Must and have toMust and have to mean the same thing that you are obliged to do something.You must read this.You have to read this.The main difference is that must is only used in the present:I must be as clear as possible.But have to can have past forms.I had to do chores when I was a child.Have to can also be used in future forms.I will have to ride home in the dark tonight.When used in a question, have to needs an auxiliary verb such as do.Do you have to make that noise?Must you make that noise?Dont have to and mustnt have different meanings.Dont have to means you are not required to do something:I dont have to wear a uniform.But mustnt (short for must not) means that something is not allowed:You mustnt smoke inside.Extend or expand?
To expand is to increase in volume or size.You blow up a balloon to make it expand.Water expands when it freezes.
Expand is also used to talk about business growth.The business expanded too quickly.
Generally, we use extend to talk about things that stretch out, or become longer.Extend your arm and hold out your hand.Id like to extend my house by adding two additional rooms.
Come acrossIf you come across something, you find it by chance.You can come across some good quality furniture in second-hand shops.
Come across can mean to give an impression.She comes across as a kind person.
Come across can also mean to communicate clearly.The anti-war message of the film comes across strongly.
Make an example sentence for each of the following:
A. Come across find by chance B. Come across to give an impressionC. Come across clearly communicated In someones good booksIf you are in someones good books you have their approval or favour. He stays back working overtime for no pay to get into the bosss good books.
You can also be in someones bad books.Hes going to get into the bosss bad books if he keeps coming in late.
Make an example sentence using in someones good books and in someones bad books and come back tomorrow and check other examplesGood thing
Too much of a good thingToo much of a good thing is said to highlight the fact that something pleasant becomes unpleasant because you have or do too much of it. This phrase is often used in jest to highlight the abundance or overindulgence of the good thing. I have put on 3kg since the start of the holidays, too much of a good thing can really be harmful for your weight.
Go you good thingGo you good thing is often used to cheer on a racehorse or participant in a race as they compete and race towards the finish line. He is in second place now and looks like he is gaining ground, go you good thing.
Good things come to those who wait Good things come to those who wait means that if you are patient and focused then you shall be rewarded by achievement of your goals. I know you want to get your drivers license now, but I dont think you have had enough practice. Remember, good things come to those who wait.Oyster
The world is your oyster If you tell someone the world is your oyster, you are saying that they have many opportunities open to them - they have the ability to do anything they choose.With so much brains and talent, the world is her oyster.
If the world is your oyster you can achieve anything. 'Ive finished my university degree. What do you think I should do next?Keep studying. If you get a postgraduate degree the world will be your oyster.'Kidding
Are you kidding?The phrase are you kidding is used to express surprise disbelief. Kidding is a synonym for joking, or teasing.
The trip to the museum is cancelled.A. Are you kidding?B. No I am serious, they just announced it.
I am only kiddingYou can say I am only kidding to tell someone that you are joking, for example if you may have tricked them into believing something. A. I think the bus has gone. B. Oh no, what a disaster. I am going to be late for work! A. Only kidding. I was just teasing you.
He/she is a kidderIf someone is a kidder they like to play jokes, or to trick people for fun.It is hard to believe anything he says, he has always been a kidder.
Make an example sentence using the above phrases:
A. Are you kidding?B. I am only kidding.C. He/she is a kidder.
A euphemism is when we use a mild, indirect, or vague term to replace a harsh, blunt, or offensive term.
Direct sentence: He died last year. Euphemism: He passed away last year.
Direct sentence: He is losing his hairEuphemism: He is getting thin on top.
Direct sentence: She is unemployed. Euphemism: She is out of work at the moment.
Direct sentence: He is fat. Euphemism: He is big boned.
Direct sentence:Euphemism: Ellipsis
An elliptical sentence is one in which we leave out words that would complete or clarify the sentence because they may be repeating earlier words or ideas.Ellipsis, or leaving out words, helps us avoid unnecessary language while keeping the meaning intact.
Look at these two sentences and note the difference:
[Full sentence]: I know that he can do something about the problem, but I dont know what he can do about the problem. [Elliptical sentence]: I know that he can do something about the problem, but I dont know what.
Another way of using ellipsis informally is to use three dots, or full stops, to indicate where words have been omitted:
After school I went to her house, which was a few blocks away, and then I came home.After school I went to her house and then I came home.
Make these three full sentences into elliptical sentences:
1. It seems like a really useful idea to me.
2. He was the greatest tennis player ever, and remains the greatest tennis player ever.
3. She has been an incredible support to me and always will be an incredible support to me.
Come back tomorrow and check your answers.
Pretty + much / good
Pretty much is an informal way of saying, nearly, or almost. I have pretty much finished my homework. He has pretty much spent all of his money.
Pretty good is a way of saying mostly good, or fairly good. If something is pretty good it is not excellent, but you liked most of it.The movie was pretty good. The flower garden looks pretty good. In spring it will look fantastic.
Use pretty good and pretty much in example sentences and we will tell you if you are right or wrong. Prepositions in, on and at
Grammar rule: When we talk about years we use the preposition in.Example: The football world cup was last held in 2014.
The following examples all use a preposition. Try to match them with the grammar rules below:
My birthday is in August. I love to see snow in the winter. I have some free time in the afternoon. Can you come to my house for a barbecue on Saturday? His birthday is on the 2nd of May. Can you meet me at the bus stop at 5:30? I will be able to go home at Christmas. Do you think we will be able to exit through the front doors at the end of the movie?
Which preposition do we use? Match the below grammar rules to the above examples.
1. When we talk about years we use: ____in____ [Done] 2. When we talk about religious festivals we use: _______3. When we talk about days of the week we use: _______ 4. When we talk about dates we use: _______5. When we talk about parts of the day we use: _______6. When we talk about points in time we use: _______7. When we talk about hours of the clock we use: _______8. When we talk about seasons we use: _______9. When we talk about months we use: _______Apple idioms
A bad apple refers to a person who is unreliable or corrupt. Theres an old saying one bad apple spoils the whole bunch. This means that one bad person might have a negative effect on the others in a group.They were a well behaved group of kids until Katie joined the class. Shes a bad apple.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away is a proverb that means just what it says apples are good for you!Dont forget your apple. Remember, an apple a day will keep the doctor away.
The apple of my eye is used to describe someone or something very precious, often the centre of your attention.My new puppy is the apple of my eye. I cant wait to get home to see her.
Make an example sentence using the three apple phrases:
1. A bad apple2. An apple a day keeps the doctor away3. The apple of my eye
Off the radar means to go unnoticed or be forgotten because someone's attention is on something more important. I used to take a holiday every winter, but Im so busy this year its fallen off the radar.
If something or someone is under the radar, most people dont notice it or them. I didnt expect her to get the promotion. She was under the radar.
Use off the radar or under the radar in an example sentence and come back tomorrow and check other examples. Cheese
More holes than Swiss cheeseIf something has more holes than Swiss cheese, it has a lot of problems.I have read the proposal, it has more holes than Swiss cheese.
Chalk and cheeseThe phrase chalk and cheese is used to describe two things that are completely different. They are brother and sister, but they are like chalk and cheese.
Big cheeseBig cheese refers to the boss, or the person in charge of something. Lets make sure the office is clean, the big cheese will be here on the weekend.
Try to use the following idioms:
1. More holes than Swiss cheese2. Chalk and cheese3. Big cheeseAbout
About means approximately, or nearly. I will be there in about an hour.
About can also mean in reference to or related to. He bought a book about snakes.
About to means that you are on the verge of doing something and it is almo