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Divine comedy (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso)

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ABOUT THE AUTHORDurante Degli Alighieri

BornMid-May to mid-June, c. 1265 Florence, Republic of Florence

DiedSeptember 13/14, 1321(aged about 56)Ravenna, Papal States

OccupationStatesman, poet, language theorist, political theoristNationalityItalian

PeriodLate Middle Ages

Literary movementDolce Stil Novo


TheDivine Comedyis composed of 14,233 lines that are divided into threecanticas(Italian pluralcantiche)

Inferno(Hell)Purgatori(Purgatory)Paradiso(Paradise)-each consisting of 33 cantos (Italian plural canti). An initial canto, serving as an introduction to the poem and generally considered to be part of the first cantica, brings the total number of cantos to 100.

Additionally, the verse scheme used, terza rima, is hendecasyllabic (lines of eleven syllables), with the lines composing tercets according to the rhyme scheme aba, bcb, cdc, ded, ....

The physical aspect of Hell is a gigantic funnel that leads to the very center of the Earth.

According to the legend used by Dante, this huge, gigantic hole in the Earth was made when God threw Satan (Lucifer) and his band of rebels out of Heaven with such force that they created a giant hole in the Earth.

Satan was cast all the way to the very center of the Earth, has remained there since, and will remain there through all of eternity.

Circle 1:Those in Limbo Circle 2:The Lustful Circle 3:The Gluttonous Circle 4:The Hoaders Circle 5:The Wrathful Circle 6:The Heretics Circle 7: The ViolentRing 1:Murderers, Robberers & PlundersRing 2:Suicides and those harmful to the worldRing 3:Against GOD, Nature & Art Circle 8:The FaudulentTrench I: Panderers & SeducersTrench II: FlatterersTrench III: SimoniacsTrench IV: SorcerersTrench V: BarratorsTrench VI: HyprocritesTrench VII: TheivesTrench VIII: Evil CounselorsTrench IX: Sowers of DiscordTrench X: Falsifiers Circle 9:TraitorsRegion 1: KindredRegion 2: CountryRegion 3: GuestsRegion 4: Lords


This is a place where the souls of sinners would go after they dieINFERNO

CANTO IThe Dark worlds of Error

TheInfernofollows the wanderings of the poet Dante as he strays off the rightful and straight path of moral truth and gets lost in a dark wood. And that, folks, isjustthe beginning.

At the age of thirty-five, on the night of Good Friday in the year 1300, Dante finds himself lost in a dark wood and full of fear.

CANTO IThe Dark worlds of Error

Just as three wild animals threaten to attack him, Dante is rescued by the ghost of Virgil, a celebrated Roman poet and also Dantes idol.

CANTO IIThe DescentVirgil asked the deceased love-of-Dantes-life, Beatrice, to send someone down to help him. Virgil to the rescue! Hes an appropriate guide because hes very much like Dante, a fellow writer and famous poet.When asked why he came, Virgil answers that the head honchos of Heaventhe Virgin Mary and Santa Luciafelt sorry for Dante.Beatrice

CANTO IIIThe Opportunists(Gate)Dante passes through the gate of Hell, which bears an inscription ending with the famous phrase "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate", most frequently translated as "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here

Dante and his guide hear the anguished screams of the Uncommitted. These are the souls of people who in life took no sides; the opportunists who were for neither good nor evil, but merely concerned with themselves.

CANTO IIIThe Opportunists(Gate)After passing through the vestibule, Dante and Virgil reach the ferry that will take them across the river Acheron and to Hell proper. The ferry is piloted by Charon, who does not want to let Dante enter, for he is a living being

Virgil forces Charon to take him however, the passage across the Acheron is undescribed, since Dante faints and does not awaken until he is on the other side.


CANTO IVThe Virtuous Pagan Circle 1 - Limbo The first circle of Hell (Limbo), considered pre-Hell, just contains all of the unbaptized and good people born and before the coming of Christ, who obviously couldnt be saved by him.

CANTO IVThe Virtuous Pagan Circle 1 - Limbo The first circle of Hell (Limbo) :

Virgil resides here, along with a bunch of other Greek and Roman poets.

Dante encounters the poets Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan, who include him in their number and make him "sixth in that high company".

These souls are forever unclassified; they are neither in Hell nor out of it, but reside on the shores of theAcheron. Naked and futile, they race around through the mist in eternal pursuit of an elusive, wavering banner (symbolic of their pursuit of ever-shiftingself-interest) while relentlessly chased by swarms ofwaspsandhornets, who continually sting them.[9]Loathsomemaggotsand worms at the sinners' feet drink the putrid mixture of blood, pus, and tears that flows down their bodies. This symbolizes the sting of their guiltyconscienceand the repugnance of sin. This may also be seen as a reflection of the spiritual stagnation they lived in.

CANTO VThe LustfulCircle 2Dante and Virgil leave Limbo and enter the Second Circle the first of the circles of Incontinence where the punishments of Hell proper begin. It is described as "a part where no thing gleams. They find their way hindered by the serpentine Minos.

Minos- who judges all of those condemned for active, deliberately willed sin to one of the lower circles.

He sentences each soul to its torment by wrapping his tail around himself a corresponding number of times.

CANTO VThe LustfulCircle 2In the second circle, lustful sinners are tossed around by endless storms.

CANTO VThe LustfulCircle 2Dante speaks to the soul of Francesca da Rimini, a woman who was stuck in a loveless, arranged marriage and committed adultery when she fell in love with a dashing youth named Paolo.PaoloFrancesca

CANTO VIThe GluttonousCircle 3Cerberus - the monstrous three-headed beast of Hell, ravenously guards the gluttons lying in the freezing mire, mauling and flaying them with his claws as they howl like dogs.

CANTO VIThe GluttonousCircle 3Dante then awakes in the third circle, where the Gluttonous sinners suffer under a cold and filthy rain.

CANTO VIIThe Avaricious and ProdigalCircle 4Virgil leads Dante on to the fourth circle, where the Avaricious (greedy people) and Prodigal (reckless spenders) roll heavy weights in endless circles. Circle 4 Guarded by Plutus.

CANTO VIIIThe Wrathful and SullenCircle 5 The River StyxThe next stop on the tour is the fifth circle, where the Wrathful and Sullen are immersed in the muddy river Styx.

While they are crossing the Styx, a sinner named Filippo Argenti reaches out to Dante (presumably for help), but Dante angrily rejects him.


CANTO IX-XIThe Wrathful and SullenCircle 5 The Gate of Dis Now at the gates of a city called Dis, Virgil takes it upon himself to persuade the demon guards to let them pass. Unexpectedly, he fails.

CANTO IX-XIThe Wrathful and SullenCircle 5 The Gate of DisThe walls of Dis are guarded by fallen angels.Demon guardsThis means that instead of continuing on with the journey, Dante and Virgil must wait for an angel to come down and force open the gates for them.

CANTOIX-XIThe HereticsCircle 6After passing the city of Dis, our dynamic duo, enters the sixth circle, where the Heretics lay in fiery tombs.

Dante talks to Farinata degli Uberti, who predicts that Dante will have difficulty returning to Florence from exile. Farinata degli Uberti

CANTO XIIThe Violent against Neighbors Circle 7This circle houses the violent. Its entry is guarded by Minotaur.

Divided into 3 rings:

Outer ringMiddle ringInner ringMinotaur

CANTO XIIThe Violent Circle 7As they cross from the sixth to the seventh circle, where the Violent are punished, Virgil finally begins explaining the layout of Hell.

Violent against their neighborsCircle 7

Violent against themselvesViolent against GODOuter ringMiddle ringInner ring

CANTO XIIThe Violent against their neighbors Circle 7 Outer RingOuter ring housing the violent against people and property, who are immersed in Phlegethon a river of boiling blood, to a level commensurate with their sins.

CANTO XIIIThe Violent against themselvesCircle 7 Middle RingMiddle ring In this ring are the suicides, who are transformed into gnarled thorny bushes and trees.

*The trees are a metaphor; In life the only way of the relief of suffering was through pain (suicide)

CANTO XIV-XVIIThe Violent against GOD, Nature and ArtCircle 7 Inner RingInner ring

All reside in a desert of flaming sand with fiery flakes raining from the sky.Violent against:

GOD blasphemers,Nature Sodomites;Art Usurers


CANTO XVIIIThe Fraudulent Circle 8Finally, Dante and Virgil ready themselves to cross to the eighth circle. Dante, at Virgils command, summons the beast Geryon from the depths with a cord wrapped around his waist.

-Geryon, symbol of deceit


Virgil stays to talk with the beast while urging Dante to look at the last of the Violent sinners. When Dante comes back, they mount Geryon and ride the beast during the descent into the eighth circle.

CANTO XVIIIThe Fraudulent Circle 8The eighth circle contains ten pouches, each containing different types of sinners.Dantes Inferno Circle 1:Those in Limbo Circle 2:The Lustful Circle 3:The Gluttonous Circle 4:The Hoaders Circle 5:The Wrathful Cir