words. (3) Grammar provides the rules for putting wordstogether, and instruction often focuses on theform and inflection of words. 17. Key Features (4) Reading of difficult classical texts is begunearly. (5) Little attention is paid to the content oftexts, which are treated as exercises in ingrammatical analysis. (6) Often the only drills are exercises intranslating disconnected sentences from thetarget language into the mother tongue 18. Typical Techniques (1) Translation of a Literary Passage (2) Reading Comprehension Questions (3) Antonyms/Synonyms (4) Cognates (5) Deductive Application of Rule (6) Fill-in-the-blanks (7) Memorization (8) Use Words in Sentences (9) Composition 19. Objectives The basic premise of the Direct Method is thatstudents will learn to communicate in the targetlanguage, partly by learning how to think in thatlanguage and by not involving L1 in the languagelearning process whatsoever. Objectives include teaching the students how touse the language spontaneously andorally, linking meaning with the target languagethrough the use of realia, pictures or pantomime(Larsen-Freeman 1986:24). There is to be a direct connection betweenconcepts and the language to be learned. 20. Key Features (1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the targetlanguage. (2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. (3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully tradedprogression organized around question-and-answer exchangesbetween teachers and students in small, intensive classes. (4) Grammar is taught inductively. (5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice. (6) Concrete vocabulary is taught throughdemonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary istaught by association of ideas. (7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught. (8) Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized. 21. Typical Techniques (1) Reading Aloud (2) Question and Answer Exercise (3) Student Self-Correction (4) Conversation Practice (5) Fill-in-the-blank Exercise (6) Dictation (7) Paragraph Writing 22. ObjectivesTo create communicative competence in learners. The most effective way to do this was for students to"over-learn" the language being studied throughextensive repetition and a variety of elaborate drills. The idea was to project the linguistic patterns of thelanguage into the minds of the learners in a way thatmade responses automatic and "habitual". To this end it was held that the language "habits" ofthe first language would constantly interfere, and theonly way to overcome this problem was to facilitatethe learning of a new set of "habits" appropriatelinguistically to the language being studied. 23. Key Features (1) New material is presented in dialog form. (2) There is dependence on mimicry, memorization ofset phrases, and over-learning. (3) Structures are sequenced by means of contrastiveanalysis and taught one at a time. (4) Structural patterns are taught using repetitivedrills. (5) There is little or no grammaticalexplanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogyrather than deductive explanation. (6) Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned incontext. 24. Key Features (Contd) (7) There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visualaids. (8) Great importance is attached topronunciation. (9) Very little use of the mother tongue byteachers is permitted. (10) Successful responses are immediatelyreinforced. (11) There is great effort to get students toproduce error-free utterances. (12) There is a tendency to manipulate languageand disregard content. 25. Typical Techniques(1) Dialog Memorization(2) Backward Build-up (Expansion Drill)(3) Repetition Drill(4) Chain Drill (5) Single Slot Substitution Drill (6) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill(7) Transformation Drill (8) Question-and-answer Drill(9) Use of Minimal Pairs(10) Complete the Dialog(11) Grammar Games 26. Basic Features of CLT(1) An emphasis on learning to communicate throughinteraction in the target language. (2) The introduction of authentic texts into thelearning situation. (3) The provision of opportunities for learners tofocus, not only on the language but also on thelearning process itself. (4) An enhancement of the learners own personalexperiences as important contributing elements toclassroom learning. (5) An attempt to link classroom language learningwith language activation outside the classroom. 27. CLTALMMeaning is paramount. Attends to structure and formmore than meaningDialogs, if used, center around Demands more memorization ofcommunicative functions and structure-based dialogsare not normally memorized.Contextualization is a basicLanguage items are notpremise necessarily contextualized. Language learning is learningLanguage Learning is learningto communicate. structures, sounds or words. 28. CLTALMEffective communicationMastery or "over-learning"is sought. is sought.Drilling may occur, butDrilling is a centralperipherically.techniqueComprehensible Native-speaker-likepronunciation is soughtpronunciation is sought. Any device which helpsGrammatical explanationthe learners is accepted - is avoided.varying according to theirage, interest, etc. 29. CLTALMThe target linguistic system will be The target linguistic system will belearned best through the process learned through the overt teachingof struggling to communicate.of the patterns of the system.Communicative competence is the Linguistic competence is thedesired goal. desired goal.Linguistic variation is a central Varieties of language areconcept in materials and methods. recognized but not emphasized.Sequencing is determined by anyThe sequence of units isconsideration of content function, determined solely on principles ofor meaning which maintains linguistic complexity.interest. 30. CLTALMTeachers help learners in any way The teacher controls the learnersthat motivates them to work with theand prevents them from doinglanguageanything that conflicts wit the theory.Language is created by the individual "Language is habit" so error must beoften through trial and error.prevented at all costs.Fluency and acceptable language isAccuracy, in terms of formalthe primary goal: accuracy is judgedcorrectness, is a primary goal.not in theabstract but in context. 31. CLT ALMStudents are expected to interact Students are expected to interactwith other people, either in thewith the language system,flesh, through pair and group work, embodied in machines oror in their writings. controlled materialsThe teacher cannot know exactly The teacher is expected to specifywhat language the students will the language that students are touse.useIntrinsic motivation will spring from Intrinsic motivation will spring froman interest in what is beingan interest in the structure of thecommunicated by thelanguage language 32. Interactive Learning Learner-centered Learning Learner-centered Learning Learner-centered Learning Content-based Learning 33. Interactive Learning: This concept goes right to the heart of communicationitself, stressing the dual roles of "receiver" and "sender" in anycommunicative situation. Interaction creates the "negotiation between interlocutors"which in turn produces meaning (semantics). The concept of interactive learning necessarily entails thatthere will be a lot of pair and group work in the classroom, aswell as genuine language input from the "real world" formeaningful communication. 34. Learner-centered Learning: This kind of instruction involves the giving over of some"power" in the language learning process to the learnersthemselves. It also strives to allow for personal creativity and input fromthe students, as well as taking into account their learningneeds and objectives. 35. Cooperative Learning: This concept stresses the "team" like nature of the classroomand emphasizes cooperation as opposed tocompetition. Students share information and help, andachieve their learning goals as a group. 36. Task-based Learning: This concept equates the idea of a "learning task" to alanguage learning technique in itself. This could be a problem solving activity or a project, but thetask has a clear objective, appropriate content, aworking/application procedure, and a set range of outcomes. 37. Content-based Learning: This kind of learning joins language learning to content/subjectmatter and engages them both concurrently. Language is seen as a tool or medium for acquiring knowledgeabout other things, instantly proving its usefulness. An important factor in this kind of learning is that the content itselfdetermines what language items need to be mastered, not theother way around. When students study math or science using English as themedium, they are more intrinsically motivated to learn more ofthe language. 38. Community Language Learning The Silent Way Suggestopedia Total Physical Response The Natural Approach 39. Key Features (1) Students are to be considered as "learner-clients" andthe teacher as a "teacher-councelor".(2) A relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essentialto the learning process. (3) Students are permitted to use their native language, andare provided with translations from the teacher whichthey then attempt to apply. (4) Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively. (5) "Chunks" of target language produced by the studentsare recorded and later listened to - they are alsotranscribed with native language equivalents tobecome texts the students work with. 40. Key Features (Contd) (6) Students apply the target language independentlyand without translation when they feelinclined/confident enough to do so. (7) Students are encouraged to express not only howthey feel about the language, but how they feel aboutthe learning process, to which the teacherexpresses empathy and understanding. (8) A variety of activities can be included (forexample, focusing on a particular grammar orpronunciation point, or creating new sentencesbased on the recordings/transcripts). 41. Typical Techniques(1) Tape Recording Student Conversation (2) Transcription (3) Reflection on Experience (4) Reflective Listening (5) Human Computer (6) Small Group Tasks 42. Objectives Teachers using the Silent Way want their students to become highlyindependent and experimental learners.Making errors is a natural part of the process and a key learning device, asit is a sign that students are testing out their hypostheses and arriving atvarious conclusions about the language through a trial and error styleapproach. The teacher tries to facilitate activities whereby the students discover forthemselves the conceptual rules governing the language, rather thanimitating or memorizing In addition to the idea that students become more autonomous learnersand "develop their own inner criteria for correctness" (LarsenFreeman, 1986:62), another key objective was to encourage students towork as a group - to try and solve problems in the target language together. It was hoped that students would eventually be able to actively use thelanguage for self-expression, relating their thoughts, feelings andperceptions. 43. Key Features (1) Learning is facilitated if the learnerdiscovers or creates rather than remembersand repeats what is to be learned. (2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying(mediating) physical objects. (3) Learning is facilitated by problem-solvinginvolving the material to be learned. 44. Typical Techniques (1) Sound-Color Chart - click here to see an...