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Cells & Tissues Unit #2 – Part #1

A&P Cells & Tissues Unit # 2

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1. Cells & Tissues Unit #2 Part #1 2. Cells - Overview 1600s Robert Hooke, plants cells that looked like monks rooms = CELLS They are the smallest unit of all living things Human body = TRILLIONS, many different roles/functions 3. Made up elements 60% water Constantly bathed in diluted saltwater = INTERSTITIAL FLUID (comes from blood) Size ranges from 2 micrometers (1/12000th of an inch) to over 1 meter (3 feet) Disk-shaped, threadlike extensions, toothpick shaped, etc 4. Anatomy of a Generalized Cell Nucleus headquarters, contains DNA (important in making proteins and cell repro.), surrounded by the nuclear envelope/membrane and contains nucleoli and chromatin NE= selectively permeable, larges pores, made of nucleoplasm with suspends other substances Nucleoli= round bodies, makes ribosomes (site of protein synthesis) Chromatin= when not dividing DNA is mixed with protein to forms threads WHEN THE CELL IS DIVIDING, IT COILS TO FORM RODLIKE BODIES CALLED CHROMOSOMES 5. Plasma/Cell Membrane = separates cell from outside, lipid bilayer, selectively permeable, contains of TONS of proteins carrying out specialized functions Can contain microvilli = little shaggy hairs that increase SA Can contain membrane junctions Tight junctions that bind cell together so things cant pass (ex: small intestine so enzymes do get through) Desmosomes help to anchor cells that do hard work (ex: skin cells), filament like/wire like Gap junctions (ex: heart) that help to communicate/pass nutrients or ions through, connected with connexons (hollow tubes) 6. Cytoplasm Cellular material that fills up the cell, where most activities of the cell take place, contains: Cytosol that is the fluid which other things float in Organelles with other jobs found here Mitochondria - energy in the form of ATP Ribosomes made of proteins and rRNA, some float and others attached to RER ER used in transportation, SER helps with lipid metabolism Golgi apparatus modify and package proteins, when full the secretory vesicles pinch off 7. Lysosomes- garbage collector Peroxisomes detoxify the bad Cytoskeleton provide a framework (made of microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfliaments) Centrioles helps to make microtubules, important in cell repro. Cilia projections, on the outside to help move things along Flagella longer projections to propel self (EX: sperm only one) Inclusions which are chemical substances, vary from cell to cell type 8. Cell Diagram & Cell Diversity 1. Label & color the generalized cell diagram using Chapter 3 in your textbook 2. Using page 74-75, name the 7 mentioned cell specialists and describe each in your notes sections. 9. Cell Physiology WS Packet & Links Complete the Cell Physiology WS Packet using page 76-82 in your textbook http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt /0471393878/student/animations/me mbrane_transport/index.html http://www.wiley.com/legacy/colle ge/boyer/0470003790/animations/m embrane_transport/membrane_tran sport.htm 10. A Closer Look Read page 80-81, write down five complete facts in your notes section. 11. Cell Division WS Packet & Links Complete the Cell Division WS Packet using page 83-88 in your textbook Watch this video on Cell Reproduction Watch this video on Protein Synthesis 12. Body Tissues Groups of cells that are similar in structure & function 4 main groups: epithelium (covering), connective (support), nervous (control) & muscle (movement) 13. Epithelial Tissue Functions include: protection, absorption, filtration and secretion Most fit closet together (except grandular), held together by desmosomes One free surface called apical surface exposed to bodys surface Basement membrane = lower surface No blood supply of their own and depend on diffusion from capillaries in connective tissue for food and oxygen If nourished, regenerate Classified by # of layers and cell shape 14. Epithelia Tissue Types Activity In your notes section, list and describe each type of simple epithelia and stratified epithelia tissue mentioned, do the same for glandular tissue 15. Connective Tissue Connects body parts, found everywhere, most abundant Protects, supports and binds Most connective tissue is well vascularized (tendons and ligaments have poor blood supply and cartilages are avascular heal slowly) Made up several types of cells and other non-living goo called extracellular matrix Made of ground substance (water, proteins, polysaccharides) Made of fibers (collagen, elastic and reticular fibers) 16. Types of Connective Tissue Bone Cartilage 1. Hyaline 2. Fibrocartilage 3. Elastic cartilage Dense Connective Tissue Tendons Ligaments Loose Connective Tissue Areolar tissue Adipose tissue Reticular Connective Tissue Blood 17. Connective Tissue Activity In your notes sections, list and describe each type of connective tissue mentioned 18. Muscle Tissue Highly specialized to contract or shorten to produce movement In your notes sections, list and describe each type of muscle tissue 19. Nervous Tissue Made of neurons = receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from 1 area of the body to another All composed of supporting cells = insulate, support and protect 20. Slide Lab Using the light/compound microscope, draw/color/label/etc for each of the slides provided 21. Tissue Repair 1. Human body has built in defense systems Inflammatory response = attempts to prevent further injury Immune response =attacks the invaders 2. Repair occurs through regeneration (forms new of the same cells) or fibrosis (replaces old with scar tissue 3. Types depends on the type of tissue damaged and the injury 4. Steps capillaries become permeable granulation tissue forms surface epithelium regenerates 22. Developmental Aspects of Cells & Tissues Read page 101 & 104 in your textbook, complete the WS provided 23. Cancer The Intimate Enemy Read page 102-103 in your textbook, write down 5 main points Watch this VIDEO, add 5 more main facts Have you read the Chapter 3 summary?