“We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading.” ~ B.F. Skinner

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“The greatest gift is a passion for reading. It is cheap, it consoles, it distracts, it excites, it gives you knowledge of the world and experience of a wide kind. It is a moral illumination.” ~ Eliabeth Hardwick. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of “We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading.” ~ B.F. Skinner

  • The greatest gift is a passion for reading. It is cheap, it consoles, it distracts, it excites, it gives you knowledge of the world and experience of a wide kind. It is a moral illumination.~ Eliabeth Hardwick

  • We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading. ~ B.F. Skinner

  • * Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it.~ Dwight Eisenhower

  • Motivation forReadingPresented By:Aaron Elkins, Autumn Smith, Bonnie Clawson, Lauren Pipher and Raquel Harrington

  • Small Group DiscussionTake 1 minute to discuss with your group:

    What does the term motivation mean to you?

    Be prepared to share one thought from your group.*

  • *Definitions of Motivation refers to the process whereby goal-directed behavior is instigated and sustained. - Schunk, 1990 is a work-related rather than play-related concept. Weiner, 1990a function of ones cognitions about the task at hand, about the consequences of task completion, and about ones ability to do the task. Driscoll, 2005

  • *Motivation Requires a positive and encouraging but challenging environmentIs inspired by curiosityPerceptual arousalInteresting eventsVaried instructional approachesIs situationally affected

  • *Self Efficacy BeliefsInfluence courses of action, amount of effort, perseverance, resilience, self-talk, amount of stress and depression, and level of accomplishments achieved Fostering self-efficacyEnactive masteryVicarious experiencesVerbal persuasionPhysiological states

  • *Goal OrientationSetting goals provides an external standard against which to evaluate performanceGoal conditionsSpecificity / GeneralityProximal / DistalPerformance / Mastery

  • *Performance vs. Mastery GoalsIntelligence is fixedConfidence affects goal attainmentLow confidence: helplessnessHigh Confidence: seek challenge, higher persistenceIntelligence is malleableEmphasis on strategies for task mastery; learners think about their abilities in relation to their goalConfidence is immaterialLearners select tasks that benefit them and demonstrate persistence

  • *Performance Goal OrientationStudents with this orientation are most concerned with favorable evaluations, grades, winning in competitions

    Can lead to superficial, short-term learning, and a cessation of motivation if extrinsic rewards are withdrawn

  • *Mastery Goal OrientationA.K.A. Learning or Task Orientation

    Students with this orientation want to improve skills, learn new things, and accept challenges as a way of understanding content

  • *Facilitating a Mastery Goal OrientationEncourage collaboration over competitionEncourage understanding over memorizing contentAcknowledge that making mistakes is a part of learningAllow for time to explore and understand novel ideasRecognize sincere attempts Match evaluation with mastery goals

  • Small Group DiscussionTake 1 minute to discuss with your group:

    Why are some students unmotivated?

    Be prepared to share one thought from your group.*

  • *Roadblocks!

  • *Major Factors That Can Negatively Influence MotivationFamilial LiteracyAccess to BooksELLESEAgeGender

  • Small Group DiscussionTake 1 minute to discuss with your group:

    What are some strategies you use to motivate your students?

    Be prepared to share one thought from your group.*

  • *StrategiesForMotivation

  • Assessments of Motivation

    Garfield Rating Scale can be used with children

    Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP)

    Motivation Interview (from Me and My Reading Scale)

  • Contexts to Foster Engagement / MotivationConceptual OrientationReal-World InstructionAutonomy Support = STUDENT CHOICEInteresting TextStrategy InstructionCollaborationCoherenceTeacher Involvement (Interest in Student Knowledge, Preferences, and Abilities)Appropriate Rewards and Specific PraiseEvaluation (Aligned with Instructional Purposes)

    *

  • *Conditions that Foster MotivationVarious instructional techniques, matched to student needsClassroom procedures/routines well establishedEmphasis on effort; praise as appropriateTeacher creates sense of enthusiasmEmphasize cooperation rather than competitionUse engaging manipulatives/hands-on activities with legitimate learning goals

  • Strategies for Increasing Motivation : Sustaining the Fire: the inspiration model and a motivational model involving choosing effective behavioral and cognitive interventions that work toward self-motivationThe Imposter

    Use of Technology (www.guysread.com)Family Workshops (i.e. Read and Feed) View movies that are literature based Paired Reading Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)

    *

  • More Reading Motivators!Read Alouds / Model Reading Enjoyment! Authors Chair / Critics Chair Book Talks Convenient Access to Books Hands-On Activities Literature Circles / Book Clubs ~ Genre Gurus

    Self-Selection ~ Three-Piece Kits, and Self-Discovery BookmarksTrips to the LibraryPlan Classroom Library Carefully to Consider book characteristics, (scary, funny, good illustrations), student interests, variety, narrative / expository *

  • *Rewards and MotivationMay have little effect on subsequent behavior unless award is anticipatedControlling rewards reduce interest in taskRewards for easy task signals low abilityParticipation rewards lead generally to decreased interestMay have negative impact when reward is not inherently associated with the task

  • *HoweverEven learners who are intrinsically motivated may benefit from extrinsic recognition, public acknowledgement of achievement, student presentation of product, positive comments

    but public recognition can also demotivate lower achieving students: Ill never get my name on the board.

  • *PraiseCan be used to increase vocabularyShould be specific

    Examples:Round of Applause3 Stars and a WishOreo ~ Compliment Sandwich3S-3P (sincere, specific, sufficient; properly given for praiseworthy success in a manner preferred by the learner

  • * Achievement feeds Motivation and Motivation feeds Achievement

    A student will be more motivated if she/he expects to do well and if they see value in the task

    ~ Guide the student to text that is of appropriate difficulty ~ Build on student strengths~ Link strategies to achievement

  • *

    *Elizabeth Hardwick (July 27, 1916 December 2, 2007) was an American literary critic, novelist, and short story writer. She was one of the founders of The New York Review of Books and the author of The Ghostly Lover (1945), The Simple Truth (1955), Seduction and Betrayal (1974), and Sleepless Nights (1979). In the '70s and early '80s, Hardwick taught writing seminars at Barnard College and Columbia University's School of the Arts, Writing Division. **Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 March 28, 1969), nicknamed "Ike", was a General of the Army (five star general) in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (19531961). *************There are a number of standardized measures available that can be used to assess students motivation to read One example of these measures includes the garfield rating scale -we have included a copy of this scale in the handouts we provided; as you can see the child in question is asked to identify their emotions related to different aspects of reading by choosing the garfiled face that most closely correspondsThe other example that we will be talking about is the Adolescent motivation to read profile. You all should have received a copy of this in your handout packet as wellAs the title indicates, this measure is used primarily with the adolescent populationIt consists of two parts; which include a rating scale, as well as a conversational interviewThe research on this measure indicates that there is discrepancy among the two parts of this measure The discrepancy was found to be caused by the participants narrow view of what constitutes reading The adolescents who filled this survey out did not think that reading on the internet counted as actual reading, which accounted for the discrepancy found***Concept oriented reading instruction has been shown to increase children intrinsic motivation to read, as well as their self-efficacy for reading-these are optimistic findings which suggest that instructional programming can affect childrens motivation as well as their achievement -program involves combination of reading and science content (but could potentially use any subject), which is thought to foster the development of reading comprehension and motivation -teachers use hands on science activities to spark students interest in various topics-teachers in CORI classrooms also have a plethora of books that are related to the science activities, which creates a link between the activities and the books -opportunities for choice and collaboration with other students are also provided The Imposter-it is a reading strategy that encourages critical thinking as well as a focused interest in the reading material; it may also be used as an assessment tool for reading comprehension-general idea is to embed a contradictory statement, idea, or number into a reading passage or mathematical problem-the student must then discover and justify why it is a contradiction-by searching for the contradiction, the student will be challenged and encouraged to read deeply with great concentration -the motivation for reading lies in discovery, and the pathway to discovery lies in focused concentrationSustaining the Fire: -model that includes 2 common paradigms (neither of which work alone, they must be used in conjunction with one another!)-the fir