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Primitivism, Regionalism, and the Vernacular in Le Corbusier’s middle years, 1929-1945 Supasai Vongkulbhisal MS. in Architecture in History and Theory University of Washington

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Primitivism, Regionalism, and the Vernacular in Le Corbusier’s middle years, 1929-1945

Supasai VongkulbhisalMS. in Architecture in History and Theory

University of Washington

Fron

t Cov

er[ Introduction ]

Introduction

Modern Architecture and Vernacular Architecture

Figure 01 - Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye: Exterior, 1929.Figure 02 - Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye: Interior, 1929.

Figure 03 - Greek government, Parthenon: Exterior, 432 BC.Figure 04 - Greek government, Parthenon: Interior, 432 BC.

Sources: Google Images

Introduction Le Corbusier’s Timeline

Des canons, des munitions? Merci! Des logis ... S.V.P.

Ilot Insalubre N6

Buenos Aires: Plan directeur

Painting exhibitions at the Kunsthaus Zurich et a la and at the Louis Carre Gallery in Paris.

Painted eight wall murals in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin in Eileen Gray’s house.

Publishes Modulor I, Poèsie sur Alger (Poem on Algiers) and L’Unité d’Habitation de Marseille.

Consultant to the administration of Punjab for the planning of the new capital city of Chandigarh.

Starts working on the Chapel at Ronchamp. (1955)

First trip to India : visits Chandigarh and Ahmedabad. (1965)

7th CIAM conference at Hoddesdon.

Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

Plans for the U.N.E.S.C.O. Headquarters in Paris are rejected

1939

Le lyrisme of the new age and urbanism in magazine, Le Point.

M.A.S. Maison montees a see (1940)

Closed his office at 35 rue de Sevres on 11th June.

Leaves for Ozon in the Pyrenees with Yvonne , and Pierre Jeanneret.

Extended stay in Vichy.

Sur les Quatres Routes

Destin de Paris

Traveled across Spain with Pierre Jeannette and then on to Morocco, and Algeria.

Visited the M’Zab, Ghardaia

Builds the apartment block at 24 rue Nungesser-et-Coli, Boulogne-sur-Seine

Wedding with Yvonne Gallis Trip to Moscow and Spain 3rd CIAM conference in Brussels.

Precisions and Plans.(1933)

Villa Radieuse and Palace of Soviets, Moscow, and Urban designs for Algiers.

Maison Errazuriz, Chile Villa de Mandrot (1931)

Immeuble Clarte, Geneve, Switzerland (1932) Pavillon Suisse (1932)

Trip in South America. Meets Josephine Baker

2nd CIAM conference at Frankfurt.

Urbanism in S America

Villa Savoye, Poissy, France (1931)

Maison Loucheur and Ma Maison

Armee du Salut, Cite de Refuge, Paris The Sun breaker(1945)

Planning competition for the Exposition internationale des arts et techniques (1937).

Lectures in Stockholm, Oslo, Goteborg, Antwerp, and Algiers. CIRPAC in Barcelone.

Publishes Croisade.

Immeuble Locatif, Zurich, Switzerland

Cite de Refuge, Paris, France (1933)

Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux, Paris, France (1937)

Exhibits contemporary city for 3 million people at the Salon d’Automme

Partnership with Pierre Jeanneret

Plan Voisin, Paris, France (1930)

Maison Citrohan

Immeubles-villas

1922 1923 1924 1925 1926

1927 1928 1929 1930 1931

1932 1933 1934 1935 1936

1937 1938 1940 1941

1942 1943 1944 1945 1946

1947 1948 1949 1950 1951

Exhibited with Amedee Ozenfant at the Rosenberg Galerie de l’Effort Moderne

Vers une Architecture

La Peinture Moderne (with Amedee Ozenfant)

Villas la Roche and Jeanneret-Raaf (1924)

Established his architectural office at 35 rue de Sevres

Gives lectures in Geneva, Lausanne and Prague.

Meets Krishnamurti.

L’Urbanisme

Villas Lipchitz-Miestchaninoff

Almanach d’architecture moderne

L’Art decoratif d’aujourd’hui

La Peinture Moderne

Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau, Paris, France (1925)

Passaic housing

Death of Georges Edouard Jeannette, father of Le Corbusier, on 11th April.

Publishes Architecture d’epoque machinists

Villa Cook, the Guiette house, the Salvation Army hostel and the Ternisien house.

Lectures in Madrid, Barcelona (Antonio Gaudi died that year), Brussels, and Frankfurt

Entered the competition for the League of Nations building in Geneva.

Villa Stein-de Monzie, Garches, France

Villa Plaeix, Paris

1st CIAM conference at the castle of La Sarraz, Switzerland

Lectures in Prague and Moscow

Publishes Une Maison - Un Palais

Villa Church

4rd CIAM conference.

Receives Honorary Doctorate at the University of Zürich.

Member of the review, Preludes. (1935)

Urbanisation de Geneva, Switzerland, de Stockholm, Sweden, de L’Escaut, Antwerp

Petite Maison, Algiers

Maison Locative, Algiers

Lectures in Rome, Milan, Algiers, and Barcelona (frequent trips to Algiers).

Visits the Lingotto Fiat factory in Turin by Giacomo Mattè-Trucco .

Radient Farm project with Norbert Bezard. (1938)

Urbanisation de la ville de Nemours, Nemours, North Africa

First trip to the USA and Zlin in Czechoslovakia

Publishes Aircraft and La Villl Radieuse

Urbanisation d’Hellocourt

Maison de week- end, La Celle-Saint-Cloud,France

Maison aux Mathes, Les Mathes, France

Second trip to Brazil on the Graf Zeppelin.

Researched on urban elements constituting villas comtemporaines

Lectures in Rio de Janeiro

Plans pour la Cite Universitaire du Bresil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Painted wall mural in Vezelay

5th CIAM conference in Paris.

Lectures in Brussels and Lyons

Quad les Cathédrales étaient blanches

Le plan de Paris, Paris

Builds the Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux at the International Exhibition in Paris.

Founds ASOCIAL (Constructors’ meeting for architectural renewal).

Office trip to Algiers

Re-opens the office.

Publishes Constructions Murondins

Plan Directeur d’Alger, Algiers

La Cite lineaire industrielle

La maison des hommes with Francois de Pierrefeu.

Begins collaboration with Joseph Savina.

Publishes Charte d’Athenes

Entretiens avec les étudiants des Ecoles d’architecture

Founded ATBAT (Builders’ Studio)

Worked on Modulor system of proportions on the Liberty ship Vernon S. Hood.

Publishes Trois Établissements Humains.

Traveled to Princeton, USA

Meets Albert Einstein

Publishes Maniere de penser l’urbanisme

Propos d’urbanisme

Works on the Unités d’Habitation.

Consultant to the committee responsible for the United Nations Headquarters building in New York.

6th CIAM conference at Bridgwater, England.

Publishes U.N. Headquarters

Foundation of Unité d'Habitation, Marseilles.

Several exhibitions in the United States.

Begins collaboration with Pierre Baudouin on the design of tapestries.

Wall mural of the Pavillon Suisse at Cité Universitaire.

Signs a contract with the Colombian authorities for the study of urbanization in Bogotá.

7th CIAM in Bergamo. Builds the Currutchet house, La Plata.

Section 01Primitivism, Regionalism, and the Vernacular

Figure 05 - Le Corbusier, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret at Acropole, 1911.His journey to the East

(C) Fondation Le Corbusier

Sect

ion

01[ R

egionalism ]

Figure 06 - Le Corbusier, Sketches of pine cones, 1904. (C) Fondation Le CorbusierFigure 07 - Plate from Owen Jones, Egyptian motifs based on natural forms.

The Grammar of Ornaments (C) William J R Curtis, 1986.Figure 08 - Charles Edouard Jeanneret, Rene Chapallaz and colleagues. Maison Fallet, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1905-6 (C) William J R Curtis, 1986.

Figure 09 - Le Corbusier, Geometrical pattern from trees, 1904. (C) Fondation Le Corbusier

Figure 10 - William J R Curtis, The Jura landscapeFigure 11 - William J R Curtis, La Chaux-de-Fonds at the turn of the century

Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms(C) William J R Curtis, 1986.

Sect

ion

01[ R

egionalism ]

Figure 12 - Le Corbusier, Watch case, 1906Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms(C) William J R Curtis, 1986.

Sect

ion

01[ Prim

itivism ]

Figure 13 - Le Corbusier, Authentic confidential documents relating to the fabrication of false antiques, supposedly for ‘lovers of the antique’, 1925

The Decorative Art of Today (C) Le Corbusier, 1987.

Figure 14 - Le Corbusier, Cabin in a ship, 1925The Decorative Art of Today (C) Le Corbusier, 1987.

Figure 15 - Le Corbusier, Pottery from the BalkansJourney to the east

(C) Le Corbusier, 2007.

[ Primitivism

]

Figure 16 - Le Corbusier, AutomobilesTowards a new architecture

(C) Le Corbusier, 1986.

Sect

ion

01

Sect

ion

01[ Prim

itivism ]

Figure 17 - Le Corbusier, Folk culture is in its lyric power, 1925The Decorative Art of Today

(C) Le Corbusier, 1987.

Sect

ion

01[ The Vernacular ]

Figure 18 - Hermann Muthesius, The English House (C) Hermann Muthesius , 1979.

Figure 19 - William J R Curtis, Jura farmhouse with stack Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms (C) William J R Curtis, 1986.

Section 02Architect’s Travel

Figure 20 - Le Corbusier, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, 1936.Stills from a film shot by Le Corbusier with a 16 mm camera.

(C) Fondation Le Corbusier

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 21 - Le Corbusier, Le Corbusier in Rio de Janeiro, 1929.(C) Fondation Le Corbusier.

Figure 22 - Le Corbusier, Le Corbusier and A. Monteiro de Cavalho, Rio de Janeiro, 1929 (C) Fondation Le Corbusier.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 23 - Le Corbusier, Buenos Aires: extension on the Rio on pilotis (below = docks) the railway // the Barranca // try to contract the present city.

Precisions (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.Figure 24 - Le Corbusier, The Voisin plan for Paris; Buenos Aires

Precisions (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.

Figure 25 - Le Corbusier, Plan for Sao Paulo Precisions (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.

Figure 26 - Le Corbusier, Plan for Rio de JaneiroPrecisions (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 27 - Le Corbusier, Project “A” Figures for the city council’s forecasts, 1931-32The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1933.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 29 - Le Corbusier, The city of tomorrow, 1922. Figure 30 - Le Corbusier, The center of the city seen from one of

the terraced cafes surrounding the Great Central Station above ground level.Figure 31 - Le Corbusier, View showing a large housing scheme with “set-backs.”

The city of to-morrow and its planning (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.

Figure 28 - Le Corbusier, The city of tomorrowThe city of to-morrow and its planning (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 32 - Le Corbusier, Synthesis: The Radiant City, 1933

Note: As has already been stated, the biological development of the city can also extend laterally from the vertical axis on one side only (a question of topography, presence of a river, etc.). The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1935.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 33 - Le Corbusier, Sketch for the airport of Rio de Janeiro. (C) Le Corbusier, 1941.Figure 34 - Le Corbusier, Assemblage of photographs showing tracing of

seawater on the beach near Le Piquey, 1936-38 (C) Fondation Le Corbusier.Figure 35 - Le Corbusier, Plan for Buenos Aires: Night view from the Rio de la Plata, 1929.

Precisions (C) Le Corbusier, 2015.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 36 - Le Corbusier, Nude sketchLe Corbusier, Orientalism, Colonialism

(C) Zeynap Celik, 1992.

Figure 37 - Le Corbusier, O inspiring image!Arabs, are there no peoples but you who meditate daily in the splendid sunset hours?

Sky, sea, and mountains. Beatitudes of space. The power of eyes and mind carries far.The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 38 - Le Corbusier, Connecting bridgeIn the realization of this connecting bridge, application of

the “Tensistruttura” methods invented by my friend Fiorini (Rome).The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967.

Figure 39 - Le Corbusier, CasbahPure and efficient stratification of the Casbah.

Among these terraces which form the roof of the city, not an inch is wasted.The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967.

Figure 40 - Le Corbusier, The ViaductThe Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967.

Sect

ion

02[ Architect’s Travel ]

Figure 41 - Le Corbusier, The city of Modern Times!Functional and architecturally splendid, 1931-32.

The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967.

Figure 42 - Le Corbusier, The free but inaccessible lands of Fort-l’Empereur,400 meters away from the harbor and the station.

The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967. Figure 43 - Le Corbusier, The city of Algiers

The Radiant City (C) Le Corbusier, 1967.

Section 03Modern Vernacular

Figure 44 - Le Corbusier, Garden terrace at 24 rue Nungesser-et-Coli, Paris, 1936-38.Stills from a film shot by Le Corbusier with a 16 mm camera.

(C) Fondation Le Corbusier

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 47 - Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, Maison de Week-end: isometric, 1935Figure 48 - Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, Maison de Week-end: interior, 1935

Le Corbusier (C) Kenneth Frampton, 2001.

Figure 45 - Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, Maison Errazuris: model, 1930 Figure 46 - Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, Maison Errazuris: interior, 1930

Le Corbusier (C) Kenneth Frampton, 2001.

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 49 - Le Corbusier, Maison Dom-ino, 1914-15(C) Le Corbusier, 1914-15.

Figure 50 - Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, 19295 points of architecture

(C) Supasai Vongkulbhisal, 2016.

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 51 - Le Corbusier, House A, the large living room, 1951.Figure 52 - Le Corbusier, Perspective drawing of the two houses on the lot, as seen from the street

Le Corbusier and the Maisons Jaoul(C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 53 - Le Corbusier, First sketch of the site labeled “ete 51 (summer 51).”Figure 54 - Le Corbusier, Research on the briel-soleil (sunbreaker)

Figure 55 - Le Corbusier, Bird’s-eye-view over the grass-and-turf covered roofs of the two houses. Le Corbusier and the Maisons Jaoul(C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 56 - Le Corbusier, Le Corbusier’s dedication evoking “the tunnels,”written in the Maisons Jaoul guest book, dated September 21, 1961. M. and N. Jaoul archives.

Le Corbusier and the Maisons Jaoul(C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Figure 57 - Le Corbusier, The vault and the space: Petite Maison de Week-end, 1935.Figure 58 - Le Corbusier, The railway freight car might also have served as a source of

inspiration for the longitudinal arched module in the Maisons JaoulLe Corbusier and the Maisons Jaoul (C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 59 - Le Corbusier, Repointing the exterior concrete bandsduring the restoration campaign,1991.

Figure 60 - Le Corbusier, House B construction site in 1954.Le Corbusier and Maisons Jaoul (C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Figure 61 - Le Corbusier, Restoration of the pans de verre and movable sashes,1991.Figure 62 - Le Corbusier, House B. Detail of the “bird-nesting” boxes.Le Corbusier and Maisons Jaoul (C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Sect

ion

03[ M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 63 - Le Corbusier, The chapel in House A, first floor, 1951Le Corbusier and Maisons Jaoul (C) Caroline Maniaque Benton, 2009.

Sect

ion

03[M

odern Vernacular ]

Figure 64 - Le Corbusier, Notre Dame-du-Hart, Ron Champ: interior, 1950-55

(C) Le Corbusier, 1955.

Figure 65 - Le Corbusier, Notre Dame-du-Hart, Ronchamp: general view from the south, 1950-55

(C) Le Corbusier, 1955.

Sect

ion

03

Back

Cov

er[ C

onclusion ]

Figure 66 - Le Corbusier, Windows of Villa Savoye, 1929Figure 67 - Le Corbusier, Windows of Maisons Jaoul, 1951.

Figure 68 - Le Corbusier, Sun breakers of the building at Chandigarh, 1950-65.Sources: Google Images

Conclusion Le Corbusier’s middle years, 1929-1945

1929 1951 1965