Theorist Presentation on Carl BereiterFor Theory of Nursing Education NURS5203At Texas Woman's UniversityFall 2010
- 1. Carl Bereiter Laura Woodward, BSN Texas Womans University NURS 5203 Fall 2010
- Discussion Item Three Knowledge building
- Discussion Item One Theorist history and
- Discussion Item Two Knowledge building
- Discussion Item Four The future of education
Carl Bereiter& Marlene Scardamalia Click on any Discussion Item to go there 3. Carl Bereiter
- Currently professor emeritus at the University of Toronto
- Co-founder, withMarleneScardamalia , of the Institute for Knowledge Innovation & Technology ( IKIT ).
- Member of the U.S. National Academy of Education
- Twice a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, most recently for participation in a study of the cognitive bases of educational reform.
- Along with Marlene Scardamalia, he developed CSILE, the first networked system for collaborative learning. The current version,Knowledge Forum , is being used in innovative applications worldwide at all educational levels from primary grades to university.
Carl Bereiter (2009). http://www.ikit.org/people/bereiter.html 4. Carl Bereiter Selected Publications Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2007). Toward research-based innovation. In F. Benavides (Ed.),Emergingmodels for learning and innovation . OECD. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2006). Education for the knowledge age: Design-centered models ofteaching and instruction. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.),Handbook of educationalpsychology(2nd ed., pp. 695-713). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2005). Technology and literacies: From print literacy to dialogic literacy. InN. Bascia, A. Cumming, A. Datnow, K. Leithwood, & D. Livingstone (Eds.),International handbook ofeducational policy(pp. 749-761). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In E. De Corte, L.Verschaffel, N. Entwistle, & J. van Merrinboer (Eds.),Powerful learning environments: Unravelingbasic components and dimensions(pp. 55-68). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science. Bereiter, C. (2002).Education and mind in the knowledge age . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C. (1997). Situated cognition and how to overcome it. In D. Kirshner & J. A. Whitson (Eds.),Situated cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives(pp. 281-300). Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993).Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications ofexpertise . La Salle, IL: Open Court. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.),Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser(pp. 361-392). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987).The psychology of written composition . Hillsdale, NJ: LawrenceErlbaum Associates. Carl Bereiter (2009). http://www.ikit.org/people/bereiter.html Discussion Items 5. Knowledge Building What is it? 6.
- Greater emphasis oncollaborativerather thanIndividual inquiry
Knowledge Building (Scardamalia, 2006) 7. (Paavola, n.d.) Knowledge Building
- acquisition metaphor (cognitive perspective)
- traditional view according to which learning is mainly a process of acquiring desired pieces of knowledge
- 'folk theory' of mind according to which the mind is a container of knowledge, and learning is a process that fills the container, implanting knowledge there.
- learning is a matter of individual construction, acquisition, and such outcomes, which are realized in the process of transfer; it consists in a person's capability to use and apply knowledge in new situations.
- Knowledge is a property and possession of an individual mind
8. (Paavola, n.d.) Knowledge Building
- the participation metaphor(Situated perspective)
- examines learning as a process of participating in various cultural practices and shared learning activities.
- the focus is on activities, i.e., on "knowing", and not so much on outcomes or products
- Knowledge does not exist either in a world of its own or in individual minds but is an aspect of participation in cultural practices(Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave, 1988; Lave & Wenger, 1991).
- Cognition and knowing are distributed over both individuals and their environments, and learning is "located" in these relations and networks of distributed activities of participation.
- learning is a matter of participation in a social process of
- knowledge construction(Greeno, 1998; Vygotsky, 1978),
- "enculturation" (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989),
- guided participation(Rogoff, 1990),
- or legitimate peripheral participation ( Lave & Wenger, 1991).
9. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Traditional educationpractice& newerconstructivistmethodsLimited in scope shift from treating students aslearners and inquirers treating them asmembers of a knowledge building community 10. Knowledge Building
- Design and problem solvingin technology education
- Not to be framed in terms of methodologies of engineers,
- Asopportunitiesfor students to step outside of
- conventional reasoning processes imposed by the rest of the curriculum.
- Creativity has compelling claims to being the anchoring idea in such a framework.
(Lewis, 2005) 11. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building
- Knowledge advancementas acommunityrather thanindividualachievement
- Knowledge advancementasidea improvementrather than asprogress toward true or warranted belief
- Knowledgeof in contrast toknowledgeabout
- Discourseascollaborative problem solvingrather than asargumentation
- Constructive use ofauthoritative information
- Understandingas anemergent
Click on any theme to find further explanation Click here to advance beyond themes 12. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building It provides a straightforward way to address the contemporary emphasis onknowledge creation and innovation.These lie outside the scope of most constructivist approaches whereasthey are at the heart of knowledge building. People are nothonoredforwhat is in their mindsbut for thecontributionsthey make to the organizations or the communitys knowledge. 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme Nobel Prize winners? MENSA members? 13. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building themain usesofknowledge creationoffurther knowledge student-generated theories and models are to be judged not so much by :their conformity to accepted knowledge as by :their value as tools enabling further growth. 2 of 2 Click anywhere to return to themes 14. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Generating ideas appears to come naturally to people, butsustained efforttoimprove ideas does not. Allideasareimprovable 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme 15. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building When asked about the effects of learning: Students inregular classroomstend to say that themore they learnand understand, theless there remains to be learned and understood during last semester of senior year during high school during K - 12 set number of objectives to learn for all standardized testing Students inknowledge building classroomstend strongly toward theopposite view . by researching a topic students are exposed to more interests that lead to more research that leads to other topics(downfall can be information overload - what we term as surfing the web is an example) 2 of 2 Click anywhere to return to themes 16. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Knowledgeabout Knowledgeof (Implicit or Intuitive knowledge) Procedural knowledge (e.g. knowing how to open a parachute and guide its descent) Declarative knowledge (e.g. knowledge of equipment characteristics an maintenance requirements, rules of particular events) 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme Student Nurse vs. experienced Nurse? 17. (Stephenson, 2010) Knowledge Building To be useful outside of areas in whichknowledge aboutis sufficient, knowledge needs to be organized aroundproblems rather thantopics . Example: it is useful for learners knowledge of water skiing to be activated when they are studying flight, because it provides a nice experiential anchor for the otherwise rather abstracta n gle of