1 Prehistoric

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Aligns with the material found in chapter 1 of Stokstad's Art History survey.


<ul><li>1.Chapter 1<br />Prehistoric Art in Europe<br /></li></ul> <p>2. Dating Conventions and Abbreviations<br />B.C.=before ChristB.C.E.=before the Common Era<br />A.D.=Anno Domini(in the year of our Lord)C.E.=Common Era<br />c.orca.= circa<br />C.=century<br />3. Outline of Prehistoric Period<br />Paleolithic<br />Lower<br />Middle <br />Upper<br />Neolithic<br />4. Paleolithic Age<br />Old Stone Age - 2,500,000 10,000 BC<br />Technological advancement from spear to bow/arrow = better hunting<br />Appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens(-120,000)<br />Cro-Magnon Man<br />Europe<br />Stone Ax = chop down trees &amp; make boats<br />Hunting large animals required 4-5 bands of people working together<br />Chief status for leader<br />Cave Paintings<br />5. Homo Sapiens Sapiens<br />6. Shelter or Architecture?<br />7. Architecture of Mammoth-Bone Houses <br />Mammoth bone dwelling<br />from Ukraine<br />ca. 16,000-10,000B.C.E.<br />8. 9. Artifacts or Works of Art?<br />10. Lion-Human<br />from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany<br />ca. 30,000-26,000 B.C.E.<br />mammoth ivory<br />11 3/8 in. high<br />11. Sculpture<br />Oldest surviving art objects<br />Made from bone, ivory, stone, or antlers<br />Either engraved (by incising an outlined figure with a sharp tool), carved in deep relief or fully rounded three-dimension<br />Lion-Human is half man, half beast <br />12. Female Figurines<br />13. Venus of Willendorffrom Willendorf, Austria<br />ca. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E.<br />limestone<br />4 1/4 in. high<br />14. Venus of Willendorf<br />15. Other Female Beauties<br />Woman of Lespugue<br />from cave of Les Rideaux, France<br />ca. 20,000 B.C.E.<br />mammoth ivory<br />5 3/4 in. high<br />16. Various European Venus figures<br />17. Modern Exaggeration<br />18. 19. The Meaning of Cave Paintings<br />The first paintings were probably made 15,000 years ago<br />Pictures of bison, deer, horses, cattle, mammoths &amp; boars are in the most remote recesses of the caves, from the entrance<br />Scholars proposed the social function of art lead to totemistic rites and increase ceremonies used to enhance fertility<br />20. The Meaning of Cave Paintings<br />Archeologists speculate the animal images were meant to guarantee a successful hunt<br />Drawing a picture of it gave you power over it?<br />Sympathetic magic<br />Artwork has been depicted with realistic features that enables scholars to identify animals<br />21. Chauvet Cave paintings<br />Vallon-Pont-dArc, Ardche, France<br />ca. 30,000-28,000B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />22. 23. Not intended for long-term use?<br />Used for rituals?<br />Pech-Merle Cave paintings<br />Lot, France<br />ca. 22,000B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />24. 25. Lascaux Cave paintings<br />Lascaux, Dordogne, France<br />ca. 15,000-13,000B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />26. Twisted Perspective horns, eyes &amp; hooves are shown as seen from the front, yet heads &amp; bodies are rendered in profile<br />27. Prehistoric Art Tools<br /></p> <ul><li>Cave artists used charcoal to outline the walls; sometimes they incised the wall with sharp stones or charcoal sticks </li></ul> <p>28. The paints used were ground minerals like red &amp; yellow ochre 29. The minerals were applied directly on the damp limestone walls</p>