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<ul><li> 1. Wechsler Intelligence Scale Third EditionThe global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with one's environment</li></ul> <p> 2. </p> <ul><li> Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Globalbecause it characterizes individualsbehavior as a whole </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Aggregatebecause it is composed of elements or abilities that are qualitatively differentiable </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 3. </p> <ul><li>Why did Wechsler create his own test if Binet already made one? </li></ul> <p> 4. </p> <ul><li>Binets test does not go with his philosophy of what intelligence is.. </li></ul> <ul><li>Opposition on Binets focus on language and verbal skills to measure intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>Capitalized that since Binets intelligence scale if for children he concluded that it lacked validity when answered by adults </li></ul> <ul><li>Binets emphasis on time handicaps older adults </li></ul> <ul><li>It did not consider that intellectual performance deteriorates as a person grows older </li></ul> <ul><li>Mental age norms clearly did not apply to adults </li></ul> <p> 5. </p> <ul><li>Goal 1: Continuity and Familiarity </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 2: Updating of Norms </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 3: Extension of Age Range </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 4: Age-Corrected Norms </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 5: Improved Item Content </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 6: Improved Stimulus Materials </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 7: Improved Diagnostic and Descriptive</li></ul> <ul><li>Utility </li></ul> <p> 6. </p> <ul><li>Goal 8: De-emphasis on Performance Speed </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 9: Enhancement of Fluid Reasoning</li></ul> <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 10: Linkage with WMSIII and WIAT </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 11: Extensive Validity Studies </li></ul> <ul><li>Goal 12: Enhancement of Scoring Rules </li></ul> <p> 7. </p> <ul><li>Individual Administration </li></ul> <ul><li>Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Adults, Aged 1689 Years </li></ul> <ul><li>Scale Composition </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>11 Subtests to Obtain IQ Scores </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>11 Subtests to Obtain Index Scores </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>New Subtests:Matrix Reasoning, Symbol Search, LetterNumber Sequencing </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Optional Subtest: Object Assembly </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 8. </p> <ul><li>Age </li></ul> <ul><li>Sex </li></ul> <ul><li>Race/Ethnicity</li></ul> <ul><li>Education Level </li></ul> <ul><li>Geographic Region </li></ul> <p>6 9. 1617 1819 2024 2529 3034 3544 </p> <ul><li><ul><li>45-54 </li></ul></li></ul> <p>5564 6569 7074 7579 8084 85 89 WAIS III 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 150 100WMS III 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 75 4554 10. 11. </p> <ul><li>Credits or points are assigned to each item </li></ul> <ul><li>An individual receives a specific amount of credit for each item passed unlike Binet </li></ul> <ul><li>This scale makes it easier to group items of particular content together </li></ul> <ul><li>The test yielded not just an overall score but also a score for each individual ability in a variety of content area </li></ul> <p> 12. </p> <ul><li>A measure for nonverbal intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>Individuals comparison of verbal and non-verbal intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>Used to overcome biases in language, culture and educational background. </li></ul> <ul><li>Provides clinician an opportunity to observe behavior in standard setting because performance test requires longer interval of sustained effort, concentration and attention than verbal tasks </li></ul> <p> 13. 14. Structure of WAIS III FSIQ - Digit Span - Arithmetic - LetterNumber Sequencing - Vocabulary - Similarities - Information - Comprehension - Digit SymbolCoding - Symbol Search - Block Design - Matrix Reasoning - Picture Completion - Picture Arrangement VIQ PIQ VCI WMI POI PSI 15. </p> <ul><li>Verbal Scales </li></ul> <ul><li>- consists of subsets that requires verbal</li></ul> <ul><li>response </li></ul> <ul><li>Performance Scales </li></ul> <ul><li>- consists of subsets that require the</li></ul> <ul><li>individual to respond by performing</li></ul> <ul><li>such as pointing to a missing detail </li></ul> <p> 16. </p> <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul> <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul> <ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul> <ul><li>Digit span </li></ul> <ul><li>Information </li></ul> <ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul> <ul><li>Letter-number sequencing </li></ul> <p> 17. </p> <ul><li>Is the ability to define words </li></ul> <ul><li>The most stable measure of intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>Individuals that show deterioration because of emotional or brain damage shows that the vocabulary subtests to be the last one affected. </li></ul> <ul><li>Mild concentration difficulties that lower optimal performance do not affect vocabulary until they become severe. </li></ul> <ul><li>Used to evaluate premorbid intelligence in some cases </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures thedegree to which one has learned, been able to comprehend and verbally express vocabulary </li></ul> <p> 18. </p> <ul><li>Consists of 15 paired items of increasing difficulty </li></ul> <ul><li>Easier items just need responses from previously learned associations i.e. ( How is bread and water alike?) while difficult items require abstract thinking as they are already dissimilar objects i.e. (how is an ant and rose alike?) </li></ul> <ul><li>Character of persons thought processes is seenin many cases i.e. (schizophrenic giving idiosyncratic concepts) </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures abstract verbal reasoning </li></ul> <p> 19. </p> <ul><li>Contains 15 relatively simple problems </li></ul> <ul><li>Retaining figures in memory while manipulating it is the challenge </li></ul> <ul><li>Sample of ninth most difficult question: </li></ul> <ul><li> A person with $28 spends $.50, how much does he have left? </li></ul> <ul><li>The main aspect measured is concentration, memory and reasoning </li></ul> <p> 20. </p> <ul><li>Requires the subject to repeat digits, given at the rate of one per second, forward and backward. </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures short-term auditory memory </li></ul> <ul><li>Some non intellective factors that might influence the results are anxiety </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures attention, concentration and mental control </li></ul> <p> 21. </p> <ul><li>Measure subject range of knowledge </li></ul> <ul><li>Factors that tends to influence the test scores are subjects curiosity and acquisition of knowledge, alertness to environment and alertness to cultural opportunities.</li></ul> <p> 22. </p> <ul><li>Asks three type of questions: </li></ul> <ul><li>- What should be done in a given situation </li></ul> <ul><li>- Provision of a logical explanation for a rule</li></ul> <ul><li>or phenomenon </li></ul> <ul><li>- Definition of proverbs </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures judgment and common sense </li></ul> <ul><li>Emotionaldifficulties may affect the score of a subject </li></ul> <p> 23. </p> <ul><li>One of the newest of WAIS III subtest </li></ul> <ul><li>Not required to obtain verbal IQ score </li></ul> <ul><li>Made up of seven items in which subject is asked to reorder lists of numbers and letters. </li></ul> <ul><li>It measures working memory and attention </li></ul> <p> 24. </p> <ul><li>Picture completion </li></ul> <ul><li>Digit symbol-coding </li></ul> <ul><li>Block design </li></ul> <ul><li>Matrix reasoning </li></ul> <ul><li>Picture arrangement </li></ul> <ul><li>Object assembly </li></ul> <ul><li>Symbol search </li></ul> <p> 25. </p> <ul><li>Subject is shown a picture wherein some important detail is missing while timed </li></ul> <ul><li>Visual discrimination is measured </li></ul> <ul><li>Some factors that may affect the score are visual-perceptual difficulties or environmental awareness </li></ul> <p> 26. </p> <ul><li>Subjects are given 120seconds to copy numbers from 1-9 each paired with a symbol as much as they can </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures visual-motor dexterity, degree of persistence, speed of performance and ability to learn an unfamiliar task </li></ul> <ul><li>Age, inadequate visual acuity and motor capabilities may affect the results </li></ul> <p> 27. </p> <ul><li>Materials used are nine variously colored blocks and a booklet with specific geometric design or configuration </li></ul> <ul><li>Subject must arrange the block in increasingly difficult designs </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures nonverbal concept formation, abstract thinking and neurocognitive impairment </li></ul> <p> 28. </p> <ul><li>Enhances WAIS III assessment of fluid intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>Subject is presented with a nonverbal, figural stimuli and is tasked on finding a pattern or relationship between the stimuli </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures abstract reasoning, information processing and fluid intelligence </li></ul> <p> 29. </p> <ul><li>Requires subjects to notice relevant details, cause and effect relationships. </li></ul> <ul><li>The test consists of 11 items, which consists of related pictures similar to comic strips, the subject must arrange the pictures in the right order to tell a story </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures nonverbal reasoning ability and interpretation of social situations </li></ul> <p> 30. </p> <ul><li>Consists of puzzles that the subject have to put together as quickly as possible </li></ul> <ul><li>Measures visual assembly and its coordination with simple assembly skills </li></ul> <p> 31. </p> <ul><li>Subject is shown two geometric figures. The task is then to search from among a set of 5 additional search figures and determine whether the target appears in the search group. There are 60 items for which they are given 120 sec. </li></ul> <ul><li>It measures cognitive processing abilities </li></ul> <p> 32. </p> <ul><li>FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ and Index Scores </li></ul> <p> 33. </p> <ul><li>Obtained by summing the age-corrected scaled scores of the verbal subtests with the performance subtests and comparing the subject to the standardization sample </li></ul> <p> 34. </p> <ul><li>Raw scores from the 5 performance scores are converted to scaled scores </li></ul> <ul><li>PIQ is obtained by summing the age-corrected scaled scores on the performance subtests and comparing it with the standardization sample </li></ul> <p> 35. </p> <ul><li>VIQ is obtained by summing the age-corrected scaled scores on the verbal subtests and comparing it with the standardization sample </li></ul> <p> 36. </p> <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul> <ul><li>Similarities</li></ul> <ul><li>Information </li></ul> <ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul> <ul><li>Digit Span </li></ul> <ul><li>LetterNumberSequencing </li></ul> <ul><li>Picture Completion</li></ul> <ul><li>Block Design </li></ul> <ul><li>Matrix Reasoning </li></ul> <ul><li>Digit SymbolCoding </li></ul> <ul><li>Symbol Search </li></ul> <p>Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Organization Working Memory Processing Speed 37. </p> <ul><li>Measures acquired knowledge and verbal reasoning (crystallize intelligence) </li></ul> <ul><li> Purer measure for verbal IQ because ofexclusion of arithmetic and digit span test</li></ul> <p> 38. </p> <ul><li>Measures Fluid Intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>Factors that influence performance are attentiveness to details and visual motor integration </li></ul> <p> 39. </p> <ul><li>Measures the ability to actively hold information in the mind needed to do complex tasks such as reasoning, comprehension and learning </li></ul> <p> 40. </p> <ul><li>Measures How fast your mind works </li></ul> <p> 41. </p> <ul><li>Standardization, Validity and Reliability </li></ul> <p> 42. </p> <ul><li>Consisted of 2450 adults divided into 13 age groups from 16-17 through 85-59 then the sample is stratified according to gender, race, education and geographic region.</li></ul> <p> 43. </p> <ul><li>Split Half method used on all subtests except speeded test </li></ul> <ul><li>Average coefficients are .98 FSIQ, .97 VIQ and .94 PIQ </li></ul> <ul><li>Test retest coefficients are .95 FSIQ, .94 VIQ and .88 PIQ </li></ul> <ul><li>Standard error of measurements are 2.29 FSIQ, 2.50 VIQ and 3.75 PIQ </li></ul> <ul><li>95% confidence interval i.e. ( 95% with a 110 IQ score has a true score between 105.42 and 114.58 and only 5% do not. </li></ul> <p> 44. </p> <ul><li>It rests on its correlation with the earlier WAIS-R and WISC-III (where the ages overlap) </li></ul> <ul><li>WAIS III correlate with the third edition of WISC with .94 VIQ, .86 PIQ and .93 FSIQ. </li></ul> <p> 45. </p> <ul><li>Verbal and Performance Comparisons </li></ul> <ul><li>Pattern Analysis </li></ul> <p> 46. </p> <ul><li>Provides a measure of nonverbal intelligence in conjunction with verbal intelligence </li></ul> <ul><li>i.e. Subject has VIQ of 55 but has PIQ of 100 even though the FSIQ falls into 70 it doesn't mean the individual is retarded rather the difference might be attributed to environmental variables (language, cultural and educational factors) </li></ul> <p> 47. </p> <ul><li>Evaluation of relatively large differences between subtest scaled scores </li></ul> <ul><li>As stated earlier different factors might affect the performance of the subject in a subtest thus using pattern analysis this factors can be isolated. </li></ul> <p> 48. </p> <ul><li>Raw scores are converted to scaled scores with a mean of 10 and SD of 3 </li></ul> <ul><li>The norms derived for this conversions are: age adjusted and reference group norms </li></ul> <ul><li>Age adjusted norms are created by preparing a normalized cumulative frequency distribution of raw scores from each age group. </li></ul> <ul><li>Reference group norms are based from the performance of participants in thestandardization sample </li></ul> <p> 49. SUBTESTS Raw Score VERBAL PERF. VC PO WM PS Reference Group Scaled Scores Age-Adjusted Scaled Scores Picture Completion22121212Vocabulary56131315 Digit-Symbol Coding54776 Similarities28121213Block Design41111110 Arithmetic11 88 9 Matrix Reasoning20 13 1312 50. IQ/Index Scores VIQ PIQ FSIQ Sums of Scaled Scores 62 55 117 IQ/Index Scores 101 106 103 Percentiles 53 66 58 Confidence Intervals 95% 96-106 99-112 99-107 51. 13 9.57 3.43 2.10 5 25% 1 1 9.57 1.43 2.34 1 1 9.57 1.43 2.96 SUBTESTS Scaled Score Vocabulary Similarities Arithmetic Digit Span Information Mean Score Difference from Mean Statistical Significance.05 Level Strength (+) Weakness () Frequency of Difference in Standardization Sample Total No. of Subtests Mean Score 67 70 = 137 7 7 14 9.57 10 9.79 Overall Mean Comprehension 52. 101 106 -5 8.48 110 111 -1 9.78 110 80 30 9.08 2.3% 111 79 32 12.13 2.6% DISCREPANCY COMPARISONS Verbal IQ Performance IQ Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Organization Verbal ComprehensionWorking Memory Perceptual Organization Processing Speed Score 1 Score 2 Difference Statistical Significance.05Level Frequency of Difference in Standardization Sample VIQ PIQ VCI POI VCI WMI POI PSI Digits Forward Backward 7 5 2 60% FWD BKWD</p>