Approaches and research methods

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    02-Jul-2015

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Tailored for the G544 exam - OCR A2 Psychology. Has notes on how to write a good study

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<ul><li> 1. Approaches and ResearchMethodsHow to write the perfect study for the 2ndpaperA2 Psychology for OCR exam board (canalso be used in conjunction with the ASspec.)</li></ul> <p> 2. Strengths &amp; Weaknesses ofExperiment TypesSTRENGTHS WEAKNESSES more control of the Lacks ecologicalexperimentvalidity not in More ethical as it is natural settingeasy to get consent High demandcharacteristics asthey can see whatis expected of them 3. Strengths &amp; Weaknesses ofExperiment TypesSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSES Higher ecological Can be unethical:validitydifficult to get Lower demandconsent e.g.characteristics Piliavin Experimenter hasPiliavinless control 4. Strengths &amp; Weaknesses ofExperiment TypesSTRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological Difficult to repeatvalidity as there is as the IV isno tempering withnaturally occurringthe IV 5. Design of the ExperimentSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSES Less demand More difficult tocharacteristics ascompare as therethey will not learn could be severalconditionsreasons such asgender etc. 6. Design of the ExperimentSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSES More accurate and Demandeasy to compare characteristics:the results participants may Costs less than become familiargetting twice aswith what ismany participants expected 7. Design of the ExperimentSTRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand Using differentcharacteristics as participants inthe study wont be same condition notlearnt over time as accurate as originally thought to be 8. Appropriate Hypothesis Alternate hypothesis Testable statement that proposes the expectedoutcome of the study Suggests significant difference between resultsof the two conditions Null hypothesis Findings not consequences of predicted effectbut due to chance Two-tailed hypothesis Predict that the outcome could fall in one of twodirections One-tailed hypothesis Predict that the outcome will fall in one direction 9. Operationalising a Hypothesis Hypothesis should contain a clearstatement of the IV and the DV as wellas the word significant and anindication as to whether it is one-tailed, two-tailed or null. People in a village will post asignificantly greater number ofapparently mislaid letters thanpeople in a city [example] 10. The Procedure IV if looking for differences between 2 people, you need 2groups of participants. This is the variable that CHANGES DV this has an effect on the materials used to measure thisvariable. This is the variable that is MEASURED Controls ensure extraneous variables are controlled as faras possible (particularly for simple things such as age, genderetc.) Ethical guidelines ensure the study follows for participants:1. Consent2. No deception3. Right to withdraw4. No psychological harm5. Confidentiality6. DebreifingA step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal 11. The Procedure continued... Ethical guidelines ensure the studyfollows for participants:1. Consent2. No deception3. Right to withdraw4. No psychological harm5. Confidentiality6. DebriefingA step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal 12. Decide on a SampleSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSES Varied selection of Can beparticipantsethnocentric(biased towardsexperimenterscultural influence)Available Participants 13. Decide on a SampleSTRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Completely fair No theory behind Mixture of how sample isparticipants chosen An equal chance of being chosen 14. Decide on a SampleSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSES Ethically sound Not always a Informed consent varied sample received Participants may have time Participants may be more motivatedVolunteers</p>

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