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The excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material. The mound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a well and two pits. Evidence of trough-side furniture in the form of 17 stake-holes and two post-holes was recorded at the western end of the trough. Two Middle Bronze Age radiocarbondates were returned from a fill of the trough and the well. Small quantities of plant remains and animal bone were recovered from the site.
2. EACHTRAArchaeological ProjectsArchaeological Excavation ReportPark 2Co TipperaryBurnt Mound Date: December 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads AuthorityProject: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3772Excavation Director: John TierneyWritten by: Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney 3. Archaeological Excavation ReportPark 2Co Tipperary Excavation Director John Tierney Written By Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORKGALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. CorkUnit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: [email protected]: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: [email protected] 4. Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011The Forge, Innishannon, Co CorkSet in 12pt GaramondPrinted in Ireland 5. Table of Contents Summaryiii Acknowledgements iv1 Scopeoftheproject 12 Routelocation 23 Receivingenvironment 24 Archaeologicalandhistoricalbackground 4 Neolithic(c4000to2000BC) 4 5 SiteLocationandTopography 76 Excavationmethodology 77 Excavationresults 11 Layersofburntmoundmaterial 11 TheTrough,post-holes,wellandpits15 Modernagriculturalactivity15 Plantremains17 Animalbone18 Charcoal18 Radiocarbondates188 Discussion 199 References23Appendix1 StratigraphicIndex25Appendix2 SiteMatrix 26Appendix3 Groupsandsubgroups30Appendix4 Plantremainsreport 39Appendix5Animalbonereport 42i 6. List of Figures Figure1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh(DerrinsallaghtoBallintotty)RoadScheme(Contract1) 3 Figure2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh(Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of allexcavationsites 5 Figure3: PortionoftheIsteditionOrdnanceSurveyMapTN22showingthelocationofPark2 8 Figure4: LocationandextentofPark2E3772ontheN7CastletowntoNenagh10 Figure5: Post-excavationplanofPark2E3772 12 Figure6: Post-excavationplanoftroughC5 14 Figure7: SectionofwellC119,ditchC54andtroughC5 16 Figure8: PrehistoricsitesonandintheenvironsofN7CastletowntoNenagh20 List of Plates Plate1:AerialviewofPark2 9 Plate2:ViewofPark2fromsouth-west 11 Plate3:ViewoftroughC5,wellC119andpitC183fromwest 13 Plate4:ViewoftroughC5fromwest 13 Plate5:ViewofwellC119fromnorth 17 Plate6:ViewofpitC183fromsouth 17 List of Tables Table1:Dimensionsoftrough,wellandpits 15 Table2: Radiocarbondates 18 Table3: RadiocarbondatesfromtheburntmoundsitesontheN7CastletowntoNenagh(Contract1)21ii 7. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material. Themound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a well and twopits. Evidence of trough-side furniture in the form of 17 stake-holes and two post-holeswas recorded at the western end of the trough. Two Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon dateswere returned from a fill of the trough and the well. Small quantities of plant remains andanimal bone were recovered from the site.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Park 2E no. E3772Site director John TierneyTownlandParkParishAghnameadle and BallymackeyCountyTipperaryBaronyUpper OrmondOS Map Sheet No.TN22National Grid Reference 200173 181436Elevation 114 m O.D. iii 8. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPortAcknowledgementsThe project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na-tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (20002006). The projectarchaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeologicalcontract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen-ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineerwas John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavationmanager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by JohnSunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal-ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Margaret McCarthy and the 14Chrono Centre at Queens University Belfast.iv 9. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/1Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38.It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 20002006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authoritys commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered.Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E33758 issued by Department of the EnvironmentHeritage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS.Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG.A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works. 1 10. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPort2Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills,Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk,The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog.The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher.The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin.The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basin peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have a2 11. 182550 198900 215250 Park 2-E3772193300193300 ! ( NenaghDerg (Lough)182950182950172600172600 0 5 10182550 198900Kilometres215250Figure1: PortionofmapofIrelandshowingtherouteoftheN7CastletowntoNenagh(DerrinsallaghtoBallintotty)RoadScheme(Contract1) http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/3 12. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPortwide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,9799). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairyingand cattle-rearing and tillage.4Archaeological and historical backgroundArchaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road(Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo-lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BCto AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present).Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC)The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c.8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa-tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on theroute.Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC)The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin-nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became moresedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedyrecorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur-ing site.No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating tothe Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/EarlyBronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741,Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC)The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase insettlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold itemsmanufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials,cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand-ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sitesare known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monumentssurvive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, andgenerally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as cook-4 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Park 2-E3772186400186400Park 2Castleroan 1E 3909 Busherstown 1E 3661Loughan 1 E 4000Greenhills 3E 3658Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1Clynoe 2E 3910 E 3774181800181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 GarravallyKilgorteen 1E 3659E 3773E 3589 E 3739Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2E 3638 E 3637Clashnevin 2 E 3590Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660E 3772 Derrycarney 1E 3740Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1Killeisk 1 E 3586E 3585E 3587177200177200 03 6 Kilometres 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure2: DiscoveryseriesOSmapshowingtherouteoftheN7CastletowntoNenagh(DerrinsallaghtoBallintotty)RoadScheme(Contract1)andthelocationofallexcavationsites http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/5 14. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPorting places, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a troughof water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped foodwas cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash andcharcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586,Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 andE3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two atCastleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660,Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910.Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500)Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster.Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman,2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believedto have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monumentsof the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years haveproduced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sitesin Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway inAnnaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54).Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was re-corded at Clashnevin 2.Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100)The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. Thecharacteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu-merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6 maps of the 1840s(Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments hasa narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuriesAD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take theform of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu-lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religiouscentres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosenby St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located atthe crossroads on the Slighe Dla, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH2006, 48). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at KilleiskE3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774.6 15. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow-er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the townsof Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (OConor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298).A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded in the townland of Greenhills.5Site Location and TopographyPark 2 was located in a low-lying area on the lower edge of a sandy ridge overlooking awetter boggy area (Plate 1). The extensive archaeological settlement site Park 1 E3659extended over, higher drier ground, for a distance of 500 m to the east. Extensive archaeo-logical remains, including five burnt mounds, were recorded in the land adjoining Parkto the north and east during an assessment of the site for a motorway service area (Frazer2009). The Ollatrim River flows on the western side of the ridge. The townland bound-ary between Park and Rosdrehid and Clynoe to the east also serves as the county boundsbetween Tipperary and Offaly.6Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. 7 16. 1988991998998 ROSDREHID CLYNOE CARROWEABALLYKNOCKANE181208181208 Ollatrim (River) Park 2Park 1 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 PARK Clash 1180558180558 CLASH0300600 Meters 198899199899 Figure3: PortionoftheIsteditionOrdnanceSurveyMapTN22showingthelocationofPark2 archaEological Excavation rEPort 17. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate1: AerialviewofPark2Park 2 (E3772)020 40 Meters The site was excavated from 29 September 2007 to the 17 November 2007. Only areaswithin the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of exca-vation measured 1900 m sq (Figure 4).The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register and site photographsmaybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in theaccompanying CD. 9 18. 19953119990120027110 ROSDREHIDC LY N O E 181366181366920 0 910 0 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 900 089008800PA R K 18113618113687008600 85 00 84 00 83 00 180906180906Park 2 (E3772) 82 000100 200 Metres 199531199901200271Figure4: LocationandextentofPark2E3772ontheN7CastletowntoNenagh archaEological Excavation rEPort 19. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate2: ViewofPark2fromsouth-west7Excavation resultsThe excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material (Fig-ure 5). The mound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a welland two pits (Plate 2). Evidence of trough-side furniture in the form of 17 stake-holes andtwo post-holes was recorded at the western end of the trough. Two Middle Bronze Ageradiocarbon dates were returned from a fill of the trough and the well. Small quantitiesof plant remains were recovered from the site. A modern field boundary and a quarry pitwere recorded in the area of excavation.Layers of burnt mound materialThe burnt mound comprised several layers (C.3, C.14, C.17, C.18, C.20, C.41, C.42,C.55, C.69, C.87, C.88, C.93, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.97, C.98, C.114 and C.117). The mainlayer C.3 was a black silty sandy with inclusions of stone. It measured 32.6 m in lengthby 16.4 m in width and 0.48 m in depth. Four other layers (C.41, C.55, C.69 and C.117)were similar in composition to the primary layer. Four layers (C.14, C.42, C.87 and C.88)were recorded overlying the main layer of burnt mound material. At least five layers (C.15,C.80, C.81, C.82 and C.185) were derived from re-deposited material from the excavationof the cut features. They were a mix of sands and silts. Seven layers of sand (C.93, C.94,11 20. 199890 1999201249 197 Pit 181143181143 Mound material iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 5489 183 Trough91O)133 Trough Well 114 m O.D.Pair ofupright 5 Field boundaryposts 119 137 181130181130 0 10 m 199890 199920Figure5: Post-excavationplanofPark2E3772 archaEological Excavation rEPort 21. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate3: ViewoftroughC5,wellC119andpitC183fromwestPlate4: ViewoftroughC5fromwest13 22. 19991019991514 1811351811355 133189 191 193 139 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 155153 161 163151 165Trough159 157149 147Pair ofupright posts142143146137 1811321811320 2m199910199915Figure6: Post-excavationplanoftroughC5 archaEological Excavation rEPort 23. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/C.95, C.96, C.97, C.98 and C.114) were recorded underlying the main layer of burntmound materialThe Trough, post-holes, well and pitsThe trough C.5 was a large oval pit that was centrally located beneath the mound (Figure6, Plate 3). It was cut into a slope and was deepest at the western end. The basal fill C.4was a grey sandy silt. The primary fills (C.17, C.18 and C.20) were layers of burnt moundmaterial. A Middle Bronze Age date of cal BC 15081422 (UB-12351) was returned frompomideae charcoal from the fill C.4. Context Dimensions Shape Trough C.54.26 x 1.6 x 0.62Rectangular Well C.1194.52 x 2.86 x 0.6Oval Pit C.183 1.9 x 1.65 x 0.29Oval Pit C.197 1.72 x 1.38 x 0.37 OvalTable1Dimensionsoftrough,wellandpitsTwo postholes (C.133 and C.137) were located on the northern and southern side ofthe trough respectively (Plate 4). Post-hole C.133 was circular in plan and measured 0.45m by 0.38 m by 0.32 m in depth. Post-hole C.137 was measured 0.77 m by 0.51 m by 0.37m in depth.A group of 17 stake-holes were located at the western end of the trough. Three ofthe stake-holes were located between the posts and the edge of the trough, two (C.142and C.146) on the southern side and one C.139 on the northern. Five of the stake-holes(C.189, C.153, C.151, C.49 and C.143) formed an approximate arc on the periphery of thecluster. Four (C.147, C.155, C.191 and C.193) were located within the arc. Five (C.157,C.159, C.161, C.163 and C.165) were situated in a very close cluster.The well C.119 was located 2 m east of the trough. It was oval in plan (Figure 7, Plate5). The four fills (C.129, C.130, C.131, C.132) were a mix of sands and silts. Ground waterwas recorded in the base of the well during the course of the excavation.Two oval pits (C.183 and C.197) were located to the north of the trough. The pits weresimilar in terms of size and plan. Pit C.183 was located 3 m north of the trough (Plate 6).Pit C.197 was located 5 m north of pit C.183. It had been cut by the field boundary C.54.Modern agricultural activityA field boundary C.54 orientated north-east /south-west was recorded in the northern sec-tion of the area of excavation. It was marked on the 1st edition OS map sheet TN22. Theditch was 3 m wide by 0.6 m in depth. Sherds of 19 century creamware and a tin brooch(E3772:86:1 and E3772:57:1) were recorded in the ditch.A possible quarry pit C.49 had cut the field boundary. It measured 5 m by 3 m andwas 0.6 m in depth. The fills were a mix of brown silts.15 24. 16 Park 2 E3772 Northwest facing section of C.119C.129 C.131 C.130 d oo C.132W Wood Wood C.119iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Park 2 E3772 West facing section of C.54C.86C.85Overcut C.84 C.83 C.54 Park 2 E3772 West facing section of C.5 C.20 C.17C.18 C.4 C.5 0 500 mm Figure7: SectionofwellC119,ditchC54andtroughC5archaEological Excavation rEPort 25. Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate5: ViewofwellC119fromnorthPlate6: ViewofpitC183fromsouthPlant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). Small quantities ofcharred plant remains, including hulled and naked barley and hazelnut shell fragments,were recovered from the basal fill of the trough, a layer of burnt mound material, the 17 26. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPortquarry pit and a stake-hole. The seeds recovered from the well were un-charred. The plantremains were recovered in small quantities and are likely to be accidental inclusions.Animal boneThe animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). The quantity ofbones recovered from Park 2 was very small and apart from documenting the presenceof cattle at the site no other dietary information can be extrapolated from the data. Fouradult cattle teeth were recovered from one of the layers (C87) of burnt mound material.The fill (C57) of a modern field boundary also contained cattle teeth, two molars from anadult individual.CharcoalThe charcoal was identified for radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Pomideae charcoaland hazel charcoal were identified from the fills of the trough and the well respectively.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queens UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (19862005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004.Lab code Context MaterialUn-cali- 131 sigma calibration 2 sigma brated date C calibrationUB-4 Pomideae charcoal 3197 +/- 24 -24.2 BC 14941471BC 1508142212351from trough C.5 14661443 UB-12352 132Hazel charcoal from 3220 +/- 24 -25.3 BC 15051453BC 15271433 well C.119Table2:Radiocarbondates18 27. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/8DiscussionA fulacht fiadh / burnt mound were recorded on low ground in Park. The layers of burntmound material overlay a trough, pits and a well. Many theories speculate as to the actualuse of burnt mound/fulacht fiadh sites (e.g. OKelly 1954; Drisceoil 1988). We recog-nise the sites archaeologically by the remains of charcoal and heat shattered stones butas Nill (2004) points out, these are the remains of a technology (the use of hot stonesknown as pyrolithic technology), rather than specific indications of the aims of the proc-ess. The large trough and smaller pits indicate that there was extensive use of hot stonetechnology at this site and that it was probably used for heating water. Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age sites found in Ireland. Estimatessuggest that at least 4,500 examples are known. The characteristic site-type is found inlow-lying and damp ground and consists of a mound of charcoal-rich black sediment thatis packed with heat shattered stones and forms a horse-shoe shape around a pit or troughthat filled with water. In many cases all that survives to the present day are black charcoalrich deposits with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. These sites are associated with the process of roasting stones to heat water. The remainsof these pyrolithic technologies (terminology follows Nill 2004) produce the tell-taledeposits rich in charcoal and heat-affected stone. Debate continues about their use, as hotwater is required for many processes including cooking, brewing, washing, dyeing and,most recently it has been argued that some burnt mounds were primarily used to boil andcure meat for long term storage (Roycroft 2006). Traditionally these sites have been interpreted as ancient cooking places, where largestones were heated in fires and then added to the water filled trough the extreme heatof the stones eventually heating the water in the trough until it reached boiling point.Experimental cooking at reconstructed sites such as Ballyvourney (OKelly 1954) hasdemonstrated that meat wrapped in straw and placed into a boiling trough can be cookedquite effectively. The perceived lack of any animal bones from these excavated sites hasbeen used as an argument against this theory. More recently however there is a growingcorpus of sites which have produced animal bone (Tourunen 2008) including, though theamounts are small, all of the burnt mounds sites on the N7 (Contract 1). The traditional perception of the burnt mound site is that they are isolated featureson the landscape situated on marginal ground away from settlement. Recent studies how-ever are requiring a re-evaluation of this perception. It can be regarded as certain thatthe settlement sites and associated burnt mounds are only one part of a wider prehistoriclandscape which also includes lithic production and metalworking sites as well as burialsites (Sternke 2009). Each of the six sites excavated on the N7 was located with a 1km ra-dius of a Bronze Age settlement site, Clashnevin within 1 km east of Derrybane 2 E3591,the site at Park E3772 was one of complex of burnt mound sites in the vicinity of Park 1E3659 and the three sites at Greenhills (E3638, E3637, and E3658) within 1 km east ofDrumbaun E3912.19 28. 191232 20823220 184059 184059iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 178059 178059191232 208232Barrow (11)Cairn (1)Fulacht Fiadh (15)Megalithic tomb (3) Pit group (3) Standing stone (9) 02.5 5Burnt spread (2) Cremation (2)Linkardstown burial (2) Mound (6) Settlement site (9) KmFigure8: PrehistoricsitesonandintheenvironsofN7CastletowntoNenagharchaEological Excavation rEPort 29. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/ The inventory for North Tipperary lists 77 burnt mounds (Farrelly 2002) and theinventory for Offaly lists 14 (OBrien 1997) (Figure 8). Many more sites have been re-corded since the inventories were published. A total of six burnt mounds including Parkwere excavated on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). At least 15 burnt moundsites were excavated on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 2) with a concentrationof 11 sites in the townland of Camlin. Burnt mounds were also excavated on the routeof the Nenagh by-pass and the Limerick Ring Road. A further five sites were recorded inPark and Rosdrehid townlands during the testing of the service area site (Frazer 2009). Site NameE No.Radiocarbon date 2 sigma calibrationPeriod Clashnevin 1 E3586BC 12621110 11031072 10681056Middle Bronze Age Clashnevin 1 E3586AD 9821040 Medieval CullenwaineE3741BC 2462 - 2294Early Bronze Age Greenhills 1 E3638BC 2133 - 1950Early Bronze Age Greenhills 2 E3637BC 18891748Early Bronze Age Greenhills 2 E3637BC 25612536 24922299Early Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658BC 1125975 954943 Middle Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658BC 24652286 22462243Early Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658BC 18761841 18231797 17811683Early Bronze Age Park 2 E3772BC 15081422Middle Bronze Age Park 2 E3772BC 15271433Middle Bronze AgeTable3:RadiocarbondatesfromtheburntmoundsitesontheN7CastletowntoNenagh(Contract1)Most dated burnt mound sites have a focus of activity in the Middle to Late BronzeAge (Brindley and Lanting 1990; and see graph of dates in Nill 2003/2004). In allten radiocarbon dates were obtained from the burnt mound sites on the route of the N7Castletown to Nenagh. The majority of the sites are Early Bronze Age in date.There are six main types of archaeological features encountered at burnt mound sites;wells/springs, layers/deposits, hearths, trough/boiling pits, smaller pits, and stakeholes/postholes. Five of the six feature types were recorded at Park. The mound overlay atrough, pits and a large well. There is no water course in proximity to the site but the well,cut into the water table would have provided any water that was needed and the site islocated on the edge of a wet boggy area. The mound at Park survived to a height of 0.5 mand several layers were identified within the mound of burnt material. No formal hearthwas identified in association with the mound. A substantial trough was located 2 m westof the well. A total of 17 stake-holes and two post-holes were located at the western endof the trough. It is envisaged that the three components, the trough and the trough-sidefurniture constructed from the stake-holes and the pair of opposing posts, would havefunctioned in unison in food processing. A similar type of trough-side furniture was re-corded at one of the troughs at Clashnevin 1 E3586. Two pits located to the north of thetrough may have functioned as boiling pits. They may have held containers made fromorganic material such as baskets or wooden buckets and would have functioned in con-junction with the other elements at the site in food processing.21 30. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPortThere were six burnt mound sites recorded on the route of the N7 (Contract 1). All ofthe sites conformed to a general common design but there were a number of differencesthat distinguished one site from another. The water source that was used at each site wasdifferent. A substantial well was recorded at Clashnevin, a less substantial well was record-ed at Park. In addition the sites at Greenhills and Park were located on the edge of wetboggy ground. There was no obvious water source at Cullenwaine. There were no stonetools recovered from the burnt mound at Clashnevin. In contrast they were recoveredfrom four of the other five sites. The presence of the flint and chert scrapers suggests thathide-processing and wood- and/or bone-working were some of the activities that couldhave been carried out at these sites.22 31. Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/9ReferencesBrindley, A.L. and Lanting, J.N. (1990) The dating of fulachta fiadh, in Buckley, V.(ed.) Burnt Offerings. International contributions to burnt mound archaeology,5556. Dublin, Wordwell.Farrelly, J., and OBrien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 -North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin.Frazer, W. (2009) Archaeological Assessment Report Nenagh NRA Service Area Parktownland, North Co. Tipperary and Roshedrid and Clynoe townlands, Co.Offaly 09E122. Margaret Gowan & Co. Ltd. Unpublished report.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talntais.McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) The emerging Iron Age of South Munster inSeanda, Issue 3, 5153. Dublin.National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland.OBrien, C. (1997) Archaeological Inventory of County Offaly, The Stationery Office, Dublin.OConor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland,Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal IrishAcademy Dublin.OKelly, M.J. (1954) Excavations and experiments in Irish cooking places. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol 84. Nill, J. (2003/2004) Lapidibus in igne calefactis coquebatur: The historical burnt mound tradition, Journal of Irish Archaeology Vol. XII & XIII.Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 026 Cal Kyr BP, Radiocarbon 46, 10291058. 23 32. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPortRoycroft, N. (2006) A theory on Boiled Bull and Burnt Mounds, Seanda Issue 1, 3839, National Road Authority, Dublin.Roycroft, N. (2008) Before, during and after the Kingdom of Ely, Seanda, Issue 3. 3435, National Road Authority, Dublin.Sternke, F. (2009) More than meets the eye; an appraisal of the lithic assemblagesfrom the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Seanda. Issue 4,3031,National Road Authority, Dublin.Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) Extended (super 14) C data base and revisedCALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program, Radiocarbon 35, 215230.Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.Taylor, K. (2008) At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary inSeanda, Issue 3, 5455. Dublin.Tourunen, A. (2008) Fauna and fulachta fiadh: animal bones from burnt mounds on the N9/N10 Carlow Bypass. In J. OSullivan and M. Stanley (eds.), Roads, Rediscovery and Research. Archaeology and the National Roads Authority Monograh Series No. 5. Wordwell.Woodman, P.C. (2000) Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory., pp. 1-10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig,E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray,Wordwell.24 33. Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Appendix 1 Stratigraphic IndexPlease see attached CD. 25 34. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 2 Site Matrix26 35. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort27 36. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort28 37. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort29 38. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPortAppendix 3 Groups and SubgroupsGroup Description Subgroup DescriptionContext No.No. No.Group 1 Natural depositsATopsoilC.1BSubsoilC.2Group 2 Trough and as-ATrough C.5sociated featuresBRe-deposited layers associ- C.52, C.53, C.123, C.135 ated with TroughCPostholesC.133, C.137DStakeholes C.139, C.142, C.143, C.146,C.147, C.149, C.151, C.153,C.155, C.157, C.159, C.161,C.163, C.165, C.189, C.191,C.193.Group 3 Well and associ-AWell C.119ated featuresBRe-deposited C. 99, C.100, C.120, C.121, Layers C.122, C.127, C.128Group 4 PitsAPit close to troughC.183BPit Underneath Field C.197 BoundaryGroup 5 Layers of burnt AMain layers of burnt C.3, C.41, C.52 C.117mound material mound materialBLayers of re-deposited C.15, C.41, C.55, C.69, C.80, material within moundC.81, C.82, C.185CRe-deposited materialC.93, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.97, underlying main layer of C.98. burnt mound materialDlayers of burnt mound ma-C.14, C.42, C.87, C.88. terial overlying the main layer of burnt mound materialGroup 6 Modern features AField Boundary C.54BRe-deposited natural asso- C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180, ciated with field boundary C.181, C.182, C.186CQuarry C.49DFurrowsC.89, C.91Group 7 Natural featuresA C.7, C.10, C.13, C.21, C.22,C.24, C.30, C.34, C.35, C.37,C.38, C.46, C.48, C.56,C.70, C.101, C.102, C.103,C.107, C.109, C.124, C.169,C.17230 39. Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Group 1 Natural DepositsSubgroup ATopsoil C.1DescriptionA dark brown, peaty silt topsoilSubgroup BSubsoil C. 2DescriptionA light grey, silty sand subsoilInterpretationGroup 2 Trough and associated featuresSubgroup ATrough C.5 (fills C. 4, C.17, C.18, and C.20)DescriptionA trough located centrally under the fulacht mound, rectangular in shape, measuring4.26m long, 1.6mwide, and .62 m in depth. The trough was cut into the slope, and wasdeepest to the west, while the maximum depth at the eastern end was approximately .15min depth. The trough was filled by two fills. The primary fill was a dark greyish black,stony, silty sand with a large amount of burned stone and a moderate amount of charcoal.The secondary fill was a light yellowish, brownish grey sandy silt. This was a layer fromabove the trough which has slumped into the cut of the trough.InterpretationThis trough was a typical trough found in a fulacht fiadh. It was likely used to heat water,which may have been supplied from the well C.119. Three of the layers of burnt moundmaterial C.17, C.18 and C.20 had slumped into the trough and overlay the basal fill C.4Subgroup BRedeposited Natural Associated with Trough C.53, C.123, C.135DescriptionThese are layers of redeposited soil located near the trough, which may be indicative ofeither the initial excavation of the trough, or with cleaning episodes of the trough. 31 40. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPortSubgroup CPostholes C.133 (fills C.134, C.136) and C.137 (fill C.138)DescriptionTwo postholes located on either side of the western end of the trough. The northernposthole C.133 was circular, 0.45 m long, 0.38 m wide and 0.32 m deep. The primaryfill (C.134) was a dark brown silt with a large amount of stones. There was a hollow areain the centre, which may indicate the removal of the post. The stones in this fill may bepacking material, which has collapsed into the cut. The secondary fill was located in thesouthwest corner of the cut and appeared to be a mix of natural subsoil and burnt moundmaterial.The southern posthole C.137 was sub-circular in plan with steep sides. It measured 0.77by 0.51 by 0.37 m in depth. The fill C.138 was a black silty sand with inclusions of stonesand charcoal.InterpretationThe postholes were located on either side of the western end of the trough.Subgroup D17 Stakeholes C.139 (fill C.140), C.142 (fill C.141), C.143, (fill C.144), C.146 (fill C.145),C.147 (fill C.148), C.149 (fill C.150), C.151 (fill C.152), C.153 (fill C.154), C.155 (fillC.156) C.157 (fill C.158), C.159 (fill C.160), C.161 (fill C.162), C.163 (fill C.164), C.165(fill C.166), C.189 (fill C.190), C.191 (fill C.192), C.193 (fill C.194)DescriptionThe average measurement was 0.12m by 0.10m with the average depth being 0.9m. Allthe stakeholes are circular to sub-circular in plan. The sides are all smooth and vertical.InterpretationSeventeen stakeholes on western side of troughGroup 3 Well and associated materialSubgroup A WellWell C.119, (fills C.129, C.130, C.131, C.132)DescriptionThe cut was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and basewere both gradual. The sides were steep and smooth on NE, moderate and irregular onSW, steep and concave on SE, steep and stepped on NW. The base was oval in plan andconcave in profile. The cut measured 4.52m NE SW by 2.86m and had a maximum depthof 0.6m. The upper fill was a weakly cemented, dark black stony sand. The next fill was asoft, dark brownish grey peaty silt with occasional small pieces of charcoal. The next layer32 41. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/was a loose, dark greyish black, sandy, stony silt. The basal layer was a firm, mid brownsilty sand.InterpretationCut of pit located 2 m west of trough C5. Deliberated excavated for some purpose as-sociated with burnt mound. Possible well- base filled slightly with ground water duringexcavation. May have been used as a water source for trough C5.Subgroup BRedeposited Material Associated with WellLayers C. 99, C.100, C.122, C.120, C.121, C.127, C.128DescriptionThe layer C.99 was a soft, light yellowish brownish grey sandy silt. Underneath that layerwas C.100, which was a soft, light yellowish brownish grey sandy silt. These layers areredeposited natural. Both are present as a positive feature similar to nearby feature C120.The upper layer of this positive feature was a firm, dark brown silt. The middle fill was asoft, light greyish brown sandy silt. The basal layer was a firm, dark brown silt. The layerC.127 was a soft, light yellowish brownish grey sandy silt. Underlying this was the layerC.128, which was a soft, mid reddish brown clayey, peaty silt.InterpretationThese contexts form three positive features of redeposited natural. Material possibly cast-up from the pit C119.Group 4 PitsSubgroup APit C.183 (fills C.184, C.187, and C.188)DescriptionThe cut was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and base weresharp. The sides were moderate and smooth on N, steep and smooth/concave on S, steepand smooth/stepped on E, steep and smooth on W. The base was oval in plan and flat inprofile. The cut measured 1.9m by 1.65m had a maximum depth of 0.29m and was ori-entated east west. The upper fill was a very soft, dark black stony silt. The next fill was afirm, dark reddish brown peaty silt. The basal layer was a loose, light yellowish grey silty,stony sand.InterpretationCut of a possible pit. Regular shape indicates that it was probably a pit rather than anaturally formed feature; however, shallow depth suggests it was unlikely to be a trough.Fulacht material within fill suggests it was contemporary with fulacht. May be related totrough cut C5 in close proximity.33 42. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPortSubgroup BPit Underneath Field Boundary C.197 (fills C.195, C.196)DescriptionThe pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual. Thesides were steep and smooth on W, moderate and smooth elsewhere. The break of slopebase was imperceptible. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The pit meas-ured 1.72m north south by 1.38m and had a maximum depth of 0.37m. The upper fill ofthe pit was a weakly cemented, mid greyish black silty sand, while the basal fill was filledwith loose grey pebbles.InterpretationCut of pit. The regular shape would suggest formation due to human activity. Presence ofcharcoal, roots and animal teeth in the fill are indicative of human activity. Pit pre-datesfield boundary C54 and was truncated by this field boundary.Group 5 Layers of burnt mound materialSubgroup AMain Layers of Mound C.3, C.41, C.55, C.69, C.117DescriptionThe upper layer C.117 was a compact black silty sand and was a layer which occurredover the mound. The main layer was C.3, which was a stiff, dark greyish black silty sandand stones and represents the burnt mound material covering the majority of the site.The layer measured 32.6m north south by 16.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.48m.The next layer C.41 measured 2.91m north south by 2.91m and had a maximum depthof 0.15m and comprised of a firm, dark greyish black silt. The next layer C.55 was also afirm, dark greyish black silt. The layer C.69 was a soft dark greyish black silt.InterpretationThese contexts represent the burnt mound material covering the majority of the site. Thismaterial was formed due to human factors - stones were heated, added to the trough toboil water and then were discarded to form the layers.Subgroup BLayers of Re-deposited Material within Mound C.15, C.80, C.81, C.82, C.185DescriptionC.15 was a weakly cemented light brownish yellow sand and was located between con-texts C.41 and C.55. The layer C.80 was a compact dark grey clayey silty sand. Directlyunder C.80 was C.81, which was a soft, dark grey sandy silt. The next layer was a C.82,34 43. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/which was a compact, mid grey silty sand. The final layer of re-deposited material was aweakly cemented, light grey sand which was located between layers C.94 and C.114.InterpretationThese layers of re-deposited material occur within the mound and maybe as a result ofexcavation of pits and troughs.Subgroup CLayers of re-deposited material underlying main layer of burnt mound materialC.93, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.97, C.98, C.114DescriptionThe upper layer was a compact light yellowish grey sand. The next layer was a compact,light greyish black silty sand. Underlying this was a compact, mid greyish white sand. Thenext layer was a loose, mid greyish white sand. The layer C.97 was a weakly cemented,mid greyish white sand. Underlying this was a compact, light brownish white silty sand.The basal layer was a stiff, mid brown clayey silt.InterpretationThese layers formed through the dumping of burnt mound material mixed with subsoiland oxidisation processes.Subgroup DSmall layers of burnt mound material overlying the main moundC.3, C.14, C.42, C.87, C.88,C.3 was the main layer that comprised the mound of burnt material. There were severalmixed layers of re-deposited burnt mound material underlying the main layer. Its difficultto trace all the layers and whether they were primary layers or re-deposited layers butthey all make up the mound. C.14 and C.42 were both weakly cemented, light orangishbrown silts and maybe a natural transference layer between topsoil and burnt mound ma-terial C3. The layer C.87 was a soft, mid brown peaty silt and may have formed throughthe natural accumulation of soil over the burnt mound material. The layer C.88 was afirm, dark greyish black clayey, stony silt which was mixed burnt mound material.InterpretationThese layers represent the natural formation of soils over the mound since its last use.Group 6 Modern FeaturesSubgroup AField Boundary C.54 (fills C.57-C.67, C.72- C.79 and C.83-C.86)Description35 44. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPortThe cut was linear in plan and the base was linear in plan and concave in profile. Theboundary was orientated east/west. It was over 50 m in length by 3m in width by 0.6 min depth. The fills C.57 to C.77 were all sand based soils with the colour brown beingthe predominant colour throughout. All these fills contained stone inclusions. The finalsix fills were all silt based fills and as with the previous fills brown was the predominantcolour and all fills contained stone inclusions.InterpretationThis context represents the cut of a field boundary as seen through three excavated sec-tions - slot 1, 2 and 3. It appears to truncate the burnt mound and therefore post-dates it,as seen through post-medieval finds from several of the 23 fills. The ditch is annotated onthe 1st edition OS map TN22.Subgroup B Redeposited Natural Associated with Field BoundaryLayers C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180, C.181, C.182, C.186DescriptionThese layers combine to form a positive feature, which was possibly upcast from the ex-cavation of the field boundary. The upper layer was a firm, light grey sandy silt. The nextlayer was a firm, mid grey sandy silt. The next layer was a firm, light yellowish clayey silt.Layer C.180 was a firm, mid yellowish grey sandy silt. The next layer was a spongy, darkbrown peat. The layer C.182 was a compact, dark brownish grey clayey sand. The basallayer was a firm, light yellowish white clayey silt.InterpretationThese layers may have originated from excavation of linear cut C54.Subgroup C Quarry C.49 (fills C.8, C.9, C.19, C.23, C.32, C.33, C.43, C.44, C.173)DescriptionThe cut was orientated east west, measured 5m by 3m, and had a maximum depth of0.6m. The quarry was irregular in plan with rounded corners. The base was irregular inplan and flat in profile. This context truncated the ditch cut C54.The layers were all siltbased brown in colour although there was variations in the modifier and hues. All the fillscontain stone inclusions.InterpretationCut of a possible modern feature terminating at N-S baulk. May be associated with ditch.Possible quarry pit.Subgroup D FurrowsFurrow C.89 (fill C.90),Furrow C.91 (fill C.92)Description36 45. Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/The furrow (C.89) was linear in plan; the base was linear in plan and concave in profile.The fill was a soft, mid greyish brown clayey silt and was orientated east west. The secondfurrow was also linear in plan; the base was linear in plan and concave in profile while thefill was a soft, dark greyish brown clayey silt. The furrow was orientated east west.InterpretationTwo regular features are furrows.The field boundary is marked on the 1st edition OS map TN22.Group 7 Natural featuresSubgroup AC.7 (C.6), C.10 (C.11), C.13 (C.12), C.21 (C.28), C.22 (C.26, C.27), C.24 (C.25), C.30 (C.31), C.34, C.35 (C.36), C.37 (C.39), C.38 (C.40), C.46 (C.45, C.50), C.48 (C.47),C.56 (C.68), C.70 (C.71), C.101 (C.104), C.102, (C.105, C.106), C.103 (C.111, C.112),C.107 (C.108), C.109 (C.110), C.124 (C.125, C.126), C.169 (C.170, C.171), C.172 (C.174,C.175, C.176).InterpretationA group of 22 features identified during post-excavation as stone sockets, roots, naturaldepressions or animal burrows.The fills of all these natural features were derived from the layers of burnt mound mate-rial, it had filled all the depressions and hollow in the natural subsoil. 37 46. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237archaEological Excavation rEPortAppendix 4 Plant Remains ReportBy Penny JohnstonIntroductionThis report details the analysis of plant remains from Park 2, Co. Tipperary (E3772). Thesite comprised a burnt mound/fulacht fiadh, trough and associated pits, post-holes, stake-holes and a possible well. The plant remains were identified as barley and hazelnut shellfragments, as well as some indeterminate cereals and some weed seeds.MethodologyThe samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as-sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or flot)from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was250mm). The samples were scanned under low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) usinga binocular microscope. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997).ResultsA total of 40 samples from Park 2 were assessed and the results are listed in the assessmentreport, and in Table 1, listed below. The initial assessment report of the samples from Park2 indicated that 16 of the samples contained plant remains, however, further examinationof the selected samples indicated that most of the material in these samples were probablyactually fungal sclerotia, rather than seeds. Fungal sclerotia are spores from a soil fungusand can be relatively recent in date. In total, only 6 of the 40 samples actually containedplant remains. The results are presented in Table 2 at the end of this report.In general the plant remains from Park 2 were charred, apart from the seeds foundin C.132 (S.103), which were un-charred. The un-charred plant remains were identifiedas hazelnut shell fragments, blackberry drubes and sedge seeds. As the sample does notappear to have been from a water-logged context it is likely that these un-charred remainsfrom Park 2 were relatively modern in origin.It is unusual to find charred plant remains from burnt mound/fulacht fiadh sites (seeJohnston 2007, 70). However, the charred plant remains from Park 2 were recoveredonly in small quantities. The identified cereals included grains of both hulled and nakedbarley, as well as some hazelnut shell fragments. As these were recovered in very smallquantities it is likely that these plant remains were accidental inclusions in the depositsfrom this site. They were recovered in such small quantities that it is unlikely that theyrepresent a significant reflection of the activity at the site.38 47. Park 2-E3772http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/ReferencesJohnston, P. 2007 Analysis of carbonised plant remains in Grogan, E., ODonnell,L. and Johnston, P. The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West. Bray,Wordwell, 70 79.Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press.Stace, C. A. 1997 New Flora of the British Isles. (2nd edition) Cambridge, CambridgeUniversity Press.Sample Context Charcoal SeedsPercentage13 High Absent 5024 High Low10036 High Low10026 23LowLow10029 18High Absent 10038 57LowAbsent 10066 87Medium Absent 10070 94High Absent 10071 95LowAbsent 10072 96Medium Absent 10073 97Medium Absent 10074 98High Absent 10083 114 Medium Absent 10086 117 High Absent 5088 88Medium Absent 10095 123 Medium Absent 100100129 High Absent 100101130 High Absent 100102131 High Low100103132 Medium Low100104134 High Absent 501064 High Absent 100107123 Medium Absent 100109140 Medium Absent 100110144 High Absent 100114150 High Absent 100116154 High Absent 100117156 High Absent 100118158 Medium Absent 10039 48. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPortSample Context CharcoalSeeds Percentage120162 MediumAbsent100121164 HighAbsent100122166 MediumAbsent100128173 HighAbsent100144184 HighAbsent100145187 HighAbsent100146188 HighAbsent100147190 MediumLow 100148192 HighAbsent100149194 MediumAbsent100152196 MediumAbsent100Table1:ScannedsamplesfromPark2,CoTipperary(E3772)Sample23 26 102103 147Context 46 23 131132 190Charred plant remainsHazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana) 1Naked barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum)1Hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare) 1Probable hulled barley (cf Hordeum vulgare)1Barley rachis internode (Hordeum spp.) 1Barley/Wheat (Hordeum/Triticum)1Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae)1Indeterminate cereal grains1Un-charred plant remainsHazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana) 1Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana)2Blackberry/Raspberry (Rubus spp.)5Indeterminate sedge seeds (Cyperaceae) 1Table2:IdentifiedplantremainsfromPark2,CoTipperary(E3772)40 49. Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Appendix 5 Animal Bone ReportThe quantity of bones recovered from Park 2 is very small and apart from documentingthe presence of cattle at the site no other dietary information can be extrapolated from thedata. Four adult cattle teeth were recovered from one of the layers (C87) of burnt moundmaterial. The fill (C57) of a modern field boundary also contained cattle teeth, two molarsfrom an adult individual. 41