World Regional GeographyFebruary 24, 2010Reading: Marston Chapter 5Pages 210-238, 243-260
Goodes World AtlasPages 225-230
This Week:Map Quiz #2: Africa
Next Week:Midterm ExamIntroduction North Africa & The Middle EastRwanda, following the 1994 genocide
Differences between Southern Africa and the rest of Sub-Saharan AfricaImpact of HIV/AIDSStage of development / demographic transition
RegionIMRTFR% Pop 65Life ExpectancyMaleFemaleWest Africa805.5443515052East Africa765.4443515052Central Africa956.1453514952Southern Africa482.8335525053
RegionHIV/AIDS %% UrbanGNI PPP(US$)West Africa2.5421,600East Africa5.6221,030Central Africa2.5411,650Southern Africa18.5569,380
Sub-Saharan African DiasporaOut of AfricaTo EuropeBrain drainWithin AfricaSearch for workCircular migrationsRefugees4.5 million1/3 of world total
Religion & LanguageReligionAnimisticTraditional beliefsChristianityEuropean missionariesColonialismIslamNorth Africa / East CoastTradersLanguages800 living languages40 spoken by 1 million+
Importance of familyRespect for elders.Reverence for ancestors.Large families valued.Land TenureCommunal as opposed to individual ownership.Inheritance from the past, responsibility to the future.Music, art, and storytellingArtistic expression linked to reverence for elders and educating the young.Worldwide influence.Culture
Sub-Saharan Africa in the World- System2 million years ago: Origin of humans 5,000 years ago: Trading societies 500 years ago: European exploration and economic colonialism begins1882 1960s: European political colonialism1960 1990: Independence
Colonialism1483: Portuguese establish first European colony in Northern Angola.Coastal ports and scattered inland trading posts.Inland developmentSouthern AfricaEuropeans lacked immunity to native diseases.
The system by which one country extends its political control to another territory to economically exploit the human and natural resources of the territory.
SlaveryBy 1700 nearly 50,000 slaves traded annually.9 million slaves sent to Americas between 1600 and 1870.Approximately 1.5 million died en-route.
Scramble for AfricaPost-1950 increased interest in Africa.Discovery and desire for resources.Improvements in treating disease.
Berlin Conference 13 European countries meet to divide up Africa.No African representation.No respect for existing cultural or ethnic boundaries.
Scramble for Africa
Colonial LegacyReoriented economiesInfrastructure geared for export, internal linkages weak.Change in cropsChange in land tenureVarying forms of colonial controlLanguages and financial systems.
Independence1957 through 1990
TransitionsPeaceful and violentInvolvement of colonial power varied by country
Colonial borders became national borders.Conflict resulting from poorly drawn borders
GenocideArticle 2 of the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defines genocide as:
Any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy a national, ethnical, racial or religious groupKilling members of the group. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group.Deliberately inflicting on the group living conditions designed to bring about its physical destruction.Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Genocide in Rwanda
Belgian colony until 1961Tutsi minority favored over. Hutu majority.IndependenceHutu majority seizes control.Resentment and violence towards Tutsis, many flea.1990-1993 Civil WarTutsis attempting to regain some power (RPF).1994 President killedHutus begin massacre of Tutsis and moderate Hutus.800,000 die in 100 days.Post-genocide many Hutus flea fearing retribution.